Pipelining Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Notes | EduRev

Created by: Ayushi Verma

Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) : Pipelining Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


1
Lecture 18: Pipelining
• Today’s topics: 
 Hazards and instruction scheduling
 Branch prediction
 Out-of-order execution
• Reminder:
 Assignment 7 will be posted later today
Page 2


1
Lecture 18: Pipelining
• Today’s topics: 
 Hazards and instruction scheduling
 Branch prediction
 Out-of-order execution
• Reminder:
 Assignment 7 will be posted later today
2
Structural Hazards
• Example: a unified instruction and data cache 
stage 4 (MEM) and stage 1 (IF) can never coincide
• The later instruction and all its successors are delayed
until a cycle is found when the resource is free  these
are pipeline bubbles
• Structural hazards are easy to eliminate – increase the
number of resources (for example, implement a separate
instruction and data cache)
Page 3


1
Lecture 18: Pipelining
• Today’s topics: 
 Hazards and instruction scheduling
 Branch prediction
 Out-of-order execution
• Reminder:
 Assignment 7 will be posted later today
2
Structural Hazards
• Example: a unified instruction and data cache 
stage 4 (MEM) and stage 1 (IF) can never coincide
• The later instruction and all its successors are delayed
until a cycle is found when the resource is free  these
are pipeline bubbles
• Structural hazards are easy to eliminate – increase the
number of resources (for example, implement a separate
instruction and data cache)
3
Data Hazards
Page 4


1
Lecture 18: Pipelining
• Today’s topics: 
 Hazards and instruction scheduling
 Branch prediction
 Out-of-order execution
• Reminder:
 Assignment 7 will be posted later today
2
Structural Hazards
• Example: a unified instruction and data cache 
stage 4 (MEM) and stage 1 (IF) can never coincide
• The later instruction and all its successors are delayed
until a cycle is found when the resource is free  these
are pipeline bubbles
• Structural hazards are easy to eliminate – increase the
number of resources (for example, implement a separate
instruction and data cache)
3
Data Hazards
4
Bypassing
• Some data hazard stalls can be eliminated: bypassing
Page 5


1
Lecture 18: Pipelining
• Today’s topics: 
 Hazards and instruction scheduling
 Branch prediction
 Out-of-order execution
• Reminder:
 Assignment 7 will be posted later today
2
Structural Hazards
• Example: a unified instruction and data cache 
stage 4 (MEM) and stage 1 (IF) can never coincide
• The later instruction and all its successors are delayed
until a cycle is found when the resource is free  these
are pipeline bubbles
• Structural hazards are easy to eliminate – increase the
number of resources (for example, implement a separate
instruction and data cache)
3
Data Hazards
4
Bypassing
• Some data hazard stalls can be eliminated: bypassing
5
Example
add   $1, $2, $3
lw      $4, 8($1)
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