UPSC : Persian and Sanskrit Literature - Indo-Islamic Culture; History; UPSC Notes | EduRev
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Persian and Sankrit Literature
- The cultivation of the language received great impetus under the patronage of Qutb-ud-din Aibak, Iltutmish and Ruknud-din.
- Among the historical works of the time mention may be made of the following. Taj-ul-Ma thir of Hasan Nizami, Chach Namah by Ali-bin-Hamid, the Jami-ul-Hikayat, a compendium of historical anecdotes, by Sadiduddin Muhammad and the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri by Minhaj-us-Siraj.
- There were important works, in other fields also. Bukhari compiled the Lubah-ul-Albab, the first extant Persian anthology. Abu Bakral-Kashani translated and revised the Kitab-us-Saydana of Alberuni.
- The two outstanding persons of the period were Amir Khusrau and Hasan-i-Dehlawi.
- The five literary master pieces or the Khamsah, of Khusrau, were Mutlaul-Anwar, Shirin Khusrau, Laila Majnu, Ayina-i-Sikandari and Hasht Bihist.
- These were dedicated to his patron Ala-ud-din Khalji. His Khazain-ul-Futuh describe Ala-ud-din’s conquests.
- The Tughlaq-Namah depicts the rise of Ghiyas-ud-din Tughlaq.
- The Qiran-us-Sadain is the story of the meeting between sultan Kaiqubad of Delhi and his father Nasir-ud-din Bughra of Bengal in 1288 A.D.
- His Miftah-ul-Futuh gives an account of the four victories of Jalal-ud-din Khalji’s reign.
- Nuh-Sipihr contains a poetical description of Mubarak Shah Khalji’s reign and gives a glowing account of things found in India.
- In the time of the Tughlaq, the historical works of Zia-ud-din Barani, the poetical writings of Mutahhar, the Mathnawi of Abu Ali Qalandar, the Futuhat-i-Feruz Shahi by Sultan Firuz Tughlahimself, and the Tarikh-i-Feruz Shahi of Shams-i-Siraj ‘Afif’, are of importance.
Sanskrit & Vernacular Literature
- The eminent Sanskrit scholar Parthasarathi Mishra wrote a number of philosophical books on Karma Mimamsa of which the most important is Shastra Dipika.
- In lyrical poetry the most outstanding name is that of Jayadeva whose Gita Govinda attained universal popularity.
- The drama of this period is represented by Jai Singh Suri’s Hammirmada-mardana, Gangadhar’s Gangadasa Pratapa Vilas which celebrates the fight of a prince of Champaner against Muhammad III of Gujarat and the Vidagdha Madhava and Lalita Madhava written by Rupa Goswami.
- Smriti literature floweished in Mithila and Bengal. The two outstanding authors of smriti literature were Vachaspati Mishra of Mithila and Reghunandan of Bengal.
- The religious movement gave a strong impetus to the development of provincial languages each of which began to develope into a literature.
- The beginning of Hindi literature may be traced to the famous work of Chand-Bardai.
- His voluminous poem, Prithviraj Raso, depicts in the form of a ballad the deeds of Prithviraj. Another Hindu poet Sarangdhar describes the exploits of Hamir Raso and Hamir Kavya.
- Chandidas of Bengal produced beautiful lyrical poems. Some of the sultans of Bengal like Hussain Shah and Nusrat Shah appreciated Hindu culture and they patronised the vernacular language by causing the Mahabharata, the Bhagabata and the Ramayana to be translated from Sanskrit into Bengali.
- The kings of Vijayanagar patronised Telugu literature. Tikkana Somayaji (1220-1300 A.D.) had written Nirvacanottara Ramayana. Tikkana also translated the latter half of the Mahabharata beginning from the Virata Parva.
- Yet another poet who had a hand in the translation off the Mahabharata was Yereapragada. These two, alongwith Nannaya of 11th century, constitute the Kavitraya in Telugu literature.
- Peddana is regarded as the grandfather of Telugu poetry (Andhrakavitapitamaha). He wrote Manu Charita and translated Bhaskara’s Lilavati.