Class - XI
TIME: 3 Hrs.
1. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A has 16 Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B has 2 passage — based questions 17 and 18 having Multiple Choice Questions of 1 mark each.
4. Question numbers 19-22 carries 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
5. Question numbers 23-27 carries 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Question numbers 28-29 pertain to map and cartoon questions carrying 5 marks each to be answered accordingly.
7. Question numbers 30-32 carries 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
Q.17. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
The Indian bureaucracy today is an enormously complex system. It consists of the All-India services, State services, employees of the local governments, and technical and managerial staff running public sector undertakings. Makers of our Constitution were aware of the importance of the non-partisan and professional bureaucracy. They also wanted the members of the civil services or bureaucracy to be impartially selected on the basis of merit. So, the Union Public Service Commission has been entrusted with the task of conducting the process of recruitment of the civil servants for the government of India. Similar public service commissions are provided for the States also. Members of the Public Service Commissions are appointed for a fixed term. Their removal or suspension is subject to a thorough enquiry made by a judge of the Supreme Court.
Q.18. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
“... I have realised as nobody else could have, with what zeal and devotion the members of the Drafting Committee and especially its Chairman, Dr. Ambedkar in spite of his indifferent health, have worked. We could never make a decision which was or could be ever so right as when we put him on the Drafting Committee and made him its Chairman. He has not only justified his selection but has added luster to the work which he has done. In this connection, it would be invidious to make any distinction as among the other members of the Committee. I know they have all worked with the same zeal and devotion as its Chairman, and they deserve the thanks of the country.”
Q.19. Explain the term ‘Democratic’. (2 mark)
Ans: The term democratic is used for a system that allows everyone to be treated equally and to be involved in making decisions. A country is said to be democratic if:
(i) The Preamble of the Constitution defines it so.
(ii) The government is elected directly or indirectly by the people.
(iii) The administration and legislation of the country is managed through public opinion.
Q.20. Who elects the members of the Legislative Assembly? (2 mark)
Ans: The state is divided into constituencies. Only one candidate can be elected from each constituency. All eligible voters on the basis of Universal Adult Franchise vote and elect a representative from the various candidates of their constituency.
Q.21. State the important functions of the State Finance Commission. (2 mark)
Ans: Some important functions performed by State Finance Commission include:
(a) It allocates funds to the rural local government bodies.
(b) It gives recommendations for effective and efficient functioning of the local governments.
(c) It examines the financial position of the local bodies.
(d) It governs the distribution of funds between state government and local government bodies.
Q.22. How has the Constitution of India placed the relationship between a Governor and the State Legislative assembly? (2 mark)
In case there is no clear majority of a single party in the State Legislature Elections, who appoints the Chief Minister? (2 mark)
Ans: The session of the legislative assembly is called as well as terminated by the governor. The governor has the authority to give necessary directions to the legislative assembly. Any bill passed by the assembly becomes a law only upon consent and signatures of the governor. The governor has the power to dissolve the current assembly and give necessary suggestions to the President of India for conducting fresh elections.
Just like the discretionary powers of the President of India, the Governor has the discretion to invite the person who he considers to have the support of majority and is deemed fit to be appointed as Chief Minister in the interest of the state.
Q.23. Define Constitution. Why Indian Constitution said to be ‘a living document’? (4 mark)
Ans: Constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organisations are governed.
The Indian Constitution is said to be ‘A Living Document’ because:
(i) It can be amended. It is not a constant or static document but rather it is fluid and it can be changed by the process of amendment.
(ii) The Constitution is open to interpretation by the Supreme Court after understanding the society and the basic foundational values of the Constitution.
(iii) It caters to solving social as well as economic issues.
(iv) It is open to include present-day and future needs and requirements and can be changed accordingly.
(v) The Constitution is an instrument that societies create for themselves. Thus, both political parties and judicial rulings have shown maturity and flexibility in implementing the Constitution.
Q.24. State the main features of the concept of equality. (4 mark)
Write a short note on Negative Liberty. (4 mark)
Ans: The main features of ‘Right to Equality’ are given below:
(i) The Constitution says that the government shall not deny any person in India equality before law or the equal protection of the laws. It means that the laws apply in the same manner to all, regardless of a person’s status. Every citizen from the Prime Minister to a small farmer in a remote village, is subjected to the same laws.
(ii) The government shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds of religion, caste, ethnicity, sex or place of birth. Every citizen shall have access to public places like shops, restaurants, hotels and cinema halls.
(iii) All citizens have equality of opportunity in matters relating to employment or appointment to any position in the government. No citizen shall be discriminated against or made ineligible for employment on the grounds mentioned above.
(iv) No individual or section of people is given special privileges in the society. No citizen should be provided with special privileges on the basis of caste, colour, creed or religion. Every citizen should get adequate opportunities for realizing his best self.
Negative Liberty defines and defends the area of an individual’s life where no external authority can interfere. In other words, negative liberty is freedom from interference by other people. It is not concerned with the conditions of the society. It is concerned with explaining the idea of ‘freedom from’. This area comes into the personal domain of the individual. More negative liberty leads to more freedom. Negative liberty however reflects the absence of barriers and constraints. We thereby possess negative liberty to the extent that actions are available to us.
Q.25. Politics is more than what politicians do. Do you agree with this statement? Give examples. (4 mark)
Ans: Yes, Politics is more than what politicians do. Politicians as a part of government are involved in politics but it is more beyond this. Politics is an important and integral part of any society.
- It involves what governments do and how they relate to the aspirations of the people.
- It involves how people struggle and influence decision making.
- It involves how people engage in political activity whenever they negotiate with each other and take part in collective activities which are designed to promote social development and help to resolve common problems.
The most common examples are:
(a) Residents of localities form associations to solve their common problems and raise their issues at a higher level.
(b) Students form unions in colleges and universities to debate and resolve issues that affect the majority of them. Thus, politics is involved in the sphere of life that is related to power, collective decision making and solving common problems.
Q.26. What is social justice? State some features of social justice. (4 mark)
Ans: Social Justice refers of all the people living in a society are equal:
(i) All the people should enjoy the equal opportunities to develop one's own potential and personalities.
(ii) In order to attain social justice, caste and colour discrimination should be abolished. Hence, the Constitution of India has banned untouchability and misbehaviour legally.
(iii) There should be no discrimination on the use of public places, i.e., free access to the use of parks, cinemas, schools, wells, tanks and shops.
Q.27. Why do we need to study Political Theory? (4 mark)
Ans: Political Theory is studied because:
(i) It gives us the basic knowledge about political principles and ideas.
(ii) It helps us in examining our understanding of the political system in the country.
(iii) It helps in demarking just and unjust actions of the government.
(iv) It is used by all eminent professionals.
Q.28. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words. (5 mark)
My troubles are not over - I won the confidence vote’.
(i) Which situation is depicted in the cartoon?
Ans: The cartoon depicts the situation in which the Chief Minister of the State has won the Confidence Vote in the respective State Legislative Assembly.
(ii) The Chief Minister is not happy even after winning the confidence motion. Can you imagine why this is so?
Ans: The Confidence Vote has been won by the Chief Minister on account of some coalition support. As a result, the future decisions of the Government will automatically be influenced by the ideas of the person(s) who have voted in his favour. This will result in erosion of his individual decision - making authority.
Q.29. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words. (5 mark)
(i) These members of the ruling party are trying to listen to the ‘tiny’ opposition! Was this the effect of our electoral system?
Ans: This has been true of our electoral system for a long time when there was only one-party dominance in the country both in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. There were very few representatives in the opposition and some of the nominated members of the Rajya Sabha that acted as opposition for the government. The cumulative effect of all the members in the opposition was very tiny as compared to the effect of those in the ruling party.
(ii) What is the significance of the cartoon?
Ans: It signifies that in India, however tiny is the opposition, the ruling party always takes into consideration the views of the opposition and acts in the best interest of the democracy for the lawful governance of the country.
Q.30. Explain the composition of Election Commission of India. (6 mark)
Which of the following statements you agree with the most? Give your reasons.
(i) Legislators must be free to join any party they want.
(ii) Anti-defection law has contributed to the domination of the party leaders over the legislators.
(iii) Defection is always for selfish purposes and therefore, a legislator who wants to join another party must be disqualified from being a minister for the next two years.
Ans: The Election Commission of India comprises:
(i) The Chief Election Commissioner who is appointed by the President of India in consultation with the Council of Ministers.
(ii) Some Election Commissioners are reviewed and decided by the President of India from time to time.
(iii) Till 1989, there was no provision for more than one Election Commissioner.
(iv) The Chief Election Commissioner presides over the Election Commission of India although he/ she has the same powers as those of the other Election Commissioners.
(v) They are appointed for a six-year term or continue till the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.
(vi) The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed before the expiry of the term, by the President if both the Houses of Parliament make such a recommendation with a special majority.
(vii) The Election Commissioners can be removed by the President of India.
(i) Legislators should not be free to join any party they want as this would encourage corrupt practices particularly at the time of confidence motions. While in theory, they should be free to leave the party they do not want to be with, there should be certain restrictions outlining the conditions under which they are allowed to join another party.
(ii) It is incorrect that anti-defection law has led to domination of party leaders over legislators. The legislators are allowed to defect as long as they have the support of a minimum number of members from their own party.
(iii) Defection may not be always for selfish purposes. However, a legislator who wishes to join another party must seek re-election from his / her new constituency before being eligible for ministerial posts. A period of two years of disqualification is therefore appropriate in this situation.
Q.31. Analyse the statement, “Political Liberty cannot be imagined without economic equality”. (6 mark)
Name the different types of Liberty. Explain.
Ans: Liberty and Equality are contemporary to each other. Political Liberty gives freedom to an individual to participate in the activities of the state, that is:
(i) Right to vote.
(ii) Right to contest elections.
(iii) Right to form a political party.
(iv) Right to hold public office.
Economic Equality provides equal opportunities to earn livelihood by an individual, that is:
(i) All the individuals must have the means to meet their ends.
(ii) Exploitation should not exist.
(iii) Means of production and distribution should be made for public welfare.
Relationship between political liberty and economic equality:
(i) A poor man is sometimes attracted to false commitments of politicians as they lack the proper intelligence to identify right or wrong because they could not attain good education, hence they are unable to use their right to vote properly.
(ii) Sometimes, poor voters sell out their votes to rich candidates who trap them by making commitments to fulfil their requirements either in cash or in kind, hence, the poor voters misuse their right to vote in place of utilising it for the welfare of the country.
(iii) To contest elections is an expensive activity and the poor who cannot afford a one day meal less easily, cannot contest elections. Hence, the poor are exempted naturally from contesting elections due to lack of funds. It can be concluded that political liberty requires economic liberty also.
The different types of Liberty are:
(i) Economic liberty: The freedom of earning opportunities to citizens and incorporation of minimum wages in the society. Economic Liberty means the liberty to earn one’s daily bread. In simple words, we can say that every individual, regardless of the distinction of caste, colour and creed, should have liberty to earn his daily bread by fair means. The individual must be free from the constant fear of unemployment and insufficiency.
(ii) Legal liberty: The freedom enjoyed by a country to draft and enforce its own Constitution and govern the country in accordance with the provisions of that Constitution.
(iii) Natural liberty: The right of a person to be born free. It indicates unrestrained freedom to do whatever one likes. Natural liberty means absence of all restrained and unrestrained freedom to do whatever one likes.
(iv) Personal liberty: The freedom in individual matters like marriage, food etc. It means the availability of those conditions in which the individual can act as he pleases without being under any type of arbitrary and illegitimate restraint. Every individual has the right to not permit any other individual to interfere in the affairs of his personal life. Every individual should have the liberty to dress, food, standard of living, marriages, education of children, etc. The state should not interfere in the personal matters of the individual. Such liberty is essential for the free development of human society.
(v) Political liberty: The freedom to choose representatives, contest elections and participate in government. It means the liberty of citizens to participate in the political life and affairs of the state. Political Liberty includes minimum rights. These rights are: the right to vote; the right to contest elections; the right to hold public office; the right to express political views and criticize the government; and the right to petition, etc.
(vi) Religious liberty: The freedom to follow and spread any religion without state interference except in some special circumstances.
(vii) Civil Liberty: Civil liberty indicates the absence of restraints which are not reasonable and legitimate. It refers to liberty that the man enjoys in society. It prevails in the State. It denotes the enjoyment of our rights within the limits of laws. The protection of Civil Liberty is determined by the law.
(viii) National Liberty: By national liberty we mean the liberty of the nation or the country. National Liberty exists where the nation or the community is independent and sovereign. As a matter of fact, national liberty is another name for national sovereignty. Every nation or state wishes to remain free.
Q.32. State the various powers of the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha. (6 mark)
A class was debating the merits of a bicameral system. The following points were made during the discussion. Read the arguments and say if you agree or disagree with each of them, giving reasons.
(i) Neha said that the bicameral legislature does not serve any purpose.
(ii) Shama argued that experts should be nominated in the second chamber.
(iii) Tridib said that if a country is not a federation, then there is no need to have a second chamber.
Ans: The various powers of the Lok Sabha are:
(i) Legislative Powers: Main function of Lok Sabha is framing of Laws. As per the Constitution, powers of Lok Sabha and Council of States are equal in respect of framing of laws but in practice the House of People is more powerful. Generally, all important bills are presented only in the Lok Sabha.
(ii) Financial Powers: The Constitution has made the Lok Sabha powerful so far as financial matters are concerned. Money bills are initiated in the Lok Sabha. Money bills can only be introduced in the Lok Sabha, and upon being passed, are sent to the Rajya Sabha, where it can be deliberated on for up to 14 days.
(iii) Control over the Executive: According to the Constitution, the Council of Ministers is responsible to the Lok Sabha. The Council of Ministers can be functional till it enjoys the confidence of the lower house. The members of the Lok Sabha exercise control over the Government by asking questions in the House, bringing motion of adjournment or no confidence in respect of Government policies.
(iv) Amendment in Constitution: The Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha together can make amendments in the Constitution.
(v) Electoral Power: The President is elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the elected members of both houses of Parliament and the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. The Vice President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of members of both houses of Parliament. The election shall be in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote and voting shall be by secret ballot.
(vi) Forum of People’s views: Since the Lok Sabha is the house of members elected by the public therefore, the views expressed by the members are considered to be the views of the people. It is the mirror of people’s aspirations and feelings.
(vii) Miscellaneous functions:
(a) Lok Sabha can bring a motion of impeachment of the President.
(b) It can discuss the proposal passed by the Council of States for removal of the Vice President.
(c) It can discuss the proposal for the impeachment of the Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
(d) It is necessary for the Lok Sabha to confirm the emergency proclaimed by the President within a month, otherwise such proclamation shall automatically be nullified.
The various powers of the Rajya Sabha are:
(i) Legislative Powers: All Bills, other than Money Bills can originate in any House of the Parliament. No bill can become a law unless agreed to by both the Houses. In case of deadlock between the two houses over an ordinary bill and if it remains unresolved for six months, the President can convene a joint sitting of both the houses to resolve the deadlock.
(ii) Financial Powers: In the financial sphere, the Rajya Sabha is the weaker house. A money bill cannot be introduced in the Rajya Sabha. It has to be initiated in the Lok Sabha. A money bill that has been passed by the Lok Sabha then comes to the Rajya Sabha for its consideration. Within 14 days the bill has to be passed, if Rajya Sabha fails to do so, the bill is taken to be passed by the Parliament. If the Rajya Sabha proposes some amendments and the bill is returned to the Lok Sabha, it is upon the Lok Sabha to accept or reject the proposed amendments.
(iii) Amendment Power : The Raj Sabha and Lok Sabha can together amend the Constitution by passing an amendment bill with 2/3rd majority in each house.
(iv) Electoral Power : The Rajya Sabha has some electoral powers also. The elected members of the Rajya Sabha along with the elected members of the Lok Sabha and all the State Legislatures Assemblies together elect the President of India. Both the members of the Rajya and Lok Sabha together elect the Vice-President of India. Rajya Sabha also elects the Deputy Chairman from amongst themselves.
(v) Judicial Powers : The Rajya Sabha acting along with the Lok Sabha can impeach the President on charges of violation of the Constitution. The Rajya Sabha can also pass a special address for causing the removal of a judge of the Supreme Court or of any High Court. The charges against the Vice- President can be levelled only in the Rajya Sabha.
(vi) Miscellaneous Powers :
(a) Approval of the ordinances issued by the President.
(b) Ratification of an emergency proclamation.
(c) Making any change in the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.
(vii) Two Special Powers of Rajya Sabha. The Rajya Sabha enjoys two exclusive powers:
(a) The Power to declare a subject of State List as a subject of National Importance:
- The Rajya Sabha can pass a resolution by 2/3rd majority of its members for declaring a State List subject as a subject of national importance. Such a resolution empowers the Union Parliament to legislate on such a state subject for a period of one year. Such resolutions can be repeatedly passed by the Rajya Sabha.
(b) Power in respect of Creation or Abolition of an All India Service:
- The Rajya Sabha has the power to create one or more new All India Services. It can do so by passing a resolution supported by 2/3rd majority on the plea of national interest. In a similar way, the Rajya Sabha can disband an existing All India Service.
(i) I do not agree with Neha. A Bicameral legislature is necessary for a democratic country with a large population and much diversity. It also presents the opportunity for the reconsideration of every decision along with a thorough debate.
(ii) I agree with Shama that experts should be nominated into the second chamber as they can provide inputs on subjects that require technical knowledge and give rational suggestions for policy making.
(iii) I do not agree with Tridib as federalism is not a precondition for having bicameral legislature. Therefore, the statement that a Country without federalism need not have a second chamber is incorrect.