Class 9  >  Science Class 9  >  Plant Kingdom

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Document Description: Plant Kingdom for Class 9 2022 is part of Diversity in Living Organisms (Not in 2021-22 Syllabus) for Science Class 9 preparation. The notes and questions for Plant Kingdom have been prepared according to the Class 9 exam syllabus. Information about Plant Kingdom covers topics like and Plant Kingdom Example, for Class 9 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Plant Kingdom.

Introduction of Plant Kingdom in English is available as part of our Science Class 9 for Class 9 & Plant Kingdom in Hindi for Science Class 9 course. Download more important topics related with Diversity in Living Organisms (Not in 2021-22 Syllabus), notes, lectures and mock test series for Class 9 Exam by signing up for free. Class 9: Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9
1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Characteristics : Plantae includes multicellular, eukaryote organisms with cellulosic with cell wall.

A mature plant cell commonly possess a single large central vacuole.

Plastids are found in all plants. Some plastids posses photosynthesis pigment. They are called chloroplasts.

Plants are autotrophic in nature because they are able to perform photosynthesis with the help of chlorophyll present in chloroplasts.

Reserve food is starch.

Do you know ?

Eichler (1883) divided the kingdom plantae into two subkingdoms, cryptogamae and phanerogamae.
 Subkingdom : Cryptogamae (Gk. cryptos – hidden, gamous – marriage). The reproductive organs are inconspicuous. Flowers and seeds are absent. The embryo, if present is naked. Plants of subkingdom cryptogamae are also called lower plants, flowerless and seedless plants. There are three divisions in this subkingdom – Thallphyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta.
 Subkingdom Phanerogamae (Gk. phaneros – visible, gamous – marriage). The plant which possess visible and well differentiated reproductive organs are called phanerogams. The plants of subkingdom phanerogamae have well differentiated and evident reproductive organs like seeds. Therefore, they are also called seed plants. Phanerogamae has single division of spermatophyta.

 

 

Cryptogamae

Phanaerogamae

1

It contains seedless plants.

It contain seed plants.

2

It has both vascular and nonvascular p lants.

It possesses only vascular plants.

3

An external water is required for fertilization.

An external water is not required.


 Bases of Classification

On the basis of differentiation of plant body.

On the basis of conducting tissue.

On the basis of ability to bear seeds and seed are enclosed within fruits.

Following plant groups are included in kingdom-Plantae

 

 Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

1. Thallophyta

Main plant body is gametophyte.

Plant body is not differentiated into root, stem and leaves, called thallus.

These are found in marine, fresh water and moist land.

They have not mechanical and conducting tissue.

Asexual reproduction generally take place by spores.

Sex organs are simple single-celled, (the male sex organs are called as antheridia and female sex organ called oogonia) and their is no embryo formation after fertilization. 

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Examples : 

Green algae - Spirogyra, Ulothrix, Cladophora, Chara, Ulva, Chlorella

Brown algae - Laminaria, Fucus, Sargassum.

Red Algae - Polysiphonia

 Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

 

Algae

Fungi

1

Photosynthetic pigments are present.

Photosynthetic pigments are absent.

2

Algae are autotrophic.

Fungi are heterotrophic.

3

Most of the algae are aquatic.

Most of the fungi are terrestrial.

4

The cell wall is made of cellulose.

The cell wall is made of chitin.

5

Algae contain starch as a stored food material. l

Fungi contain glycogen and oil as a stored food material. 

2. Bryophyta

Bryophytes are also known as amphibians of plant kingdom.

These are the simplest and the most primitive land plant.

They have flat plant body which differentiate in to stem and leaf like structure.

Main plant body is gametophyte which attach to substratum by means of rhizoids.

Sex organs are multicellular and jacketed. Male sex organs are called antheridia while female sex organs are called archegonia.

 Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Examples :
Liver wort - Riccia and Marchantia
Horn wort - Anthoceros
Moss - Funaria

3. Pteridophyta -

Main plant body is sporophyte which is differentiated into root, stem and leaves.

Vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, appear for the first time in pteridophyta.

They produces spores inside sporangia.

Gametophyte is a small but independent stage in life cycle.

Sex Organs are multicellular and jecketed like those of bryophytes male antheridia, female archegonia.

Male gametes need water for fertilization.

Seeds are absent.

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Examples :

Club moss - Selaginella, Lycopodium
Horse tails - Equisetum
 |
Ferns - Marsilea, Azolla, Adiantum,
Dryopteris, Pteris and Pteridium. 

Spermatophyta (Gk. sperma seed, phyton plant)

Characteristics : Main plant body is a sporophyte which is differentiated into stem, leaves and roots.
Vascular tissues are well-developed throughout the plant body.
Sporangia occur over modified leaves called sporophylls. Sporophylls are aggregated to form cones or flowers.
Male and female gametophytes are distinct. They are small and dependent on the sporophyte for their nutrition.
Male gametophytes or pollen grains reach near the female sex organs through an external agency of wind, water or animals. The process is called pollination. Fertilization occurs with the help of a pollen tube. An external water is not required.
After fertilization plants produce seeds which contains embryo along with stored food. On germination each seed forms a new plant.
Spermatophyta or phanerogams are classified into two groups (Gymnosperm, Angiosperm) on the basis of naked or enclosed seeds. 

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

4. Gymnosperm : 
Gymno- naked and sperm - seeds.
 Plants are evergreen, woody and perennial. They are trees and shrubs.
 Sporophylls are aggregated to form cones. There are separate male and female cones.

They bear naked seed. The seeds are not enclosed inside fruits. Instead they lie exposed over the megasporophylls.
Xylem lack vessels and phloem lack companion cells in Gymnosperm.

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Examples :

Cycadae - Cycas
 Coniferae - 
Pinus (Pines), Cedrus (deodar),Ginkgo.

5. Angiosperm -
Angio- covered and sperm - seed.
Characteristics : Plants are deciduous or evergreen, annual
biennial or perennial herbs, shrubs or trees.
These are called flowering plant. Sporophylls are aggregated to form flowers. Flowers may be unisexual or bisexual.
Pollination occurs by wind, water and animals.
The plants of this group produce seeds inside an organ called ovary, which is modified in to fruit.
Endosperm is a new food storing structure which is generally triploid and is formed by fusion of three nuclei (triple fusion).
Embryo is present in the seed and bear leafy or fleshy structures called cotyledons (seed leaves)
Cotyledons represent a bit of pre-designed plant in the seed. 

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

In angiosperms, a seed may have one or two cotyledons. On the basis of cotyledon number, angiosperms have been divided into two classes, dicotyledoneae and monocotyledoneae.
Class Dicotyledoneae :

It is a class of angiosperms in which seeds possess tow cotyledons. The plants of this class are commonly called dicots or dicotyledonous plants. Some other characters are reticulate venation, tap root system, pentamerous or tetramerous flowers. eg. Gram, Pea, Mustard, Ipomoea.
Class Monocotyledoneae :

The members of class monocotyledoneae of angiosperms are characterised by the occurrence of a single cotyledon in their seeds. They are commonly called monocots or monocotyledonous plants. Other characters of monocots are parallel venation, fibrous root system, trimerous flowers. eg. Lily, Coconut, Wheat, Maize, Grass, Bamboo, Paphiopedilum.

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

The document Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Science Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9
120 videos|310 docs|163 tests
Download as PDF

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

Important questions

,

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Objective type Questions

,

practice quizzes

,

ppt

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Sample Paper

,

Extra Questions

,

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

,

Free

,

Semester Notes

,

Summary

,

Plant Kingdom Notes | Study Science Class 9 - Class 9

,

video lectures

,

Exam

,

past year papers

,

MCQs

,

study material

,

pdf

,

mock tests for examination

;