Page 1 PHYSICS CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Details:- â€¢ Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. â€¢ Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. â€¢ Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics Details:- â€¢ Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position- time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity -time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). â€¢ Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. â€¢ Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. â€¢ Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion Details:- â€¢ Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. â€¢ Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. Page 2 PHYSICS CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Details:- â€¢ Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. â€¢ Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. â€¢ Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics Details:- â€¢ Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position- time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity -time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). â€¢ Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. â€¢ Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. â€¢ Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion Details:- â€¢ Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. â€¢ Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. â€¢ Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power Details:- â€¢ Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work -energy theorem, power. â€¢ Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Details:- â€¢ Centre of mass of a two- particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. â€¢ Moment of a force, -torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. â€¢ Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. UNIT VI: Gravitation Details:- â€¢ Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. â€¢ Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter Details:- â€¢ Elastic behavior, Stress -strain relationship. Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poissonâ€™s ratio; elastic energy. â€¢ Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, Reynoldâ€™s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem and its applications. Page 3 PHYSICS CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Details:- â€¢ Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. â€¢ Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. â€¢ Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics Details:- â€¢ Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position- time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity -time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). â€¢ Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. â€¢ Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. â€¢ Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion Details:- â€¢ Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. â€¢ Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. â€¢ Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power Details:- â€¢ Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work -energy theorem, power. â€¢ Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Details:- â€¢ Centre of mass of a two- particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. â€¢ Moment of a force, -torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. â€¢ Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. UNIT VI: Gravitation Details:- â€¢ Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. â€¢ Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter Details:- â€¢ Elastic behavior, Stress -strain relationship. Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poissonâ€™s ratio; elastic energy. â€¢ Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, Reynoldâ€™s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem and its applications. â€¢ Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. â€¢ Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state â€“ latent heat. â€¢ Heat transfer - conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Weinâ€™s displacement law, and Green House effect. â€¢ Newtonâ€™s law of cooling and Stefanâ€™s law. UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics Details:- â€¢ Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. â€¢ Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Details:- â€¢ Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. â€¢ Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path. UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves Details:- â€¢ Periodic motion -period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM â€“Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. â€¢ Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. Page 4 PHYSICS CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Details:- â€¢ Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. â€¢ Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. â€¢ Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics Details:- â€¢ Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position- time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity -time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). â€¢ Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. â€¢ Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. â€¢ Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion Details:- â€¢ Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. â€¢ Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. â€¢ Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power Details:- â€¢ Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work -energy theorem, power. â€¢ Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Details:- â€¢ Centre of mass of a two- particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. â€¢ Moment of a force, -torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. â€¢ Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. UNIT VI: Gravitation Details:- â€¢ Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. â€¢ Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter Details:- â€¢ Elastic behavior, Stress -strain relationship. Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poissonâ€™s ratio; elastic energy. â€¢ Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, Reynoldâ€™s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem and its applications. â€¢ Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. â€¢ Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state â€“ latent heat. â€¢ Heat transfer - conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Weinâ€™s displacement law, and Green House effect. â€¢ Newtonâ€™s law of cooling and Stefanâ€™s law. UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics Details:- â€¢ Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. â€¢ Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Details:- â€¢ Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. â€¢ Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path. UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves Details:- â€¢ Periodic motion -period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM â€“Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. â€¢ Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS UNIT I: Electrostatics Details:- â€¢ Electric charges and their conservation. Coulombâ€™s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. â€¢ Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. â€¢ Electric flux, statement of Gaussâ€™s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside) â€¢ Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field. â€¢ Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parall el plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator. UNIT II: Current Electricity Details:- â€¢ Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohmâ€™s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non- linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. â€¢ Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. â€¢ Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. â€¢ Kirchhoffâ€™s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. â€¢ Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. Page 5 PHYSICS CONTENTS CLASS XI SYLLABUS UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement Details:- â€¢ Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws; Physics, technology and society. â€¢ Need for measurement: Units of measurement; systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units. Length, mass and time measurements; accuracy and precision of measuring instruments; errors in measurement; significant figures. â€¢ Dimensions of physical quantities, dimensional analysis and its applications. UNIT II: Kinematics Details:- â€¢ Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line; Position- time graph, speed and velocity. Uniform and non- uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity. Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity -time and position-time graphs, for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment). â€¢ Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion. Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors, general vectors, general vectors and notation, equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number; addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity. â€¢ Unit vectors. Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular components. â€¢ Scalar and Vector products of Vectors. Motion in a plane. Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion. Uniform circular motion. UNIT III: Laws of Motion Details:- â€¢ Intuitive concept of force. Inertia, Newtonâ€™s first law of motion; momentum and Newtonâ€™s second law of motion; impulse; Newtonâ€™s third law of motion. Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications. â€¢ Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication. â€¢ Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force, examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road). UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power Details:- â€¢ Work done by a constant force and variable force; kinetic energy, work -energy theorem, power. â€¢ Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces; conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies); nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle, elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions. UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body Details:- â€¢ Centre of mass of a two- particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass motion. Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod. â€¢ Moment of a force, -torque, angular momentum, conservation of angular momentum with some examples. â€¢ Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and equation of rotational motion, comparison of linear and rotational motions; moment of inertia, radius of gyration. Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation). Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications. UNIT VI: Gravitation Details:- â€¢ Keplerâ€™s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation. Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth. â€¢ Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential. Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites. UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter Details:- â€¢ Elastic behavior, Stress -strain relationship. Hookeâ€™s law, Youngâ€™s modulus, bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poissonâ€™s ratio; elastic energy. â€¢ Viscosity, Stokesâ€™ law, terminal velocity, Reynoldâ€™s number, streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity, Bernoulliâ€™s theorem and its applications. â€¢ Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure, application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise. â€¢ Heat, temperature, thermal expansion; thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion. Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state â€“ latent heat. â€¢ Heat transfer - conduction and thermal conductivity, convection and radiation. Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation, Weinâ€™s displacement law, and Green House effect. â€¢ Newtonâ€™s law of cooling and Stefanâ€™s law. UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics Details:- â€¢ Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics). Heat, work and internal energy. First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes. â€¢ Second law of the thermodynamics: Reversible and irreversible processes. Heat engines and refrigerators. UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory Details:- â€¢ Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas. â€¢ Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure. Kinetic energy and temperature; degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only) and application to specific heat capacities of gases; concept of mean free path. UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves Details:- â€¢ Periodic motion -period, frequency, displacement as a function of time. Periodic functions. Simple harmonic motion(SHM) and its equation; phase; oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant; energy in SHM â€“Kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period; free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance. â€¢ Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion. Displacement relation for a progressive wave. Principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect. CONTENTS OF CLASS XII SYLLABUS UNIT I: Electrostatics Details:- â€¢ Electric charges and their conservation. Coulombâ€™s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution. â€¢ Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole; torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field. â€¢ Electric flux, statement of Gaussâ€™s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside) â€¢ Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric diploes in an electrostatic field. â€¢ Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parall el plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator. UNIT II: Current Electricity Details:- â€¢ Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohmâ€™s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non- linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. â€¢ Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance. â€¢ Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel. â€¢ Kirchhoffâ€™s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge. â€¢ Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell. UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism Details:- â€¢ Concept of magnetic field, Oerstedâ€™s experiment. Biot -Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop. â€¢ Ampereâ€™s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoids. Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Cyclotron. â€¢ Force on a current -carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere. Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer -its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter. â€¢ Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earthâ€™s magnetic field and magnetic elements. â€¢ Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples. â€¢ Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets. UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Details:- â€¢ Electromagnetic induction; Faradayâ€™s law, induced emf and current; Lenzâ€™s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance. â€¢ Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current. â€¢ AC generator and transformer. UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves Details:- â€¢ Need for displacement current. â€¢ Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. â€¢ Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.Read More

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