Class - XI
TIME: 3 Hrs.
1. All questions are compulsory.
2. Section A has 16 Objective Type Questions of 1 mark each.
3. Section B has 2 passage — based questions 17 and 18 having Multiple Choice Questions of 1 mark each.
4. Question numbers 19-22 carries 2 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 40 words each.
5. Question numbers 23-27 carries 4 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 100 words each.
6. Question numbers 28-29 pertain to map and cartoon questions carrying 5 marks each to be answered accordingly.
7. Question numbers 30-32 carries 6 marks each. Answer to these questions should not exceed 150 words each.
Q.1. The constitution expresses the ____________identity of people. (1 Mark)
Q.2. In Indian parliament, ____________ seats are reserved for SC and ________ seats for ST candidates in the Lok Sabha. (1 Mark)
(a) 84, 47
(b) 41, 79
(c) 97, 14
(d) 14, 97
Q.3. The Parliament of India has: (1 Mark)
(a) one house
(b) two houses
(c) three houses
(d) multiple houses
Q.4. Which of the following statements is incorrect? (1 Mark)
(a) The Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies are directly elected by the people.
(b) The Lok Sabha and the District Legislative Assemblies are directly elected by the Council of Ministers.
(c) When there are two houses of the legislature, it is called a bicameral legislature.
(d) The Constitution has given the States the option of establishing either a unicameral or bicameral legislature.
Q.5. ___________ is the time of the Parliament session when the members can raise any topic which they feel is important. (1 Mark)
(a) Eleventh Hour
(b) Zero Hour
(c) Winter Session
(d) Monsoon Session
Q.6. In the Parliamentary form of government, the ________________ is accountable to the legislature. (1 Mark)
(b) Prime Minister
(c) Council of Ministers
(d) Chief Justice of India
Q.7. Who is the head of the Presidential System? (1 Mark)
(a) The Prime Minister
(b) The Governor
(c) The President
(d) The Chief Minister
Q.8. Which of the following statements is incorrect? (1 Mark)
(a) The official designations of the executive are the same from country to country.
(b) Executive is the branch of government responsible for the implementation of laws.
(c) The executive is often involved in framing of policy.
(d) The executive branch also extends to the administrative machinery
Q.9. The ___________________ Act, 1948 was instituted to provide for fixing the minimum rate of wages to be paid to workers in certain employments. (1 Mark)
(a) Maximum Wage
(b) Minimum Wage
(c) Substantial Wage
(d) Average Wage
Q.10. Which of these statements about the Parliamentary System is incorrect? (1 Mark)
(a) Most parliamentary systems have a Prime Minister or a Monarch who is the permanent Head of state.
(b) Japan has a parliamentary system with the Emperor as the head of the state and the Prime Minister as the head of government.
(c) Germany has a parliamentary system in which the President is the ceremonial head of state and the Chancellor is the head of government.
(d) Though ministers must be members of the Parliament, the President has the power to remove the Prime Minister, or ministers.
Q.11. Name the nature of executives that exists in Canada. (1 Mark)
(a) Parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarchy.
(b) Socialist with a mix of democracy.
(c) Oligarch with a constitutional monarchy.
(d) Theocracy where all people are equal.
Q.12. Who penned “Long Walk to Freedom”? (1 Mark)
(a) Nelson Mandela
(b) Mahatma Gandhi
(d) Sheikh Hasina
NHRC stands for:
(a) The National Human Rights Commission
(b) The National Health Rights Commission
(c) The National Human Resource Commission
(d) The National Health Resource Commission
Q.13. Why is it said that “Justice delayed is Justice denied”? (1 Mark)
(a) Victim and accused deserve access to a speedy trial and hopefully, a resolution.
(b) Victim and accused do not deserve access to speedy trial.
(c) Justice is given when the accused has served jail term.
(d) Victim is nearing the end of hope.
Q.14. Do the local governments have extensive or limited liability? (1 Mark)
(a) Limited liability
(b) Extensive liability
(c) Extensive with limited liability
(d) None of the above
Q.15. What kind of society would be considered as a free society? (1 Mark)
(a) Society with maximum social constraints.
(b) Society with minimum social constraints.
(c) Society where there is no government.
(d) Society where monarchy still exists.
Q.16. Freedom of _________ is a fundamental value and for that society must be willing to bear some inconvenience to protect it from people who want to restrict it. (1 Mark)
Q.17. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
The Indian Constitution is based on a delicate principle of limited separation of powers and checks and balances. This means that each organ of the government has a clear area of functioning. Thus, the Parliament is supreme in making laws and amending the Constitution, the executive is supreme in implementing them while the judiciary is supreme in settling disputes and deciding whether the laws that have been made are in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. Despite such clear-cut division of power, the conflict between the Parliament and judiciary, and executive and the judiciary has remained a recurrent theme in Indian politics.
(i) What is the Indian Constitution based upon? (1 Mark)
(a) Separation of powers
(b) Integration of powers
(c) Segregation of powers
(d) All of the above
(ii) State the main function performed by the Parliament and the Executive. (1 Mark)
(a) Formulation of laws; implement the laws
(b) Implement the laws; formulation of laws
(c) Separation of laws
(d) None of the above
(iii) State the main function of the judiciary. (1 Mark)
(a) Settle disputes in accordance with the laws.
(b) Settle disputes in accordance with the council of ministers.
(c) Settle disputes in accordance with the directions of the Prime Minister.
(d) Out of court settlement.
(iv) The ________________ is supreme in making laws. (1 Mark)
Q.18. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
Just imagine that a hidden treasure is found in your backyard. How will you feel if the treasure is taken away little by little by authorities in the name of development? This development is not reflected in your standard of living or even in facilities for the colony you stay in. Further, your house as a site for the treasure is constantly vandalised by people who claim to use the treasure for development. Isn’t it gross injustice for the people in whose house the treasure has been unearthed? Oil had been found in the region of Ogoni in Nigeria in the 1950s which resulted in crude oil exploration. Soon economic growth and big business created around it an entangled web of political intrigues, environmental problems and corruption. This prevented development of the very region where oil had been found. Ken Saro-Wiwa, an Ogoni by birth, was recognised as an author, journalist and television producer in the 1980s.
In his work, he observed and reacted to the exploitation around him as the oil and gas industry took riches from beneath the feet of the poor Ogoni farmers, and in return left the land polluted and the people disenfranchised. Saro-Wiwa led a non-violent struggle with the launch of the Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People (MOSOP) in 1990 — an open, grassroots community-based political movement. The movement was so effective, that by 1993 the oil companies had to pull out of Ogoni. But Saro-Wiwa paid the price for this. The military rulers of Nigeria framed him in a murder case and the military tribunal sentenced him to death. Saro-Wiwa said that the military rulers were doing this on behalf of Shell, the multinational oil company that had to withdraw from the Ogoni region. Human rights organisations all over the world protested against this trial and appealed for his release. Ignoring this world-wide protest, the Nigerian rulers executed Ken Saro-Wiwa in 1995.
(i) Who framed Ken Saro-Wiwa in a murder case? (1 Mark)
(a) Political rulers of Nigeria
(b) Military rulers of Nigeria
(c) People of Nigeria
(d) Militants of Nigeria
(ii) Mention one of his activities. (1 Mark)
(a) Led a non-violent struggle.
(b) Led an agitation against military rulers.
(c) Led a coup against the Government.
(d) Led an agitation against the social workers.
(iii) Who protested against his trial? (1 Mark)
(a) The farmers all over the world.
(b) The Government all over the world.
(c) Human Rights Organisations all over the world.
(d) The scientists all over the world.
(iv) When was Saro-Wiwa executed? (1 Mark)
Q.19. What is the role of Preamble to the Constitution? (2 Mark)
Ans: The Preamble to the Constitution:
(i) Defines the nature of the State as well as serves to be an introduction to the Constitution and the authority governing the Constitution.
(ii) The Preamble serves as a channelizing tool for the interpretation of the Constitution as a whole.
(iii) The Preamble proclaims the solemn resolution of the people of India to constitute India into a ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular and Democratic Republic’.
Q.20. State the important functions of Gram Sabha. (2 Mark)
Ans: Some important functions performed by Gram Sabha include:
(i) It elects the members of the Gram Panchayat.
(ii) It supervises the efficient working of the Gram Panchayat.
(iii) It approves the budget of the Gram Panchayat.
(iv) It gives recommendations to the Gram Panchayat for the developmental activities needed to be undertaken in the village.
Q.21. Why are development models criticised? (2 Mark)
Why in a democratic society disagreements about issues of distribution and justice are inevitable and even healthy?
Ans: Critics of development have pointed out that the kind of development models which have been adopted in many countries has proved very costly for the developing countries. The financial costs have been enormous, putting many countries into long-term debt.
In a democratic society, disagreements about issues of distribution and justice are inevitable and even healthy because they force us to examine different points of view and rationally defend our own views.
Q.22. What are the advantages of a good executive? (2 Mark)
Ans: A good executive helps in:
(i) Protecting and preserving national boundaries of the country.
(ii) Maintaining Law and Order in the country.
(iii) Avoiding financial fluctuations in the country.
Q.23. State some provisions of the Constitution that deal with social justice. (4 Mark)
Ans: Some of the provisions are:
(i) Untouchability has been declared illegal.
(ii) The abolition of all sorts of inequalities which may result from the inequalities of wealth, opportunity, status, race, religions, caste, title, etc.
(iii) All citizens of India get equal opportunities.
(iv) For the social upliftment, the Constitution provides reservations for SCs, STs, OBCs and women.
Q.24. Why does there exist struggle between classes? (4 Mark)
Ans: The disputes or struggle between different classes arises on account of division of society into classes. It is said to exist because different groups of people have different interests. The common interest of the society is mainly influenced by the dominant class of the society. The other classes of the society struggle with the dominant class and also amongst each other for prioritisation of the interests suitable to their respective classes. Class struggle happens when the rich pay the workers to make things for them to sell. The workers have no say in their pay or what things they make, since they cannot live without a job or money. In such a situation, the workers have to work without any say in the business.
Q.25. Liberty and Equality are two sides of the same coin. Do you agree with this statement? Give reasons. (4 Mark)
State two positive and two negative aspects of equality.
Ans: Liberty and Equality always go hand in hand, they are complementary to each other and are closely related to each other. They are not opposed to each other and they go together.
(i) There is no value of liberty in the absence of equality. They are the same conditions viewed from different angles.
(ii) Even if one is provided liberty, but there is no existence of equality in the society, such a liberty is in vain. Even civil equality is possible only if there is equality of justice.
(iii) All individual liberties are related to the basic equality of all men. Liberty thus implies equality.
(iv) Economic equality is essential for the existence of political freedom. It is also true that in the absence of political liberty, equality cannot be established.
Hence, liberty and equality are not in conflict nor even separate but are different facts of the same ideal.
Positive aspects of equality are:
(i) Every individual gets equal opportunities.
(ii) The opportunities provided are adequate.
(iii) One can develop according to his or her own potential.
Negative aspects of equality are:
(i) It removes man-made inequalities in the society which are sometimes important.
(ii) It does not provide special privileges to really needy sections of the society.
(iii) There is no discrimination on any grounds which may be required at times.
Q.26. Why should the citizens respect the Constitution of the country? (4 Mark)
Ans: We should respect the Constitution because:
(i) The Constitution is the first and the foremost law of the country.
(ii) It ensures fulfilment of relationships between the government and the citizens of the country.
(iii) The government functions according to the provisions of the Constitution.
(iv) It grants the fundamental rights to the citizens.
(v) It imposes moral duties on the government in favour of the citizens.
Detailed Answer: The Constitution of a country is a document consisting of the supreme and fundamental laws of that country, which decides the composition, powers and functions of the Government. The Government of India is also composed according to the principles laid down in the Constitution of India. The constitution of India lays down what the President of India can do and what the Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers can do. It also shows how the different organs of government should relate to each other. For instance, what the executive can do by itself and what should be the relation between the legislature, the executive and the judiciary, and also, of course, between them and the ordinary citizens. All these relations are governed by the rules or laws of the Constitution. Thus, the Indian Constitution consists of the supreme laws of the land. Therefore, it is the duty of every Indian citizen that he or she should respect it.
Q.27. How do rights imply duties? (4 Mark)
Ans: Rights and duties are two sides of the same coin. Without one, the existence of others is not possible. Duties are primary and rights are secondary.
(i) Duties are our obligations towards others whereas, rights are others’ obligations towards us.
(ii) Rights help us in developing ourselves whereas duties help us in developing the society.
(iii) We own rights and owe duties.
(iv) Rights of one person become duties of other persons and vice-versa.
Q.28. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words. (5 Mark)
The constitution makers have to address themselves to very different aspirations. Here is Nehru trying to balance between different visions and ideologies.
(i) Can you identify what these different groups stand for?
Ans: The different groups illustrated here represent different sections of the society categorised on the basis of religion, culture, caste and region. These groups had different preferences and represented the two opposite groups of nationalists – the liberals and the radicals.
(ii) Who do you think prevailed in this balancing act?
Ans: At the end, both the songs were accepted. Vande Mataram became our National Song and Jana Gana Mana became our National Anthem. Both the songs are shown equal respect by all the citizens of the country. The acceptance of these songs by the Indians shows that the citizens of India accept all diversities of India.
Q.29. Study the cartoon given below carefully and answer the questions that follow. Answers to 2 marks questions should not exceed 40 words. (5 Mark)
(i) What does this cartoon depict?
Ans: This cartoon depicts that the countries of the European Union tried to create a European Constitution.
(ii) Did they succeed in their attempt?
Ans: No, the attempt turned out to be an utter failure.
(iii) Does this always happen in any Constitution making?
Ans: No, this does not happen in any Constitution making, if all the representatives in the Constituent Assembly are elected either directly or indirectly from all sections of society, the attempt of framing the Constitution would be successful.
Q.30. Liberty and equality are related to each other. Examine with two different views. (6 Mark)
Here are some arguments in favour of the right to vote for women. Which of these are consistent with the idea of equality? Give reasons.
(i) Women are our mothers. We shall not disrespect our mothers by denying them the right to vote.
(ii) Decisions of the government affect women as well as men, therefore they also should have a say in choosing the rulers.
(iii) Not granting women the right to vote will cause disharmony in the family.
(iv) Women constitute half of humanity. You cannot subjugate them for long by denying them the right to vote.
Ans: The two different views are examined below:
(i) Liberty and equality are opposed to each other: There is a viewpoint that both liberty and equality are opposed to each other and they cannot go side-by-side. The main advocates of this viewpoint are De Tocqueviflle and Lord Acton. According to Lord Acton, “The passion for equality has made vain the hope for liberty.” Equality curtails individual liberty. If everybody is considered equal in the eyes of law and equality is established in the economic sphere, then liberty will be curtailed. Nobody will have the liberty to earn money according to his own sweet will. If equality is established, then the intelligent and hardworking people will not be able to develop their personality to the full. People are of the opinion that nature has not created all the people equal. So, liberty and equality cannot go side-by-side.
(ii) Liberty and equality are related to each other: In the modern age, most of the thinkers do not accept the viewpoint that liberty and equality are closely related to each other. It is said that liberty in the absence of equality is meaningless. Prof. Laski, Prof. Towny Pollard and Maclver are the thinkers who support this view point. In fact, liberty does not mean the same work and equal wages for all the people.
(i) It is not consistent with the idea of equality as this is not based on the principles of equality but this argument emanates from our emotions.
(ii) It is consistent with the idea of equality as this argument is based on the impact of decision-making on women and hence, their right to choose the decision makers. In a democratic country, every decision made by the government affects women as well as men.
(iii) It is not consistent with the idea of equality as it is concerned more with the disintegration of family rather than giving women equal opportunity to choose their representatives.
(iv) It is consistent with the idea of equality as this argument is based on rational thinking. Women are considered as equal to men in the composition of society and are therefore given equal importance and opportunity to cast their vote.
Q.31. What measures have been taken by India to secure social justice? (6 Mark)
Discuss briefly some of the new rights claims for which are being put forward in our country today - for example the rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and way of life, or the rights of children against bonded labour.
Ans: Some of the measurements can be listed as:
(i) The Preamble to the Indian Constitution declares its objectives to ensure social, economic and political justice.
(ii) Since independence, various programmes have been set up to eradicate poverty in India.
(iii) The Antyodaya Schemes have been launched for the upliftment of the poorest.
(iv) The government has launched five year plans and many other programmes also for downtrodden people.
(v) To improve the special status of SCs and STs, the government has made provisions for their reservations in educational institutions and government jobs.
(vi) The government of India assures the rights of poor and downtrodden people in education, sickness, health etc.
(i) The claim of rights of tribal people to protect their habitat and way of life has emerged with the new conception of a secure and respectful life of individuals along with preserving their traditional way of life and access to resources.
(ii) This is a result of change in society and its beliefs and providing special provisions or rights to people to protect indigenous culture.
(iii) Tribal people are given rights to own a part of land of the forest to which they belong.
(iv) They are given special facilities in education, job, medicine etc, so that they can compete with the rest of the society on equal terms.
(v) The rights of children against bonded labour are necessary to prevent their exploitation and ensure a safe childhood for them.
(vi) The right to education is a new right given in the Indian Constitution.
(vii) This right helps in preventing the violation of the basic right of children to education.
(viii) Right to information is a new right that helps the citizens to know the status or the procedure of the services that they are entitled to receive.
Q.32. What are rights and why are they important? What are the bases on which claims to rights can be made? (6 Mark)
What are the different concepts of justice?
Ans: A right is essentially an entitlement or a justified claim. It denotes what we are entitled to as citizens, as individuals and as human beings. Rights are something that we consider to be due to us, something that the rest of society must recognise as being a legitimate claim that must be upheld.
(i) Rights are important for all of us for leading a life of respect and dignity. In fact, one of the grounds on which rights have been claimed is that they represent conditions that we collectively see as a source of self-respect and dignity. For instance, the right to livelihood may be considered necessary for leading a life of dignity. Being gainfully employed gives a person economic independence and this is central for his / her dignity. Having our basic needs met gives us liberty to pursue our talents and interests.
(ii) ln a democracy, generally people or citizens have the right to expression. Citizens can express themselves freely in different ways. The right to expression gives us the opportunity to be creative and original, whether it be in writing, or dance, or music or any other creative activity.
(iii) Freedom of expression is essential and useful for democratic government also. As the freedom or right allows the free expression of beliefs and opinions, the government can know the successes or failures or desires or dislikings of the people.
(iv) Rights are necessary for the entire world or for all human beings also. Rights such as the right of livelihood, or freedom of expression, would be important for all human beings who live in society and therefore, they are described as universal in nature.
(v) Another basis on which rights have been claimed is that they are necessary for our well-being. They help individuals to develop their talents and skills. A right like the right to education, for example, helps develop our capacity to reason, gives us useful skills and enables us to make informed choices in life.
Justice means faithful realization of existing laws against any arbitrary dealing and the ideal element in law to which a good law should aspire for. The other definition of justice is the use of power as appointed by law or standards to support fair treatment and due reward.
Justice can be classified as:
(i) Social justice: Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society, as measured by the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, and social privileges. No discrimination must be made amongst the citizens of a country on the ground of religion, colour, caste, race, language etc. Equal opportunities should be provided to one and all for one’s own development. An equality based society should be established.
(ii) Political justice: Political justice means equal, free and fair opportunities to the people for participation in the political process. It stands for the grant of equal political rights to all the people without discrimination. To exercise political power to serve the interests of the all. Every citizen should enjoy his / her right to vote without any discrimination. Every person should have the right to contest elections as par. Every citizen should have an opportunity to put pressure on the government.
(iii) Economic justice: Economic justice denotes the non-discrimination between people on the basis of economic factors. It involves the elimination of glaring inequalities in wealth, income and property. It refers to providing equal opportunities to one and all to earn money and to spend to meet the needs of life. National income and resources should be evenly distributed among all the people. Economic welfare of the weaker section should be looked after.
(iv) Moral justice: Natural principles exist in the universe. To determine mutual relationships among individuals. Speaking the truth, showing kindness, keeping the promises, behaving liberally etc.
(v) Legal justice: Legal justice is the restoration of fairness in the eyes of the law. It involves framing genuine legislation to be enforced by law. Equal provisions of punishments should also be made without any partiality. State established justice should be by the means of law.