Class - XI
TIME: 3 Hrs.
1. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A has 16 Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B has 2 passage — based questions 17 and 18 having Multiple Choice Questions of 1 mark each.
4. Question numbers 19-22 carries 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
5. Question numbers 23-27 carries 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Question numbers 28-29 pertain to map and cartoon questions carrying 5 marks each to be answered accordingly.
7. Question numbers 30-32 carries 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
Q.1. Is a bill the same as a law?
Q.2. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) Freedom is said to exist when external constraints on the individual are absent.
(b) A free society would be one which enables all its members to develop their potential with the minimum of social constraints.
(c) To be free means to reduce or minimise social constraints that limit our ability to make choices freely.
(d) All individuals living in society can hope to bound up to total presence of any kind of constraints or restrictions.
Q.3. _____________ government is considered to be an important means of protecting the freedom of people.
Q.4. The Constitution has allowed for reservations in government jobs and quotas for admissions to educational institutions for people belonging to the:
(a) lower middle class
(b) SC & ST
(d) undernourished population
Q.5. The Constitution of India was adopted on 26th November:
Most nations are an ____________of a complex set of historical traditions.
Q.6. Providing people with their basic needs is considered to be one of the responsibilities of a ________ government.
Q.7. In India, the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers are the real:
Q.8. Which of the following statements is incorrect?
(a) The Vice President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Rajya Sabha passed by a majority and agreed to by the Lok Sabha.
(b) The Vice President of India is elected for four years. His election method is not similar to that of the Prime Minister, the only similarity is that the members of State Legislatures are part of the Electoral College.
(c) The Vice President is elected for five years.
(d) The Vice president acts as the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.
Q.9. Which system is based on collective leadership?
(b) Parliamentary and Semi Parliamentary System
Q.10. The present day___________ acknowledges a role for the welfare state and accepts the need for measures to reduce both social and economic inequalities.
Q.11. Who nominates 12 members to the Rajya Sabha?
(a) Council of Ministers
(b) Prime Minister
(d) President of India
Q.12. Why is Parliament needed?
(a) To make laws and to ensure democracy in political matters.
(b) To execute the criminals.
(c) To elect voters.
(d) To elect the politicians and political parties.
Q.13. Which of the following statements about Equality is incorrect?
(a) Equality is a powerful moral and political ideal that has inspired and guided human society for many centuries.
(b) It is equality rather than inequality which is most visible around us in the world as well as within the society.
(c) Human beings deserve equal consideration and respect because of their common humanity.
(d) There are glaring differences between what the law promises and what we see around us.
Q.14. A/An ___________ society gives everyone equal rights.
Q.15. What was the attitude of men towards women in the pre-independence Indian society?
(a) They shall be granted complete freedom.
(b) Women were considered to be ‘the weaker sex’.
(c) Have the right to property.
(d) Have the right to high education.
Q.16. Why is it said that “Justice delayed is Justice denied”?
(a) Victim and accused deserve access to a speedy trial and hopefully, a resolution.
(b) Victim and accused do not deserve access to speedy trial.
(c) Justice is given when the accused has served jail term.
(d) Victim is nearing the end of hope.
Q.17. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
The idea of development refers to the desire for a better life. This is a very powerful desire and the hope of improvement is a driving force of human action. In this chapter we have seen how widely accepted versions of what constitutes improvement have come under critical scrutiny. There is a multi-pronged search for a more equitable, sustainable and democratic model of development. In the process, a number of concepts of political theory such as equality, democracy and rights, have been reinterpreted. The issues that have arisen while pursuing the goal of development reveal that the choices we make have an impact upon others — other human beings and other species in the world. We must therefore see ourselves as part of the larger universe for our fates are linked together. Besides, my actions not only affect others, they also have an impact upon my own future possibilities. We need therefore to choose carefully, keeping in mind not just our present needs but also our long-term interests.
(i) What is the idea of development?
(a) Build multi utility buildings.
(b) Construct malls.
(c) Desire for a better life.
(d) Send children abroad for higher education.
(ii) What is the driving force of human action?
(a) Hope of improvement
(b) Food availability
(c) No crime
(d) Choice of profession
(iii) What are the main concepts of political theory?
(a) Justice to victims.
(b) More rights to children.
(c) Equality, democratic rights and participation in political affairs by the people.
(d) More power to political parties.
(iv) The issues that have arisen while pursuing the goal of development have revealed what?
(a) The choices we make have an impact upon others.
(b) The choices we make have an impact on us.
(c) The choices we make have no impact on anyone.
(d) The choices we make have no impact on other species.
Q.18. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
No system of election can ever be perfect. And in the actual election process, there are bound to be many flaws and limitations. Any democratic society has to keep searching for mechanisms to make elections free and fair to the maximum. With the acceptance of adult suffrage, freedom to contest elections, and the establishment of an independent Election Commission, India has tried to make its election process free and fair. However, the experience of the last fifty five years has given rise to many suggestions for reforming our election system. The Election Commission, political parties, various independent groups, and many scholars have come up with proposals for electoral reform. Some of these suggestions are about changing the constitutional provisions.
(i) What does the passage refer to?
(a) It refers to the electoral reforms that are needed in a democratic country.
(b) It refers to the electoral reforms that are needed in a socialist country.
(c) It refers to the social reforms that are needed in a democratic country.
(d) It refers to the social reforms that are needed in socialist countries.
(ii) What steps have been taken in India to ensure conduct of free and fair elections?
(a) To keep the Election Commission under Home Minister ’s rule.
(b) Establishment of an independent Election Commission.
(c) No background check before the candidate can contest elections.
(d) To continue with FPP.
(iii) What has been the major area on which the electoral reforms are aimed at in India?
(a) Change the voter ’s age in order to be eligible to vote.
(b) Let candidates with criminal records stand for elections.
(c) Changing from the First Past the Post System to Proportional Representation System.
(d) To allow foreign citizens to be part of the voting system.
(iv) Can any system of election ever be perfect?
(d) All of the above
Q.19. Which provision of the Indian Constitution was passed without any debate?
Ans: The introduction of the Universal Suffrage which means that all citizens attaining a certain age, would be entitled to be voters, irrespective of religion, caste, education, gender or income.
Q.20. What are the classifications of the executive?
Ans: The classifications are political executive and permanent executive.
(i) The heads of government and their ministers, saddled with the overall responsibility of government policy, are together known as the political executive.
(ii) They work under the authority of the political executive. They help in assisting the ministers in carrying out the day-to-day administration of the ministries. In other words, those responsible for day-to-day administration are called the permanent executive.
Q.21. How is Gram Panchayat formed?
Ans: A Gram Panchayat is formed by the members elected by the people of a village. Every village with a population of at least 500 people has a Gram Panchayat. The members of the Panchayat are called Panchas and their head is called the Sarpanch. They are elected for three years by adult villagers. The number of members of the Panchayat must be at least five and at most ten. Every Panchayat must have a lady member and one or two members belonging to scheduled castes.
Q.22. What are the inclusions of the Right to Equality?
What do you mean by Right to Life?
Ans: The Right to Equality includes:
(i) All the citizens of India are equal before the law of the country.
(ii) There shall be no discrimination on the grounds of caste, religion, gender, class, etc.
The Right to Life means:
(i) To live without fear, injury and external danger.
(ii) No individual has the right to take away his / her own life also, which means that to commit suicide is not allowed and therefore, attempt to commit suicide is also an offence.
Q.23. What is meant by freedom? Is there a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation?
Do you agree that affirmative action helps in minimising the social inequalities present in the society? Give reasons for your answer.
Ans: Freedom is a situation that limits the constraints on individuals and allows them to expand their ability and reach their potential. Freedom allows the full development of an individual’s creativity, sensibility, capabilities and the autonomy to make choices. It permits the individuals to exercise their power of reason and judgment.
(i) Yes, there is a relationship between freedom for the individual and freedom for the nation. A free nation allows the full development of an individual's talent and ability by making fewer constraints on individuals.
(ii) An individual is said to be free only if he / she resides in a free nation. A nation is said to be free if it has freedom as one of its principles and only if it has provided this to its people. In this way, individual freedom and national freedom are closely linked together.
For individual freedom it is essential that the nation should also enjoy freedom. Where a nation is not free, citizens cannot enjoy freedom. Aung San Suu Kyi sees less of her freedom as connected to the freedom of her people. Mandela spent 28 years of his life in jail for the freedom of the State and for personal freedom.
Yes, I agree that an affirmative action is more helpful in minimising the social inequalities as affirmative action has noble aims, which are consistent with high moral values. Affirmative action is merely an attempt to remedy past injustices or oversights, to ensure a better distributive justice.
Some of the affirmative actions that can be taken in this direction include:
(i) Special reservation and protection for weaker sections of the society like SCs, STs, OBCs, etc., to provide equal opportunities.
(ii) Special quota for upliftment of the status of women in the society.
(iii) Scholarships and other facilities like hostels to the disadvantaged section of the society.
Q.24. Why is Article 21 of the Constitution of India so important?
Ans: The Article 21 of the Constitution of India contains the provisions for Right to Protection of personal life and freedom of the citizens of India. It guarantees the right of persons to life with human dignity. Therein are included, all the aspects of life which go to make a person’s life meaningful, complete and worth living. A person cannot be deprived of this right in case of the specific procedure prescribed in the welfare of the state in this matter.
Q.25. State the characteristics of class.
Ans: A Class is a large group of people having some common characteristics different from the other groups.
These characteristics can be:
(i) Role in social organisations: whether active members or dormant members (followers).
(ii) Role in production activities: whether the persons involved are the owners or workers.
(iii) Role in social structures: whether the persons involved are the masters or servants.
(iv) Role in economic structure: Whether the persons involved are entrepreneurs or employed.
Q.26. What is protective discrimination?
State any two important socio-economic rights.
Ans: Protective discrimination means a privilege or some right in favour of those who had been discriminated and oppressed since ages. In order words, protective discrimination is the policy of granting special privileges to the downtrodden and the underprivileged sections of society, most commonly women. It implies:
(i) Discrimination in favour of weaker and under-privileged sections of the society.
(ii) The reservation is given to SCs, STs and OBCs.
(iii) These sections are not provided with the special advantages but raise them to a level to compete with other sections of the society.
(iv) It removes the imbalances in the society.
(i) A welfare state guarantees rights to its citizens to adopt the profession of whatever one likes and no one can be compelled to do the work which is not as per his choice.
(ii) Every citizen is entitled to enjoy the right to work to earn one’s own livelihood and the state provides opportunities to earn the resources.
Q.27. What is Economic Justice? State some features of Economic Justice.
What are generally considered to be the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life? What is the responsibility of governments in trying to ensure this minimum to all?
Ans: Economic Justice refers to providing an equal opportunity to the citizens to acquire their basic needs or livelihood.
(i) It refers to providing basic minimum needs to one and all citizens in the society, that is, no one should be exploited economically.
(ii) Equal wages should be given to workers in the factories and clerks in the offices whose work is similar.
(iii) It refers to a man who should work according to his capacity and earn sufficient money to meet our basic needs in the society.
Housing, supply of clean water, basic amount of nourishment to remain healthy, education and minimum wage are the basic minimum requirements of people for living a healthy and productive life. Government is responsible for providing these services to all sections of the society irrespective of their class, caste, race and gender at a cost they can afford.
(i) Supporters of free market ideology are in favour of providing goods and services by the private agencies and the state or government should only try to empower people to buy those goods and services. However, eventually, the free market tends to work in the interest of the powerful section.
(ii) Government checks the interference of private agencies in some sectors of the economy so that the goods and services in the free market do not become out of reach for the weaker sections.
Q.28. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words.
(i) What does the cartoon signify?
Ans: The cartoon signifies that some members have been asked to leave the Parliament. These members are now ‘walking out’ of their own will, but have been asked by the authority to ‘get out’ of the Parliament.
(ii) When does this situation arise?
Ans: This situation arises when a member or a group of members are causing unnecessary disturbance in the proceedings of the House.
(iii) Who is the final authority in deciding the situation?
Ans: The presiding officer of the respective House of the Parliament has the final authority to ask the disturbing members to leave the House.
Q.29. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words.
If this project comes up, we will be finished.
(i) What is the significance of the cartoon?
Ans: The cartoon signifies the worries of the people displaced on account of civil constructions and urbanisation.
(ii) What is implied by the statement mentioned in the cartoon?
Ans: The people likely to be displaced due to any project will not be accepting their fate positively with the thought of being ruined culturally, economically and socially.
Q.30. What is meant by freedom of expression? What, in your view, would be a reasonable restriction on this freedom? Give examples.
Some people argue that inequality is natural while others maintain that it is equality which is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. Which view do you support? Give reasons.
Ans: Freedom of expression means the freedom to express one’s views through speech, writing etc. It is considered to belong to the minimum area of ‘non-interference’, that is, negative liberty.
According to the provisions of the Indian Constitution, this is a fundamental right. Society bears some inconvenience caused by freedom of speech to protect it from people, who want to restrict it. Society cannot restrict people from expressing themselves freely, whether it agrees with their views or not. A reasonable restriction of freedom of expression is one that allows society to function smoothly and curbs interference in privacy. These restrictions are reasonable as they are necessary to run the society smoothly.
Following are some reasonable restrictions on freedom of speech:
(i) Freedom of speech cannot interfere in someone’s privacy. Employees of the Royal household of England are constrained by contract from disclosing any inner affairs of the royal household.
(ii) Another example of putting restrictions on freedom of speech is the film censor board. Censor board of films ban some portion of film to prevent adverse effects on society or disturbance of peace.
Any answer supported with an explanation is acceptable. A sample solution is as under:
Equality is natural and the inequalities which we notice around us are created by society. People are naturally equal because of common humanity. Inequality exists because of unequal opportunities and exploitation of one group from other groups in the society. Natural inequalities are those that emerge between people as a result of their different capabilities and talents. Social circumstances, situations and conditions help the individual to grow and develop her / his talents and capabilities. Different status and roles are essential for smooth running of the society, but, these status and roles are decided by the society that shows inequality. Society categorises the people on the basis of race, gender, caste, class, etc., that create inequality. Thus, society labels certain races, gender, caste, class to be treated inferior or superior by creating stereotypes.
Q.31. “Indian democracy is now ready to shift from a crude First Past the Post system to a system of Proportional Representation”. Do you agree with this statement? Give your reasons for or against this statement.
What is the role played by the Election Commission of India?
Ans: In my view, the time is correct to shift from FPTP system to Proportional Representation system. This is because:
(i) There are more than two political parties in India. To give a fair representation to all the parties, a proportional representation system is better.
(ii) This system ensures that the political parties get seats in proportion to the number of votes cast in their favour.
(iii) This system decentralizes power.
(iv) This system makes the system more reliable and transparent.
(v) This system promotes national brotherhood.
(vi) This system accommodates the increasing number of voters as well as the candidates.
(vii) This system helps in peaceful switching of the governments after the elections.
The Election Commission of India:
(i) Conducts and controls elections: The Election commission takes decisions on every aspect of conduct and control of elections. It receives and scrutinizes the nomination papers from all the candidates in the elections.
(ii) Controls the administrative machinery of the government during the conduct of elections: It controls the government officers who are posted on the election duty. It appoints officers to enquire into disputes relating to electoral arrangements.
(iii) Supervises rules and regulations for elections: It implements the code of convict and can punish any candidate or party that violates it. It supervises election machinery and the conduct of elections to ensure free and fair elections. The Model Code lays down broad guidelines as to how the political parties and candidates should conduct themselves during the election campaign.
(iv) Ensures that the elections are conducted in a free and fair manner: It prepares and notifies the schedule of the election. It determines the territorial area of the electoral constituencies in accordance with the Delimitation Commission Act.
(v) Drafts and updates voters’ list: It prepares the electoral rolls and revises them from time to time. It registers all the eligible voters.
(vi) Declares recognition or otherwise of a political party: It provides the status of national or state parties to the political parties on the basis of their performance in the elections. Allots election symbols to political parties (on permanent basis) as well as to independent candidates (on temporary basis).
(vii) Looks into the Political Parties: The Commission determines whether the party is structured and committed to principles of democracy, secularism and socialism in accordance with the Indian Constitution and would uphold the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India.
Q.32. Briefly discuss the three principles of justice outlined in the chapter. Explain each with examples.
Explain some civil rights of Indian citizens.
Ans: Three principles of justice with examples are:
(i) Equal Treatment for Equals: It is the principle of treating equals equally as all individuals share certain characteristics as human beings. Therefore, they deserve equal rights and equal treatment. It includes civil rights like right to life, liberty and property, political rights like the right to vote and social rights related to equal social opportunities. People should not be discriminated against on grounds of class, caste, race or gender. They should be judged on the basis of their work and actions.
For example: if two persons from different castes perform the same kind of work, whether it be breaking stones or delivering Pizzas, they should receive the same kind of reward.
(ii) Proportionate Justice: It is the principle of rewarding people in proportion to the scale and quality of their effort. It would be fair and just to reward different kinds of work differently if we take into account factors such as the efforts required, the skills required, the possible dangers involved in that work, and so on. The principle of equal treatment needs to be balanced with the principle of proportionality.
For example: The reward and compensation of a police officer and clerk should be different according to skills and dangers involved.
(iii) Recognition of Special Needs: This principle is for a society to take into account special needs of people while distributing rewards or duties. This is a way of promoting social justice. Physical disabilities, age or lack of access to good education or health care, are some of the factors which are considered as grounds for special treatment in many countries. For example: The reservations in government jobs for people belonging to the Scheduled Castes and Tribes.
The civil rights available to Indian citizens are:
(i) Right to Life: One of the civil rights in India is-Man must live before he can do anything. The state has to make provisions for the well-being and safety of its citizens. The right also implies to the right to self-defense and prevention of suicide.
(ii) Right to Family Life: Right to Family life is of great significance for the continuation of the human race. One can marry the person of his / her choice and produce children.
(iii) Right to Education: Another most important civil rights In India is—Every state gives the opportunity to its citizens to get education as only educated people can participate in the working of society and government.
(iv) Right to Personal Freedom: Civil rights in India also include right to personal freedom. Right to personal freedom is absolutely essential for the mental and physical growth of an individual. Right to personal freedom can be enjoyed in accordance with the laws made by the state and also in accordance with the interests of society.
(v) Right to Religious Freedom: The State does not impose any religion on people and they are free to adopt any religion, and establish their religious institutions. This is the right of Indian citizens.
(vi) Right to Freedom of Thought and Expression: Right to Freedom of thought and expression is also very important for personality development. Right of Indian citizen is the freedom to express and exchange with others their views and ideas.
(vii) Right to Freedom of Movement: Every citizen has the right to move freely throughout the country. Citizens are also given the right to go abroad. However, certain areas can be made restricted areas.
(viii) Freedom of Press: It is the right of Indian citizens to get their views printed in newspapers and periodicals. This right is essential for spreading education and information among the people.
(ix) Right to Equality: In a modern democratic state, individuals are granted the right to equality. Though discrimination is done on the basis of religion, language, caste, sex and colour; everyone is given equal opportunity to develop.
(x) Right to Justice: To save the weak and the poor, the right to get justice is also given. If this right is not given, many other rights also become meaningless. People are given the right to go to court for securing justice.
(xi) Freedom to Form Associations: In order to fulfil social, economic, political and cultural needs, many people form different types of associations and the state recognises their right to do so. But the state does not permit the formation of associations that are considered harmful to the interest of the society.
(xii) Right to Cultural Freedom: Citizens have been given the right to cultural freedom. They are free to develop their languages, customs, folkways, literature, and traditions.