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**Learning Objectives**

- You will get an understanding of what are Pie Charts and a first-hand view of how data is presented through its organisation in the form of Pie charts.
- You will get an understanding of typical data which can be represented through Pie charts. Also, understand the concept of how the distribution of a whole is done in the form of Pie Charts.
- You will get a first hand feel of the typical question types that are asked on the basis of Pie charts.
- Practice exercise on Pie charts containing simulated examination questions

**Introduction**

Pie charts are specific types of data presentation where the data is represented in the form of a circle. In a pie chart, a circle is divided into various sections or segments such that each sector or segment represents a certain proportion or percentage of the total. In such a diagram, the total of all the given items is equated to 360 degrees and the degrees of angles, representing different items, are calculated proportionately. The entire diagram looks like a pie and its components resemble slices cut from a pie. The pie chart is used to show the break-up of one continuous variable into its component parts.

**The types of pie charts**

There are two approaches to constructing a pie chart from any given data**(A) Degree Approach: **The central angle in a circle represents 360^{o}, so any part or segment in a pie chart is calculated as a proportion of 360^{o}.

**(B) Percentage Approach: **In this case, any part or segment in a pie chart is calculated as a part of 100%.

**Conversion of degree approach to percentage approach:**

If we convert the same pie chart into the degree format, we will be required to do the following conversions:

Total = 100%

Hence, 1% = 3.6^{o}

Central = 10% = 36^{o}

North = 20% = 72^{o}

South = 25% = 90^{o}

East = 15% = 54^{o}

West =30% = 108^{o}

Question 1:The central angle of a sector is 72^{o}. What percentage of the circle is comprised by the sector?

**Significance of Pie Charts**

__The pie chart has gained prominence due to the following reasons:__

- In a pie chart, we get a clear picture of the contribution of different sectors to the build up of the total. E.g., presentation of budgets.
- Comparing two pie charts is easier than comparing two bar charts or any other format of data representation.

**Example: Following is the cost analysis of a book “Guide to Digital Marketing”.**

**What is the central angle showing the cost of paper?**

(a) 42.8^{o}

(b) 32.6^{o}

(c) 36.8^{o}

(d) 57.6^{o}**Solution:** Percentage of paper cost in total cost - 16%

We know that the sum of angles in pie chart is 100^{o} **Hence, Required Angle = (16/100 × 360) = 57.6**^{o}

Question 2:If 5500 copies of the book are published and the miscellaneous expenditure amounts to Rs.36,960 and the marked price is 40% above the cost price, then the marked price of each copy is

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