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In 1830, the total population of the world was 1 billion but it was doubled by 1930. By 1960, again population of the world increased by 1 billion. Population of the world is rapidly increasing. The time span for increasing total population by 1 billion is rapidly becoming shorter and shorter. Next addition of 1 billion in total population was made within more shorter period of time. i.e., 1960-75. Again in 1987, our world population touched the height of 5 billion which took only 12 years.  In the middle of 1996, the total population of the world touched a near height of 7.77 billion. It is estimated that it will touch the levels of   8 billion by   2022 A.D. respectively. 

Population Policy 2000
 The National Population Policy 2000 provides a policy framework for advancing goals and prioritizing strategies during the next decade to meet the reproductive and child health needs of the people of India. This new policy states that the objective of economic & social development is to improve the quality of lives people lead to enhance their well being and to provide them with opportunities and choices to become productive assets in society. 
 The immediate objective of this new policy is to address the unmeant needs of contraception, health infrastructure, health personnel and to provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive and child health care.

  • The medium term objective is to bring the total fertility rates to replacement level by 2010.
  • The long term objective is to achieve a stable population by 2045.
  •  In pursuance of these objectives, 14 National Socio-Demographic goals are formulated to be achieved by 2010. The important goals of this category are—
     (i) Making School education compulsory and to reduce dropouts.
     (ii) Reduce infant mortality rate to 30 per 1000 live births. 
     (iii) Reduce maternal mortality rate to below 100 per 100000 live births. 
     (iv) Promote delayed marriage of girls.
     (v) Achieve 80% institutional deliveries.
     (vi) Prevent & Control Communicable diseases.
     (vii) Promote vigorously the small family norm to achieve replacement levels of TFR.

     The policy speaks about the formation of a National Commission on Population under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister to monitor & implement population policy and to guide planning implementations. 

     Policy also suggests some promotional & motivational measures to promote adoption of the small family norm. The important are—
     (i) Reward Panchayat & Zila Parishads for promoting small family norm.
     (ii) Incentives to adopt two child norms.
     (iii) Couples below poverty line, having sterilisation with not more than two living children will be eligible for health insurance plan. 
     (iv) Strengthening abortion facility scheme. 


Basic components of change in population
 Population never remains stable. It changes with time. The change in population depends on these components:—
 (i) birth-rate, (ii) death-rate, (iii) migration.

  •  A high birth-rate results in an increase in population, while high death-rate shows a declining population. The difference between birth rate and death rate is called natural growth. When birth-rate is more than death-rate, it is called positive natural growth. Population declines due to out-migration or emigration of people to foreign countries. Population increases due to in-migration and immigration of people from foreign countries.


Demographic Transition Theory. Why are the years 1921 and 1951 most significant in the history of population growth in India?
 Demographic transition theory describes the stages of population growth in the world.

The theory presents three stages in the growth of population.
 Stage I—Both the birth rate and death rate are high. It results in a nominal growth in population. Ex. Under- Developed countries.
 Stage II—The death rate shows a decline. But the birth rate remains relatively high. It results in an accelerated growth of population. Ex. Developing countries like India.
 Stage III—Low birth rate and low death rate resulting in slow growth of population. Ex. UK, Japan, USA etc.

  • Demographic Transition Stages in India
  •  Till the year 1921, the population of India remained more or less stable. During the year 1901-1921, there was an increase in population by only 13 millions (at the rate of 3% per decade). This was due to a large death toll because of great influenza (1911-21), First World War (1914), epidemics (1918) and droughts (1920). After 1921, the population began to rise at a slow but definite rate. Thus the year 1921, is known as a great divide in our demographic history.
  •  Till 1951, there has been a steady growth of population. After 1951, the population rose at a rapid rate. Thus, the first stage of population growth was over by the year 1951.
  •  At present India is in the Second Stage of demographic transition which is population explosion stage.

Causes and consequences of population growth in India 

  •  Causes of population growth
  • Social Causes (i) Universal marriage among women.
     (ii) Nearly universal of motherhood among married women.
     (iii) Early marriage.
     (iv) NRR is greater than one.
     (v) Lack of female literacy.
     (vi) Existence of super station and rigidity and religions like Islam preventing adoption of birth control techniques.

     
  •  Economic Causes
     (i) Children are considered as an asset by the down-trodden.
     (ii) People wanting more children.
     (iii) Lack of proper family planning.
     (iv) High birth rate and low death rate places India in the second stage of Demographic Transition Theory.


     The major economic consequences are :
  • Subdivision and fragmentation of holding.
  •  Per capita income has shown a very nominal increase despite rise in national income.
  •  Rising population reduces investment levels by raising current consumption.
  • Large scale unemployment.
  • Reduces saving rate and discourages capital formation. 
  • Pollution due to excessive population.
  • Over burdened urban infrastructure.

Family planning programme in India 
 India was the first country in Asia to adopt a comprehensive family planning programme in 1952. The government policy gives emphasis to reducing the birth rates. The policy aims at involving maximum number of the target population.

  • The family planning programme in India is voluntary in nature and comprehensive in coverage. It is to be achieved through persuasion and related with health of the family. The red triangle is to be supplemented with the red cross.

     
  •  The methods of reducing birth rate—
  • One method is the cafeteria approach which includes the loop, sterilisation, condom, pill and other contraceptives at random.
  •  Other approach—it includes literacy, raising the age of marriage, employment of women etc.
  •  The family welfare programmes are implemented through state governments with cent per cent central assistance. In rural areas it is being further extended through a network of primary health centres and sub centres.

     
  • Performance
  •  Existence of infrastructure to carry out further family welfare programmes.
  • Increased awareness among the people towards birth control measures.
  • Birth rate & death rate down remarkably.
     
  •  Cause of weak performance
  •  Public enthusiasm is limited and community participation is minimum.
  •  Inadequate speed of infrastructural facilities.
  •  Under-utilisation of existing facilities.
  •  Lack of demographic research congenial to Indian conditions.

The spatial distribution of population in India is highly uneven.
 The distribution of population in India is very unequal. According to distribution of population density three areas are as follow:

  • Densely populated areas. These areas have a density of more than 300 persons per sq. kilometre. The high density areas make a girdle round the Deccan plateau. Right from Sutlej-Beas plain to Brahmaputra valley, the density of population is very high.
  • West Coastal Plain. Kerala has a density of 747 persons per sq. km.
  • The Northern Plain. It includes West Bengal (, Bihar , Uttar Pradesh .

Factors favouring high density--
 (i)   Sufficient rainfall.
 (ii) Fertile river valley and deltas.
 (iii) 2 to 3 crops of rice in a year.
 (iv) Irrigation facilities.
 (v) Healthy climate.
 (vi) Rich in mineral and power resources.

  •  Moderately populated areas. These include the areas with a density between 150 to 300 persons per sq. kilometre. These areas are surrounded by Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Haryana, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Orissa, Assam have a moderate density.
     
  •  Factors for moderate density—
     (i) Agriculture is not developed due to thin and rocky soils.
     (ii) Rainfall is uncertain.
     (iii) Means of transportation are not developed.
     (iv) Some areas have high density of population due to irrigation, lava soils and mineral resources.

     
  •  Sparsely populated areas. These areas have a density less than 150 persons per sq. kilometre.
  •  North Eastern India. This region includes Meghalaya, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim and Arunachal.
  •  Rajasthan Desert. Rajasthan has a density of 103 persons per sq. kilometre.
  • Western Himalayas. It includes Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh.
     
  •  Factors for low density—
     (i) The hilly nature of the land.
     (ii) Dense forests.
     (iii) Low rainfall.
     (iv) Poor economic development.
     (v) Absence of minerals.
     (vi) Lack of irrigation and agriculture.
     (vii) Cold climate.

Homosapiens
 The earliest man on the earth is known as Homosapiens. It is believed that early man emerged on the earth 4-5 lakh years ago. The indigenous man who first emerged in any part of the earth is called Homosapiens. It is believed that early man did not emerge in India.

Which racial group constitutes the bulk of the population in our country?
 Six types of racial groups came to India during different periods. The bulk of the present population of India consists of the Palaeo-Mediterranean racial group. These are mostly found in the Southern India. They are believed to be the bearers of the earliest form of Hindustan into India.
 What do you understand by Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Areas.
 “Scheduled Tribes” are specified by Presidential Orders for constitutional protection. “Scheduled Areas” within states (other than Assam and north-east) have special administrative provisions because of backwardness of the people.


Answer of Part XV (a)Natural growth and Population growth.
 Natural growth

  •  Natural growth is the difference between birth-rate and death-rate per 1000 persons.
  •  The natural growth is expressed as percentages.
  •  The natural growth is related to the stage of economic development and the standard of public health.

Population growth

  • Population growth is the increase in population due to natural growth and immigration.
  • The growth of population is the difference between total population over a certain period.
  • The growth of population is affected by economic development and immigration.

Productive population and Dependent population

  • Persons engaged in some useful productive occupations constitute productive population.
  • These persons are also called working population.
  • Generally the persons between 15 to 60 years age group belong to it.

Dependent population

  • Persons who no longer contribute directly to an economic activity constitute dependent population.
  • These persons are also called non-workers.
  • Generally persons above 60 years and children below 15 years belong to this group.

 Birth rate and Growth rate

 Birth rate

  •   The number of live births per thousand persons during a certain period of time is called birth-rate.
  •    It is calculated for every 1000 persons for a year.
  •    A high birth-rate shows an increasing population

Growth rate

  •  It is the difference between the birth-rate and death rate per 1000 persons.
  •  The growth rate of population is expressed as percentage during a certain period of time.
  •  Birth rate is more than death-rate, it shows a positive growth rate.l 

    Arithmetic density and Physiological density
     Arithmetic density
  •  This is a measure to express the number of people per unit area.
  •  The arithmetic density of India is 267 persons/km2.
  •  It explains the narration in distribution of population.l   

Physiological density

  •  It is a measure to express the ratio of total population to cultivated area.
  • The physiological density of India is 435 persons/Km2.
  • ws the number of persons dependent on cultivated land.l    It sho

Main characteristics of the work force in India

  •  Working population gives an idea of the labour force of India. The population of a country can be divided into two parts—
  • persons in the age group of 15-60 years are engaged in economic activities.l Workers. 
  • rs. Non-workers are persons who are dependent on workers. These include retired persons above 60 years, infants and students below 15 years, women doing only household duties, lunatics and criminals.l Non-worke
  • Thus 67% of our population is dependent on 33% working population. The production of working females is only 12% against 52.5% of males. 

This high dependency ratio has affected in many ways:— 

  • The per capita production remains low.
  • Due to large consumption by a high percentage of dependent people, savings go down.
  • The formation of national capital is slow.
  • The number of educated unemployed is increasing.
  • The number of uneducated unemployed in the children group is increasing.
  •  Light jobs which can be done by old people, are being done by young workers due to growing unemployment.

Why are towns constantly growing both in population and in area? What are major problems caused by urban growth?
 Size of towns is expanding at a fast rate. More and more people are settling in urban centres due to many facilities.

  •  In towns, industries, trade and other activities provide ample opportunities of employment. Landless labourers are migrating towards towns.
  •  In urbans towns, the facilities of education and medical aid are attracting people towards towns.
  • Pressure of population on land is increasing in agricultural areas. Landless labourers work in towns.
  • Towns have facilities of recreation, transport and people have high standard of living.
     
  •  Problems: But urban towns have their own problems—
  •  There is a problem of sanitation and drainage.
  •  Land values are high due to dense population.
  •  Overcrowding results in congestion of traffic and accidents.
  •  There is pollution of air and water due to smoke and chemical solution from factories.
  •  Due to housing problems, rents are high.
  •  Mental tension is high due to problems created in urban towns.

Spatial Distribution of Tribal Population
 Tribal Population is unevenly distributed in India. This distribution is controlled by different geographical factors.

  • Hilly areas. Most of tribes prefer to live in hilly areas.
  • Forested areas. Tribal population is concentrated in forests.
  • Inaccessible areas. Tribes live in inaccessible areas which are not disturbed by outside influence.
  • Protected areas. Tribal population is concentrated in isolated, protected, hilly pockets where these people can protect their culture in the lap of natural environment
    .
  • Areas of High Density. The percentage of tribal population to population is 80% in Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh. This is due to—
     (a) Hilly areas (b) Dense forests (c) Land unsuitable for Agriculture (iv) Isolated areas.

     
  •  Areas of Medium Density. In these areas the density of tribal population is 20 and 80 per cent. It India. 
  • Areas of Low Density. In these areas the percentage of tribal population is below 20%. These low lands are suited for Agriculture. So the tribal population is very low. It includes Punjab, Haryana, U.P., Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh.q


What are the aims of tribal development plan in India?
 The main aims of tribal development 
 are to improve their economic and social conditions without damaging their cultures, traditions, art forms and modes of expression. The schemes are based on a two-level planning. (1) Tribal sub-plan (T.S.P.) and (2) Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP). Middle men and money-lenders who hold the tribals in their clutches are sought to be eliminated by establishing cooperative societies, marketing facilities, etc., and tribals encouraged to 
 develop cottage industries, agriculture, etc., to wean them away from food gathering and shifting 
 cultivation.

State boundaries do not always correspond with the linguistic boundaries
 In free India, the distribution of major languages formed a satisfactory basis for the re-organisation of states. It gave a new political meaning to the geographical regions. A linguistic region is a well defined geographical unit. There is a broad uniformity in each linguistic regions. It forms the basis of development of a specific social group of people living therein. The distribution of major languages fits into the scheme of linguistic and political regions. The twelve languages form the basis of the different states of regions such as:
     Language            State
 (1)    Kashmiri         Jammu and Kashmir
 (2)    Punjabi           Punjab
 (3)    Hindi              U.P.
 (4)    Bengali          W. Bengal
 (5)    Assamese      Assam
 (6)    Oriya             Orissa
 (7)    Gujarati         Gujarat
 (8)    Marathi          Maharashtra
 (9)    Kannada        Karnataka
 (10)   Telugu           Andhra Pradesh
 (11)   Tamil             Tamilnadu
 (12)   Malayalam     Kerala

 The boundaries of these states have formed basis for linguistic regions. But the state boundaries do not always correspond with the linguistic boundaries. It is simply a transitional zone. One language changes gradually and gives way to the other. Some states are bilinguistic (Formed on the basis of two languages). So state boundaries do not always follow linguistic boundaries.

Why are the scheduled caste people mainly concentrated in the alluvial and coastal plains of the country?
 The spatial distribution of scheduled castes show that they are concentrated in alluvial plains and coastal plains of India. Scheduled castes number about 4 crores in Northern plain in the different states. Along the west coast and east coast, about 2 crore scheduled castes live in different states. This is due to many factors:—

  • Due to intensive agriculture, a high number of agricultural labourers is required. About 90% of the scheduled castes do agricultural jobs.
  • The plains offer rich resources of soil, good water supply, and suitable climate favourable for Agriculture. Scheduled castes provide a strong base for this Agriculture.
  • These regions are economically developed also. Some scheduled caste work in leather tanning and shoe making industries.   
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