Polity & Constitution: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Polity & Constitution: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


 
4                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION 
1.1. ELECTIONS DURING COVID TIMES 
Why in News? 
Several countries, including India, have successfully conducted polls 
during COVID-19 with safety measures in place. 
COVID-19 and elections 
• One of the cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has 
been its impact on conducting elections. Some countries have 
pushed ahead with elections.  
• Elections during COVID-19 presents certain challenges. 
However, postponing elections may not be the appropriate 
option as it has following risks: 
o Political risks: disturbing the level playing field and 
undermining the incumbent or opposition;  
o Reputational risks, for an organization that makes 
decisions, for trust in democratic processes and institutions  
o Financial risks: budgetary implications, e.g. money invested 
that cannot be recovered;  
o Operational risks: alternative dates are not feasible 
because of other risks, e.g. extension of term, other 
events;  
o Legal risks: the decision can be legally challenged. 
• Challenges faced in elections during COVID-19: 
o Campaigning: large rallies can spread the virus. 
Virtual campaigning through social and print media 
and radio will have to suffice. This will raise the cost 
of campaigning, exclude the poor and indigent, 
further favoring those with access to finance and 
technology. 
o Polling stations: These will be impacted as it becomes increasingly more difficult to find workers to man 
them and also need to provide protective gear and sanitizer at such a large scale. 
o Preparedness of electoral management bodies (EMBs): preparing for elections will be infinitely more 
difficult where movement and contact is constrained. Most EMBs will face increased administrative and 
logistical work necessary to hold elections during COVID-19. 
o Effect on turnout: Elections are characterised by high turnout and equal levels of participation across 
different groups in a society. Holding an election during a pandemic could undermine this aspect by 
reducing turnout. 
o Impediments on Transparency: Conventionally, elections are monitored by domestic and international 
observer groups to ensure the processes are lawful and meet the requirements for an election conducted 
with integrity. For COVID-19 elections, the situation could be different.  
Measures for conducting elections during COVID-19 
• Political consensus in sustaining decisions made on the electoral calendar and procedures to avoid political 
friction and not undermining the legitimacy of the electoral result. 
• Special Voting Arrangements and enabling various modalities to cast the vote. Voters should be offered voting 
methods that minimise direct contact with other people and reduce crowd size at polling stations. 
• Adopt measures that reduce the risks of contagion, which range from the availability of masks and other 
protective materials, to the opening of more voting centers and the extension of the voting period. 
• Voter education should reach all genders. It is important to understand how women access information during 
the pandemic and target voter education to ensure they have equal access to that information. 
Key measures announced by Election 
Commission for Bihar elections 
• COVID-19 patients were also allowed 
to take part in the democratic exercise 
by extending voting time by one hour. 
• Number of voters per booth was 
restricted (to 1000 persons) so that 
social distancing norms are followed. 
• Postal ballot facility was provided 
wherever required and requested. 
• Nomination forms were made 
available online, apart from offline. 
• There were restrictions on door-to-
door campaigning. The ECI said only 
five, including the candidate, will be 
allowed for door-to-door campaign. 
Best Practices on elections during COVID-19 
• New Zealand: Alternative voting arrangements 
being considered are extending the online 
service for voting; extending the telephone 
dictation voting service; offering proxy voting 
and postal voting and expanding the use of 
mobile ballot boxes. 
• South Korea: special polling stations for COVID 
patients, postal voting and early voting, 
political agreements on electoral calendar and 
procedures etc. 
Page 2


 
4                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION 
1.1. ELECTIONS DURING COVID TIMES 
Why in News? 
Several countries, including India, have successfully conducted polls 
during COVID-19 with safety measures in place. 
COVID-19 and elections 
• One of the cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has 
been its impact on conducting elections. Some countries have 
pushed ahead with elections.  
• Elections during COVID-19 presents certain challenges. 
However, postponing elections may not be the appropriate 
option as it has following risks: 
o Political risks: disturbing the level playing field and 
undermining the incumbent or opposition;  
o Reputational risks, for an organization that makes 
decisions, for trust in democratic processes and institutions  
o Financial risks: budgetary implications, e.g. money invested 
that cannot be recovered;  
o Operational risks: alternative dates are not feasible 
because of other risks, e.g. extension of term, other 
events;  
o Legal risks: the decision can be legally challenged. 
• Challenges faced in elections during COVID-19: 
o Campaigning: large rallies can spread the virus. 
Virtual campaigning through social and print media 
and radio will have to suffice. This will raise the cost 
of campaigning, exclude the poor and indigent, 
further favoring those with access to finance and 
technology. 
o Polling stations: These will be impacted as it becomes increasingly more difficult to find workers to man 
them and also need to provide protective gear and sanitizer at such a large scale. 
o Preparedness of electoral management bodies (EMBs): preparing for elections will be infinitely more 
difficult where movement and contact is constrained. Most EMBs will face increased administrative and 
logistical work necessary to hold elections during COVID-19. 
o Effect on turnout: Elections are characterised by high turnout and equal levels of participation across 
different groups in a society. Holding an election during a pandemic could undermine this aspect by 
reducing turnout. 
o Impediments on Transparency: Conventionally, elections are monitored by domestic and international 
observer groups to ensure the processes are lawful and meet the requirements for an election conducted 
with integrity. For COVID-19 elections, the situation could be different.  
Measures for conducting elections during COVID-19 
• Political consensus in sustaining decisions made on the electoral calendar and procedures to avoid political 
friction and not undermining the legitimacy of the electoral result. 
• Special Voting Arrangements and enabling various modalities to cast the vote. Voters should be offered voting 
methods that minimise direct contact with other people and reduce crowd size at polling stations. 
• Adopt measures that reduce the risks of contagion, which range from the availability of masks and other 
protective materials, to the opening of more voting centers and the extension of the voting period. 
• Voter education should reach all genders. It is important to understand how women access information during 
the pandemic and target voter education to ensure they have equal access to that information. 
Key measures announced by Election 
Commission for Bihar elections 
• COVID-19 patients were also allowed 
to take part in the democratic exercise 
by extending voting time by one hour. 
• Number of voters per booth was 
restricted (to 1000 persons) so that 
social distancing norms are followed. 
• Postal ballot facility was provided 
wherever required and requested. 
• Nomination forms were made 
available online, apart from offline. 
• There were restrictions on door-to-
door campaigning. The ECI said only 
five, including the candidate, will be 
allowed for door-to-door campaign. 
Best Practices on elections during COVID-19 
• New Zealand: Alternative voting arrangements 
being considered are extending the online 
service for voting; extending the telephone 
dictation voting service; offering proxy voting 
and postal voting and expanding the use of 
mobile ballot boxes. 
• South Korea: special polling stations for COVID 
patients, postal voting and early voting, 
political agreements on electoral calendar and 
procedures etc. 
 
5                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1.2. DATA GOVERNANCE QUALITY INDEX 
Why in news? 
Department of Fertilizers under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has been ranked 2nd amongst the 16 
Economic Ministries / Departments and 3rd out of the 65 Ministries / Departments on Data Governance Quality 
Index (DGQI).  
About DGQI 
• DGQI survey assesses different Ministries /Departments' performance on the implementation of Central 
Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). 
• It is conducted by Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) under NITI Aayog. 
• Its objective is to assess data preparedness of Ministries / Departments on a standardized framework to drive 
healthy competition among them and promote cooperative peer learning from best practices. 
o It will immensely help improve the implementation framework of government policies, schemes and 
programmes to achieve the desired goals. 
• Major themes of DGQI include Data Generation; Data Quality; Use of Technology; Data Analysis, Use and 
Dissemination; Data Security and HR Capacity & Case Studies. 
What is the role of data in governance? 
• For digital economy growth: Affordable access to the internet and an encouraging regulatory system has 
made India the country with the second-largest internet users in the world and has powered its digital 
economy. 
• Better decision making: The rapid technological advances have led to large volumes of data being generated 
by various activities, thus, increasing the dependence of business on data-decision making. 
• Political accountability: Open government data can create political accountability, generate economic value, 
and improve the quality of federal initiatives. The possible benefits of Big Data analytics in government could 
range from transforming government programmes and empowering citizens to improving transparency and 
enabling the participation of all stakeholders. 
• Citizen empowerment: Since the launch of the Digital India Program, the country has witnessed tremendous 
growth in digital infrastructure and initiatives in innovating e-governance policies that can lead to digital 
empowerment of citizens.  
• Prevents leakage: Real time monitoring of Direct Benefit Transfer could reduce any potencial leakage. It would 
also lead to need based improvisation in the governance without any lag. 
• Efficient administration: Actively engaging policy makers and researchers with the processed data is crucial 
for making targeted and tailored programmes could improve the efficiency of programmes.  
Challenges 
• Collection of data: Collection of data is a paramount task for government as data is received from multiple 
online and offline channels. Sharing data between departments and across ministries is a challenge, given the 
jurisdictional boundaries that exist. 
o Moreover, there has been a lack of consistent dialogue and coordination between key stakeholders. 
• Political will for utilizing data in governance: Data driven policies would be more realist and may target long 
term benefits. This may go against popular will. Hence, strong political will is required to implement such 
policies. 
• Privacy concerns: While privacy of data is important for businesses and government, public trust in 
government is particularly important. Hence, any breach of confidentiality regarding data that is collected and 
processed by the government could have serious ramifications.  
o According to The Internet Crime Report for 2019, India stands third in the world among top 20 countries 
that are victims of internet crimes. 
• Funding & Innovations: While access to personal data has skyrocketed, funding targeted towards cross-
disciplinary research on data governance has remained limited. This has led to a dearth of original research 
that policymakers can draw upon when trying to make sound policy decisions on data governance in India. 
Page 3


 
4                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION 
1.1. ELECTIONS DURING COVID TIMES 
Why in News? 
Several countries, including India, have successfully conducted polls 
during COVID-19 with safety measures in place. 
COVID-19 and elections 
• One of the cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has 
been its impact on conducting elections. Some countries have 
pushed ahead with elections.  
• Elections during COVID-19 presents certain challenges. 
However, postponing elections may not be the appropriate 
option as it has following risks: 
o Political risks: disturbing the level playing field and 
undermining the incumbent or opposition;  
o Reputational risks, for an organization that makes 
decisions, for trust in democratic processes and institutions  
o Financial risks: budgetary implications, e.g. money invested 
that cannot be recovered;  
o Operational risks: alternative dates are not feasible 
because of other risks, e.g. extension of term, other 
events;  
o Legal risks: the decision can be legally challenged. 
• Challenges faced in elections during COVID-19: 
o Campaigning: large rallies can spread the virus. 
Virtual campaigning through social and print media 
and radio will have to suffice. This will raise the cost 
of campaigning, exclude the poor and indigent, 
further favoring those with access to finance and 
technology. 
o Polling stations: These will be impacted as it becomes increasingly more difficult to find workers to man 
them and also need to provide protective gear and sanitizer at such a large scale. 
o Preparedness of electoral management bodies (EMBs): preparing for elections will be infinitely more 
difficult where movement and contact is constrained. Most EMBs will face increased administrative and 
logistical work necessary to hold elections during COVID-19. 
o Effect on turnout: Elections are characterised by high turnout and equal levels of participation across 
different groups in a society. Holding an election during a pandemic could undermine this aspect by 
reducing turnout. 
o Impediments on Transparency: Conventionally, elections are monitored by domestic and international 
observer groups to ensure the processes are lawful and meet the requirements for an election conducted 
with integrity. For COVID-19 elections, the situation could be different.  
Measures for conducting elections during COVID-19 
• Political consensus in sustaining decisions made on the electoral calendar and procedures to avoid political 
friction and not undermining the legitimacy of the electoral result. 
• Special Voting Arrangements and enabling various modalities to cast the vote. Voters should be offered voting 
methods that minimise direct contact with other people and reduce crowd size at polling stations. 
• Adopt measures that reduce the risks of contagion, which range from the availability of masks and other 
protective materials, to the opening of more voting centers and the extension of the voting period. 
• Voter education should reach all genders. It is important to understand how women access information during 
the pandemic and target voter education to ensure they have equal access to that information. 
Key measures announced by Election 
Commission for Bihar elections 
• COVID-19 patients were also allowed 
to take part in the democratic exercise 
by extending voting time by one hour. 
• Number of voters per booth was 
restricted (to 1000 persons) so that 
social distancing norms are followed. 
• Postal ballot facility was provided 
wherever required and requested. 
• Nomination forms were made 
available online, apart from offline. 
• There were restrictions on door-to-
door campaigning. The ECI said only 
five, including the candidate, will be 
allowed for door-to-door campaign. 
Best Practices on elections during COVID-19 
• New Zealand: Alternative voting arrangements 
being considered are extending the online 
service for voting; extending the telephone 
dictation voting service; offering proxy voting 
and postal voting and expanding the use of 
mobile ballot boxes. 
• South Korea: special polling stations for COVID 
patients, postal voting and early voting, 
political agreements on electoral calendar and 
procedures etc. 
 
5                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1.2. DATA GOVERNANCE QUALITY INDEX 
Why in news? 
Department of Fertilizers under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has been ranked 2nd amongst the 16 
Economic Ministries / Departments and 3rd out of the 65 Ministries / Departments on Data Governance Quality 
Index (DGQI).  
About DGQI 
• DGQI survey assesses different Ministries /Departments' performance on the implementation of Central 
Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). 
• It is conducted by Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) under NITI Aayog. 
• Its objective is to assess data preparedness of Ministries / Departments on a standardized framework to drive 
healthy competition among them and promote cooperative peer learning from best practices. 
o It will immensely help improve the implementation framework of government policies, schemes and 
programmes to achieve the desired goals. 
• Major themes of DGQI include Data Generation; Data Quality; Use of Technology; Data Analysis, Use and 
Dissemination; Data Security and HR Capacity & Case Studies. 
What is the role of data in governance? 
• For digital economy growth: Affordable access to the internet and an encouraging regulatory system has 
made India the country with the second-largest internet users in the world and has powered its digital 
economy. 
• Better decision making: The rapid technological advances have led to large volumes of data being generated 
by various activities, thus, increasing the dependence of business on data-decision making. 
• Political accountability: Open government data can create political accountability, generate economic value, 
and improve the quality of federal initiatives. The possible benefits of Big Data analytics in government could 
range from transforming government programmes and empowering citizens to improving transparency and 
enabling the participation of all stakeholders. 
• Citizen empowerment: Since the launch of the Digital India Program, the country has witnessed tremendous 
growth in digital infrastructure and initiatives in innovating e-governance policies that can lead to digital 
empowerment of citizens.  
• Prevents leakage: Real time monitoring of Direct Benefit Transfer could reduce any potencial leakage. It would 
also lead to need based improvisation in the governance without any lag. 
• Efficient administration: Actively engaging policy makers and researchers with the processed data is crucial 
for making targeted and tailored programmes could improve the efficiency of programmes.  
Challenges 
• Collection of data: Collection of data is a paramount task for government as data is received from multiple 
online and offline channels. Sharing data between departments and across ministries is a challenge, given the 
jurisdictional boundaries that exist. 
o Moreover, there has been a lack of consistent dialogue and coordination between key stakeholders. 
• Political will for utilizing data in governance: Data driven policies would be more realist and may target long 
term benefits. This may go against popular will. Hence, strong political will is required to implement such 
policies. 
• Privacy concerns: While privacy of data is important for businesses and government, public trust in 
government is particularly important. Hence, any breach of confidentiality regarding data that is collected and 
processed by the government could have serious ramifications.  
o According to The Internet Crime Report for 2019, India stands third in the world among top 20 countries 
that are victims of internet crimes. 
• Funding & Innovations: While access to personal data has skyrocketed, funding targeted towards cross-
disciplinary research on data governance has remained limited. This has led to a dearth of original research 
that policymakers can draw upon when trying to make sound policy decisions on data governance in India. 
 
6                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Way ahead 
• Open Data Policy: Holistic decisions 
could be made if various government 
organizations share the pieces of data 
in their possession. Sharing and 
monitoring the collected data can help 
to make a democratic and cost effective 
governance process 
• Capacity building: Technological 
companies and start-ups, which can 
offer solutions in data analytics by 
managing massive, complex data, need 
to be encouraged.  
• Funding the innovations and research: 
A structured mechanism should be 
established for financial contribution of 
industries in the research field. Also 
government should put funding of 
research in priority list. 
• Legislative reforms: Data collected by 
various entities is processed and 
disseminated in various forms. During 
this process, it should be ensured that the information is not 
distorted; not disclosed; not appropriated; not stolen; and 
not intruded upon within specified rules and guidelines.  
o The proposed “Data Protection bill” and the report by 
Kris Gopalakrishnan committee may prove a milestone 
in this direction. 
o Also, data protection and privacy regulations and 
guidelines, as exemplified by the EU’s General Data 
Protection Regulation, is prerequisite. 
Conclusion  
Quality data, if analysed at the right time, can be critical for programmatic decision-making, efficient delivery of 
schemes, and proactive policy revision. Big Data can have a big impact only if used on a massive scale (with 
safeguards) by governments for the delivery of public goods and services. 
1.3. INTEGRITY PACT 
Why in new? 
Recently, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has amended the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) on 
adoption of “Integrity Pact” in government organisations for procurement activities and restricted the maximum 
tenure of Integrity External Monitors (IEMs) to three years in an organisation. 
More about news 
• Integrity Pact envisages a panel of Independent External Monitors (IEMs) approved for the organization.  
• IEM reviews independently and objectively, whether and to what extent parties have complied with their 
obligations under the Pact.  
Integrity pact 
• It is a vigilance tool that envisages an agreement between the prospective vendors/bidders and the buyer, 
committing both the parties not to exercise any corrupt influence on any aspect of the contract. 
• Its implementation is assured by Independent External Monitors (IEM) who are people of unimpeachable 
integrity.  
Utility of Data in governance in India 
• There are a few large data projects that seek to improve delivery 
of government services, boost private sector opportunities, all 
the while enhancing the state’s law enforcement and surveillance 
powers. 
• Various projects include: 
o Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI): UIDAI stores 
all biometric and demographic details of Aadhaar card holders.  
o National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): This came about in the 
wake of the 26/11 attacks as a unified intelligence database 
which would collect data and patterns, such as immigration 
entry and exit, etc. 
o Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS): It was launched 
with an aim to integrate all courts, police stations, 
prosecution, forensic science laboratories and jails in the 
country. 
o DNA Databanks: The DNA Technology (Use and Application) 
Regulation Bill of 2018 seeks to establish regional and national 
level databanks for both criminal and civil matters. 
o Big data: Big Data and associated analytics are beneficial in 
various areas, such as solving traffic problems in cities; 
targeting healthcare delivery; efficient supply chain 
management; preventive steps for environmental protection; 
etc. 
 
Page 4


 
4                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION 
1.1. ELECTIONS DURING COVID TIMES 
Why in News? 
Several countries, including India, have successfully conducted polls 
during COVID-19 with safety measures in place. 
COVID-19 and elections 
• One of the cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has 
been its impact on conducting elections. Some countries have 
pushed ahead with elections.  
• Elections during COVID-19 presents certain challenges. 
However, postponing elections may not be the appropriate 
option as it has following risks: 
o Political risks: disturbing the level playing field and 
undermining the incumbent or opposition;  
o Reputational risks, for an organization that makes 
decisions, for trust in democratic processes and institutions  
o Financial risks: budgetary implications, e.g. money invested 
that cannot be recovered;  
o Operational risks: alternative dates are not feasible 
because of other risks, e.g. extension of term, other 
events;  
o Legal risks: the decision can be legally challenged. 
• Challenges faced in elections during COVID-19: 
o Campaigning: large rallies can spread the virus. 
Virtual campaigning through social and print media 
and radio will have to suffice. This will raise the cost 
of campaigning, exclude the poor and indigent, 
further favoring those with access to finance and 
technology. 
o Polling stations: These will be impacted as it becomes increasingly more difficult to find workers to man 
them and also need to provide protective gear and sanitizer at such a large scale. 
o Preparedness of electoral management bodies (EMBs): preparing for elections will be infinitely more 
difficult where movement and contact is constrained. Most EMBs will face increased administrative and 
logistical work necessary to hold elections during COVID-19. 
o Effect on turnout: Elections are characterised by high turnout and equal levels of participation across 
different groups in a society. Holding an election during a pandemic could undermine this aspect by 
reducing turnout. 
o Impediments on Transparency: Conventionally, elections are monitored by domestic and international 
observer groups to ensure the processes are lawful and meet the requirements for an election conducted 
with integrity. For COVID-19 elections, the situation could be different.  
Measures for conducting elections during COVID-19 
• Political consensus in sustaining decisions made on the electoral calendar and procedures to avoid political 
friction and not undermining the legitimacy of the electoral result. 
• Special Voting Arrangements and enabling various modalities to cast the vote. Voters should be offered voting 
methods that minimise direct contact with other people and reduce crowd size at polling stations. 
• Adopt measures that reduce the risks of contagion, which range from the availability of masks and other 
protective materials, to the opening of more voting centers and the extension of the voting period. 
• Voter education should reach all genders. It is important to understand how women access information during 
the pandemic and target voter education to ensure they have equal access to that information. 
Key measures announced by Election 
Commission for Bihar elections 
• COVID-19 patients were also allowed 
to take part in the democratic exercise 
by extending voting time by one hour. 
• Number of voters per booth was 
restricted (to 1000 persons) so that 
social distancing norms are followed. 
• Postal ballot facility was provided 
wherever required and requested. 
• Nomination forms were made 
available online, apart from offline. 
• There were restrictions on door-to-
door campaigning. The ECI said only 
five, including the candidate, will be 
allowed for door-to-door campaign. 
Best Practices on elections during COVID-19 
• New Zealand: Alternative voting arrangements 
being considered are extending the online 
service for voting; extending the telephone 
dictation voting service; offering proxy voting 
and postal voting and expanding the use of 
mobile ballot boxes. 
• South Korea: special polling stations for COVID 
patients, postal voting and early voting, 
political agreements on electoral calendar and 
procedures etc. 
 
5                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1.2. DATA GOVERNANCE QUALITY INDEX 
Why in news? 
Department of Fertilizers under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has been ranked 2nd amongst the 16 
Economic Ministries / Departments and 3rd out of the 65 Ministries / Departments on Data Governance Quality 
Index (DGQI).  
About DGQI 
• DGQI survey assesses different Ministries /Departments' performance on the implementation of Central 
Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). 
• It is conducted by Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) under NITI Aayog. 
• Its objective is to assess data preparedness of Ministries / Departments on a standardized framework to drive 
healthy competition among them and promote cooperative peer learning from best practices. 
o It will immensely help improve the implementation framework of government policies, schemes and 
programmes to achieve the desired goals. 
• Major themes of DGQI include Data Generation; Data Quality; Use of Technology; Data Analysis, Use and 
Dissemination; Data Security and HR Capacity & Case Studies. 
What is the role of data in governance? 
• For digital economy growth: Affordable access to the internet and an encouraging regulatory system has 
made India the country with the second-largest internet users in the world and has powered its digital 
economy. 
• Better decision making: The rapid technological advances have led to large volumes of data being generated 
by various activities, thus, increasing the dependence of business on data-decision making. 
• Political accountability: Open government data can create political accountability, generate economic value, 
and improve the quality of federal initiatives. The possible benefits of Big Data analytics in government could 
range from transforming government programmes and empowering citizens to improving transparency and 
enabling the participation of all stakeholders. 
• Citizen empowerment: Since the launch of the Digital India Program, the country has witnessed tremendous 
growth in digital infrastructure and initiatives in innovating e-governance policies that can lead to digital 
empowerment of citizens.  
• Prevents leakage: Real time monitoring of Direct Benefit Transfer could reduce any potencial leakage. It would 
also lead to need based improvisation in the governance without any lag. 
• Efficient administration: Actively engaging policy makers and researchers with the processed data is crucial 
for making targeted and tailored programmes could improve the efficiency of programmes.  
Challenges 
• Collection of data: Collection of data is a paramount task for government as data is received from multiple 
online and offline channels. Sharing data between departments and across ministries is a challenge, given the 
jurisdictional boundaries that exist. 
o Moreover, there has been a lack of consistent dialogue and coordination between key stakeholders. 
• Political will for utilizing data in governance: Data driven policies would be more realist and may target long 
term benefits. This may go against popular will. Hence, strong political will is required to implement such 
policies. 
• Privacy concerns: While privacy of data is important for businesses and government, public trust in 
government is particularly important. Hence, any breach of confidentiality regarding data that is collected and 
processed by the government could have serious ramifications.  
o According to The Internet Crime Report for 2019, India stands third in the world among top 20 countries 
that are victims of internet crimes. 
• Funding & Innovations: While access to personal data has skyrocketed, funding targeted towards cross-
disciplinary research on data governance has remained limited. This has led to a dearth of original research 
that policymakers can draw upon when trying to make sound policy decisions on data governance in India. 
 
6                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Way ahead 
• Open Data Policy: Holistic decisions 
could be made if various government 
organizations share the pieces of data 
in their possession. Sharing and 
monitoring the collected data can help 
to make a democratic and cost effective 
governance process 
• Capacity building: Technological 
companies and start-ups, which can 
offer solutions in data analytics by 
managing massive, complex data, need 
to be encouraged.  
• Funding the innovations and research: 
A structured mechanism should be 
established for financial contribution of 
industries in the research field. Also 
government should put funding of 
research in priority list. 
• Legislative reforms: Data collected by 
various entities is processed and 
disseminated in various forms. During 
this process, it should be ensured that the information is not 
distorted; not disclosed; not appropriated; not stolen; and 
not intruded upon within specified rules and guidelines.  
o The proposed “Data Protection bill” and the report by 
Kris Gopalakrishnan committee may prove a milestone 
in this direction. 
o Also, data protection and privacy regulations and 
guidelines, as exemplified by the EU’s General Data 
Protection Regulation, is prerequisite. 
Conclusion  
Quality data, if analysed at the right time, can be critical for programmatic decision-making, efficient delivery of 
schemes, and proactive policy revision. Big Data can have a big impact only if used on a massive scale (with 
safeguards) by governments for the delivery of public goods and services. 
1.3. INTEGRITY PACT 
Why in new? 
Recently, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has amended the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) on 
adoption of “Integrity Pact” in government organisations for procurement activities and restricted the maximum 
tenure of Integrity External Monitors (IEMs) to three years in an organisation. 
More about news 
• Integrity Pact envisages a panel of Independent External Monitors (IEMs) approved for the organization.  
• IEM reviews independently and objectively, whether and to what extent parties have complied with their 
obligations under the Pact.  
Integrity pact 
• It is a vigilance tool that envisages an agreement between the prospective vendors/bidders and the buyer, 
committing both the parties not to exercise any corrupt influence on any aspect of the contract. 
• Its implementation is assured by Independent External Monitors (IEM) who are people of unimpeachable 
integrity.  
Utility of Data in governance in India 
• There are a few large data projects that seek to improve delivery 
of government services, boost private sector opportunities, all 
the while enhancing the state’s law enforcement and surveillance 
powers. 
• Various projects include: 
o Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI): UIDAI stores 
all biometric and demographic details of Aadhaar card holders.  
o National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): This came about in the 
wake of the 26/11 attacks as a unified intelligence database 
which would collect data and patterns, such as immigration 
entry and exit, etc. 
o Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS): It was launched 
with an aim to integrate all courts, police stations, 
prosecution, forensic science laboratories and jails in the 
country. 
o DNA Databanks: The DNA Technology (Use and Application) 
Regulation Bill of 2018 seeks to establish regional and national 
level databanks for both criminal and civil matters. 
o Big data: Big Data and associated analytics are beneficial in 
various areas, such as solving traffic problems in cities; 
targeting healthcare delivery; efficient supply chain 
management; preventive steps for environmental protection; 
etc. 
 
 
7                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• The IP sets out rights and obligations of the parties involved in public contracts as well as that of IEM. 
• Thus, IP is both a legal document and a process. It is also adaptable to many legal settings. 
• IP was developed by Transparency International in 1990s. 
• IP has three players  
o The Principal or the Company: The Principal gives an undertaking 
by the Principal that its officials will not demand or accept any 
bribes, kickbacks, gifts, facilitation payment etc. 
o The Vendor/bidder: The bidder gives an undertaking that it has not 
paid, and will neither offer nor pay any bribe, kickbacks facilitation 
payments, gifts etc. in order to obtain or retain the contract. 
o The Independent External Monitor (IEM): IEMs play a role only if 
the obligations in the IP are not fulfilled by the Principal and/or 
bidders/vendors.  
Advantages of IP 
• Faster processing of contracts 
• Improvement in the image and general perception of the company 
• Reduced lawsuits 
• Smoothens the procurement process, avoids litigation and arbitration and in addition the corporation which 
uses the Integrity Pact improves its profitability by 8%-10% 
Problems in implementation of IP 
• At times, tremendous duplication: An aggrieved party complains to the CVC and simultaneously takes it to 
the court also. CVC wants the IEM to investigate the matter and, at the same time, also suggests that someone 
from the Corporation conduct a technical examination. Thus, the same issue is debated in three different 
fora. This leads to a lot of wastage of time, energy and resources. 
• Difficulty in getting overseas suppliers to accept IP:  Foreign companies have doubts about IP and questions 
about its adoption. Hence, negotiations with them take 
time. 
• Double-edged sword: If IP is not signed, then the head of 
the company has to face questions from the company. On 
the other hand, if the foreign company does not sign it, then 
the company loses its vendor.  
• Disincentive for the government companies: It is an undue 
advantage to private companies. IP makes the government 
company open to complete disclosure while a private 
company is not accountable to anyone. 
• Concern regarding commercial confidentiality: PSUs feel 
that too much disclosure could make them lose their edge 
in the bidding process whereas vendors are of the opinion 
that PSUs do not disclose all the information required, as per 
provisions of the Right to Information (RTI) Act. 
• The IEMs are new to IP and do not have any experience how best to start their functions 
Way ahead  
• Avoid duplication in grievance redressal: When an aggrieved party that seeks redressal in one fora, other 
authorities should refrain from attending the same matter. Taking the case to IEM is better than going to 
court where it is a lengthy and costly affair. IEM’s process is a quick process giving the aggrieved the same 
opportunity that they seek in court. 
• Recalibrating the role of IEM: Despite IP being in place since 2007 many scams took place after 2008. This 
necessitates the need to relook and strengthen the role of IEM. 
o IEMs need to adopt a proactive strategy instead of waiting till a complaint has been received. 
o The government and civil society should manage IEMs effective selection process. 
o IEMs should mutually share their experiences about cases, circumstances etc. 
Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) 
• It was set up in 1964 on the 
recommendations of the Committee on 
Prevention of Corruption, to advise and 
guide Central Government agencies in the 
field of vigilance. 
• CVC is a statutory body for preventing 
corruption in the Central government. 
• CVC in 2008 recommended adoption of IP 
to all the Secretaries to the GoI, all CMDs of 
PSUs and PSB, and all CVOs, and provided 
basic guidelines for its implementation in 
respect of major procurements in the 
Government Organizations. 
Page 5


 
4                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1. POLITY AND CONSTITUTION 
1.1. ELECTIONS DURING COVID TIMES 
Why in News? 
Several countries, including India, have successfully conducted polls 
during COVID-19 with safety measures in place. 
COVID-19 and elections 
• One of the cascading effects of the COVID-19 pandemic has 
been its impact on conducting elections. Some countries have 
pushed ahead with elections.  
• Elections during COVID-19 presents certain challenges. 
However, postponing elections may not be the appropriate 
option as it has following risks: 
o Political risks: disturbing the level playing field and 
undermining the incumbent or opposition;  
o Reputational risks, for an organization that makes 
decisions, for trust in democratic processes and institutions  
o Financial risks: budgetary implications, e.g. money invested 
that cannot be recovered;  
o Operational risks: alternative dates are not feasible 
because of other risks, e.g. extension of term, other 
events;  
o Legal risks: the decision can be legally challenged. 
• Challenges faced in elections during COVID-19: 
o Campaigning: large rallies can spread the virus. 
Virtual campaigning through social and print media 
and radio will have to suffice. This will raise the cost 
of campaigning, exclude the poor and indigent, 
further favoring those with access to finance and 
technology. 
o Polling stations: These will be impacted as it becomes increasingly more difficult to find workers to man 
them and also need to provide protective gear and sanitizer at such a large scale. 
o Preparedness of electoral management bodies (EMBs): preparing for elections will be infinitely more 
difficult where movement and contact is constrained. Most EMBs will face increased administrative and 
logistical work necessary to hold elections during COVID-19. 
o Effect on turnout: Elections are characterised by high turnout and equal levels of participation across 
different groups in a society. Holding an election during a pandemic could undermine this aspect by 
reducing turnout. 
o Impediments on Transparency: Conventionally, elections are monitored by domestic and international 
observer groups to ensure the processes are lawful and meet the requirements for an election conducted 
with integrity. For COVID-19 elections, the situation could be different.  
Measures for conducting elections during COVID-19 
• Political consensus in sustaining decisions made on the electoral calendar and procedures to avoid political 
friction and not undermining the legitimacy of the electoral result. 
• Special Voting Arrangements and enabling various modalities to cast the vote. Voters should be offered voting 
methods that minimise direct contact with other people and reduce crowd size at polling stations. 
• Adopt measures that reduce the risks of contagion, which range from the availability of masks and other 
protective materials, to the opening of more voting centers and the extension of the voting period. 
• Voter education should reach all genders. It is important to understand how women access information during 
the pandemic and target voter education to ensure they have equal access to that information. 
Key measures announced by Election 
Commission for Bihar elections 
• COVID-19 patients were also allowed 
to take part in the democratic exercise 
by extending voting time by one hour. 
• Number of voters per booth was 
restricted (to 1000 persons) so that 
social distancing norms are followed. 
• Postal ballot facility was provided 
wherever required and requested. 
• Nomination forms were made 
available online, apart from offline. 
• There were restrictions on door-to-
door campaigning. The ECI said only 
five, including the candidate, will be 
allowed for door-to-door campaign. 
Best Practices on elections during COVID-19 
• New Zealand: Alternative voting arrangements 
being considered are extending the online 
service for voting; extending the telephone 
dictation voting service; offering proxy voting 
and postal voting and expanding the use of 
mobile ballot boxes. 
• South Korea: special polling stations for COVID 
patients, postal voting and early voting, 
political agreements on electoral calendar and 
procedures etc. 
 
5                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
1.2. DATA GOVERNANCE QUALITY INDEX 
Why in news? 
Department of Fertilizers under the Ministry of Chemicals and Fertilizers has been ranked 2nd amongst the 16 
Economic Ministries / Departments and 3rd out of the 65 Ministries / Departments on Data Governance Quality 
Index (DGQI).  
About DGQI 
• DGQI survey assesses different Ministries /Departments' performance on the implementation of Central 
Sector Schemes (CS) and Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS). 
• It is conducted by Development Monitoring and Evaluation Office (DMEO) under NITI Aayog. 
• Its objective is to assess data preparedness of Ministries / Departments on a standardized framework to drive 
healthy competition among them and promote cooperative peer learning from best practices. 
o It will immensely help improve the implementation framework of government policies, schemes and 
programmes to achieve the desired goals. 
• Major themes of DGQI include Data Generation; Data Quality; Use of Technology; Data Analysis, Use and 
Dissemination; Data Security and HR Capacity & Case Studies. 
What is the role of data in governance? 
• For digital economy growth: Affordable access to the internet and an encouraging regulatory system has 
made India the country with the second-largest internet users in the world and has powered its digital 
economy. 
• Better decision making: The rapid technological advances have led to large volumes of data being generated 
by various activities, thus, increasing the dependence of business on data-decision making. 
• Political accountability: Open government data can create political accountability, generate economic value, 
and improve the quality of federal initiatives. The possible benefits of Big Data analytics in government could 
range from transforming government programmes and empowering citizens to improving transparency and 
enabling the participation of all stakeholders. 
• Citizen empowerment: Since the launch of the Digital India Program, the country has witnessed tremendous 
growth in digital infrastructure and initiatives in innovating e-governance policies that can lead to digital 
empowerment of citizens.  
• Prevents leakage: Real time monitoring of Direct Benefit Transfer could reduce any potencial leakage. It would 
also lead to need based improvisation in the governance without any lag. 
• Efficient administration: Actively engaging policy makers and researchers with the processed data is crucial 
for making targeted and tailored programmes could improve the efficiency of programmes.  
Challenges 
• Collection of data: Collection of data is a paramount task for government as data is received from multiple 
online and offline channels. Sharing data between departments and across ministries is a challenge, given the 
jurisdictional boundaries that exist. 
o Moreover, there has been a lack of consistent dialogue and coordination between key stakeholders. 
• Political will for utilizing data in governance: Data driven policies would be more realist and may target long 
term benefits. This may go against popular will. Hence, strong political will is required to implement such 
policies. 
• Privacy concerns: While privacy of data is important for businesses and government, public trust in 
government is particularly important. Hence, any breach of confidentiality regarding data that is collected and 
processed by the government could have serious ramifications.  
o According to The Internet Crime Report for 2019, India stands third in the world among top 20 countries 
that are victims of internet crimes. 
• Funding & Innovations: While access to personal data has skyrocketed, funding targeted towards cross-
disciplinary research on data governance has remained limited. This has led to a dearth of original research 
that policymakers can draw upon when trying to make sound policy decisions on data governance in India. 
 
6                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
Way ahead 
• Open Data Policy: Holistic decisions 
could be made if various government 
organizations share the pieces of data 
in their possession. Sharing and 
monitoring the collected data can help 
to make a democratic and cost effective 
governance process 
• Capacity building: Technological 
companies and start-ups, which can 
offer solutions in data analytics by 
managing massive, complex data, need 
to be encouraged.  
• Funding the innovations and research: 
A structured mechanism should be 
established for financial contribution of 
industries in the research field. Also 
government should put funding of 
research in priority list. 
• Legislative reforms: Data collected by 
various entities is processed and 
disseminated in various forms. During 
this process, it should be ensured that the information is not 
distorted; not disclosed; not appropriated; not stolen; and 
not intruded upon within specified rules and guidelines.  
o The proposed “Data Protection bill” and the report by 
Kris Gopalakrishnan committee may prove a milestone 
in this direction. 
o Also, data protection and privacy regulations and 
guidelines, as exemplified by the EU’s General Data 
Protection Regulation, is prerequisite. 
Conclusion  
Quality data, if analysed at the right time, can be critical for programmatic decision-making, efficient delivery of 
schemes, and proactive policy revision. Big Data can have a big impact only if used on a massive scale (with 
safeguards) by governments for the delivery of public goods and services. 
1.3. INTEGRITY PACT 
Why in new? 
Recently, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) has amended the Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) on 
adoption of “Integrity Pact” in government organisations for procurement activities and restricted the maximum 
tenure of Integrity External Monitors (IEMs) to three years in an organisation. 
More about news 
• Integrity Pact envisages a panel of Independent External Monitors (IEMs) approved for the organization.  
• IEM reviews independently and objectively, whether and to what extent parties have complied with their 
obligations under the Pact.  
Integrity pact 
• It is a vigilance tool that envisages an agreement between the prospective vendors/bidders and the buyer, 
committing both the parties not to exercise any corrupt influence on any aspect of the contract. 
• Its implementation is assured by Independent External Monitors (IEM) who are people of unimpeachable 
integrity.  
Utility of Data in governance in India 
• There are a few large data projects that seek to improve delivery 
of government services, boost private sector opportunities, all 
the while enhancing the state’s law enforcement and surveillance 
powers. 
• Various projects include: 
o Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI): UIDAI stores 
all biometric and demographic details of Aadhaar card holders.  
o National Intelligence Grid (NATGRID): This came about in the 
wake of the 26/11 attacks as a unified intelligence database 
which would collect data and patterns, such as immigration 
entry and exit, etc. 
o Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS): It was launched 
with an aim to integrate all courts, police stations, 
prosecution, forensic science laboratories and jails in the 
country. 
o DNA Databanks: The DNA Technology (Use and Application) 
Regulation Bill of 2018 seeks to establish regional and national 
level databanks for both criminal and civil matters. 
o Big data: Big Data and associated analytics are beneficial in 
various areas, such as solving traffic problems in cities; 
targeting healthcare delivery; efficient supply chain 
management; preventive steps for environmental protection; 
etc. 
 
 
7                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
• The IP sets out rights and obligations of the parties involved in public contracts as well as that of IEM. 
• Thus, IP is both a legal document and a process. It is also adaptable to many legal settings. 
• IP was developed by Transparency International in 1990s. 
• IP has three players  
o The Principal or the Company: The Principal gives an undertaking 
by the Principal that its officials will not demand or accept any 
bribes, kickbacks, gifts, facilitation payment etc. 
o The Vendor/bidder: The bidder gives an undertaking that it has not 
paid, and will neither offer nor pay any bribe, kickbacks facilitation 
payments, gifts etc. in order to obtain or retain the contract. 
o The Independent External Monitor (IEM): IEMs play a role only if 
the obligations in the IP are not fulfilled by the Principal and/or 
bidders/vendors.  
Advantages of IP 
• Faster processing of contracts 
• Improvement in the image and general perception of the company 
• Reduced lawsuits 
• Smoothens the procurement process, avoids litigation and arbitration and in addition the corporation which 
uses the Integrity Pact improves its profitability by 8%-10% 
Problems in implementation of IP 
• At times, tremendous duplication: An aggrieved party complains to the CVC and simultaneously takes it to 
the court also. CVC wants the IEM to investigate the matter and, at the same time, also suggests that someone 
from the Corporation conduct a technical examination. Thus, the same issue is debated in three different 
fora. This leads to a lot of wastage of time, energy and resources. 
• Difficulty in getting overseas suppliers to accept IP:  Foreign companies have doubts about IP and questions 
about its adoption. Hence, negotiations with them take 
time. 
• Double-edged sword: If IP is not signed, then the head of 
the company has to face questions from the company. On 
the other hand, if the foreign company does not sign it, then 
the company loses its vendor.  
• Disincentive for the government companies: It is an undue 
advantage to private companies. IP makes the government 
company open to complete disclosure while a private 
company is not accountable to anyone. 
• Concern regarding commercial confidentiality: PSUs feel 
that too much disclosure could make them lose their edge 
in the bidding process whereas vendors are of the opinion 
that PSUs do not disclose all the information required, as per 
provisions of the Right to Information (RTI) Act. 
• The IEMs are new to IP and do not have any experience how best to start their functions 
Way ahead  
• Avoid duplication in grievance redressal: When an aggrieved party that seeks redressal in one fora, other 
authorities should refrain from attending the same matter. Taking the case to IEM is better than going to 
court where it is a lengthy and costly affair. IEM’s process is a quick process giving the aggrieved the same 
opportunity that they seek in court. 
• Recalibrating the role of IEM: Despite IP being in place since 2007 many scams took place after 2008. This 
necessitates the need to relook and strengthen the role of IEM. 
o IEMs need to adopt a proactive strategy instead of waiting till a complaint has been received. 
o The government and civil society should manage IEMs effective selection process. 
o IEMs should mutually share their experiences about cases, circumstances etc. 
Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) 
• It was set up in 1964 on the 
recommendations of the Committee on 
Prevention of Corruption, to advise and 
guide Central Government agencies in the 
field of vigilance. 
• CVC is a statutory body for preventing 
corruption in the Central government. 
• CVC in 2008 recommended adoption of IP 
to all the Secretaries to the GoI, all CMDs of 
PSUs and PSB, and all CVOs, and provided 
basic guidelines for its implementation in 
respect of major procurements in the 
Government Organizations. 
 
8                                                                               www.visionias.in                                                                        ©Vision IAS  
o Many a times, the IEMs are located in different cities. To avoid delay, PSU’s should go for 
teleconferencing.  
o IEMs should not only be monitoring the tenders and bids, but also monitor the execution of the works. 
o There should be a procedure for removal of IEMs lacking ethical competence. 
o Time limit for addressing the grievances: The complaints filed with the CVC should be addressed within 
3 months 
o Universalisation of the IP:  All public and private enterprises should adopt IP.  This would ensure a level-
playing field to check unfair advantage to private companies. 
o Develop Ethical Competence: Need to educate the people about values and morals. 
Conclusion 
India is considered to be one of the most corrupt countries in the world. India has been ranked at the 80th position 
among 180 countries and territories in the Corruption Perception Index (CPI), 2020. A revitalized Integrity Pact 
could prove milestone in ensuring people do not lose their rights due to corruption that appears to be 
institutionalised in almost every organization in India. 
1.5. NATIONAL PROGRAM AND PROJECT MANAGEMENT POLICY 
FRAMEWORK 
Why in News? 
Recently, NITI Aayog and Quality Council of India 
(QCI) launched National Program and Project 
Management Policy Framework (NPMPF). 
About NPMPF 
• It provides an action plan to: 
o Adopt a program and project 
management approach to infra 
development. 
o Institutionalize and promote the 
profession of program and project 
management and build a workforce of 
such professionals. 
o Enhance institutional capacity and capability of professionals 
• It envisages radical reforms in the way infrastructure projects are executed in India. 
• It will help in developing good quality infrastructure, robust governance and reducing costs and waste 
material, without compromising on the environment and ecology. 
Why needed? 
• Poor project management costs the Government: Crowds out funding for more deserving projects, creates a 
culture of acceptance of delays and avoidable costs, economic burden due to delayed return in investments. 
• Effective response to changing project requirements: It will bring in synergies, integration and a common 
language to complex program initiatives like Sagarmala, Bharatmala, Smart Cities Mission etc. 
o It is estimated that approx. 304 lakh crore of investment is required in Indian infrastructure sector till 2040. 
• To minimize time and cost overrun due to some key challenges faced during project delivery including 
uncertainties in the land acquisition process and regulatory approvals, lack of comprehensive upfront planning 
and risk management etc. 
• It will provide coherent execution approach that forms a crucial link between the portfolios of projects and 
their component strategic disciplines to ensure smooth execution of the projects. 
1.6. FOREIGN CONTRIBUTION (REGULATION) AMENDMENT ACT, 2020 
Why in news? 
The Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2020 was passed by parliament.  
Program and Project Management 
• It integrates the individual elements of a project in order to 
achieve a common objective.  
• It is cross-functional in its approach, managing across 
various disciplines of constituent projects such as 
engineering, designing, planning, procurement, construction 
and finance as well as various components like power, water, 
highways, waste management etc. 
• Program Management is strategic in nature, while project 
management is tactical in nature.  
o Program Management focuses on achievement of 
intended objectives through coordination of multiple 
projects. Project management focuses on tactics of 
planning and execution of work output. 
•  
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Polity & Constitution: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

video lectures

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

practice quizzes

,

Semester Notes

,

Polity & Constitution: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

Polity & Constitution: October 2020 Current Affairs Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

Extra Questions

,

past year papers

,

pdf

,

Exam

,

study material

,

MCQs

,

Sample Paper

,

mock tests for examination

,

Viva Questions

,

Summary

,

Important questions

,

ppt

,

Objective type Questions

,

Free

;