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# Postulates of Quantum Mechanics IIT JAM Notes | EduRev

## IIT JAM : Postulates of Quantum Mechanics IIT JAM Notes | EduRev

The document Postulates of Quantum Mechanics IIT JAM Notes | EduRev is a part of the IIT JAM Course Modern Physics.
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Introduction

• The quantum mechanical postulates enable us to understand.
• How a quantum state is described mathematically at a given time t.
• How to calculate the various physical quantities from this quantum state.
• Knowing the system’s state at a time t , how to find the state at any later time t .
i.e., how to describe the time evolution of a system.

There are following set of postulates:
Postulate 1: The state of any physical system is specified, at each time t , by a state vector |ψ(t)〉 in the Hilbert space. |ψ(t)〉 contains all the needed information about the system. Any superposition of state vectors  is also a state vector.
Postulate 2: To every measurable quantity A to be called as an observable or dynamical variable, there corresponds a linear Hermitian operator Aˆ whose eigen vectors form a complete basis  A|ϕn〉 = ann
Postulate 3: The measurement of an observable A may be represented formally by an action of Â on a state vector |ψ(t)〉.
The state of the system immediately after the measurement is the normalized projection on to the eigen subspace associated with an.
Postulate 4 (a): When the physical quantity A is measured on a system in the state |ψ〉, the probability P(an) of obtaining the non-degenerate eigen value an of the corresponding observable Postulate 4 (b): When the physical quantity A is measured on a system in the state |ψ〉.
The probability P(an) of obtaining the eigen value an of the corresponding observable A is, Where gn is the degree of degeneracy of an and (i = 1, 2, 3, &, gn) is orthonormal set of vector which forms a basis in the eigen subspace and associated with eigenvalue an of A.
Postulate 5: The time evolution of the state vector |ψ(t)〉 is governed by schrodinger equation given by: where H is Hamiltonion of the system.
The solution of schodinger equation must be
(a) Single valued and  the value must be finite
(b) Continuous
(c) Differentiable
(d) Square integrable.

Expectation Value

The expectation value of operator A is given

•  For continuous variable-

• • Error in measurement of A is Fourier transformation

Change in basis from one representation to another representation |p〉 is defined as, The expansion of Ψ(x) in terms of |p〉 can be written as, where a (p) can be found as, In 3D: where a(p) being expansion coefficient of |p〉.
If any function Ψ(x) can be expressed as a linear combination of state function ϕn which is popularly derived from fourier trick.

Parity operator: The parity operator  defined by its action on the basis. If ψ(-r) = ψ(r), then state has even parity and
If ψ(-r) = -ψ(r) , then state has odd parity.
So, parity operator have +1 and -1 eigen value.
Representation of postulate (4) in continuous basis.

Example 14: A state function is given by It is given that  〈ϕi | ϕj〉, δij , then
(a) check whether  is normalized or not
(b) write down normalized wavefunction.
(c) it is given H |ϕn〉 = (n + 1)ℏω| ϕn〉 where n = 0,1, 2, 3, 4, .... .If H is measured on |ψ〉, then what will be measurement and with what probability?
(d) Find the expectation value of H i.e., 〈H〉
(e) Find the error in the measurement of H.

(a) To check normalization, one should verify-   The value of 〈ψ|ψ〉 = 3/2 , so |ψ〉 is not normalized.
(b) Now we need to find normalized |ψ〉 let A be normalization constant. So, (c) It is given that
H|ϕn〉 = (n + 1) ℏω, where n = 0,1, 2, 3, 4, ....
H |ϕ1〉 2ℏω and H |ϕ2〉 = 3ℏω
when H will be measured on |ψ〉, it will measured either 2ℏω or 3ℏω
The probability of measurement 2ℏω is P(2ℏω) is given by So, when H is measured on state |ψ〉, the following outcome will come:
Measurement of H on state : |ϕ1〉 |ϕ2
Measurement  : 2ℏω 3ℏω
Probability  : 2/3  1/3   (e) The error in measurement in H is given as Example 15: The wave function of a particle is given by where ϕ0 and ϕ1 are the normalised eigenfunctions with energy E0 and E1 corresponding  to ground state and first excited state.
(a) Find the value of B such that Ψ is normalised.
(b) What are the measurements
(c) What is the probability of getting energy E1
(d) What is 〈E〉 For normalized |ψ〉,  (b) Measurement are E0 ,E1
(c) Probability of getting  Example 16: (a) Plot ΨI (x) = A1e-|x| ; -∞ < x < ∞
(b) (c) Discuss why ψI is not the solution of Schrödinger wave function rather ψII is solution of Schrödinger wave function.

(a) ψI (x) = A1e+x ; x < 0
ψII (x) = A1e-x ; x > 0
The plot is given by (b)  (c) Both the function ψI and ψII are single valued, continuous, square integrable but ψI is not differentiable at x = 0 , rather ψII is differentiable at x = 0
So, ψII can be solution of Schrödinger wave function but ψI is not the solution of Schrödinger wave function.

Example 17: At time t = 0 , the state vector |ψ(0)〉 is given as, It is given that, Hamiltonian is defined as H |ϕn〉 = n20n
(a) What is wave function |ψ(t)〉 at later time t.
(b) Write down expression of evolution of |ψ(x, t)|2
(c) Find Δ H
(d) Find the value of Δ HΔt  (b) Evolution of shape of the wave packet (c)  Δ H = (〈H2〉 - 〈H〉2)1/2  (d)  Example 18: Consider a one-dimensional particle which is confined within the region 0 ≤ x ≤ a and whose wave function is Find the potential V(x).

From the fifth postulate:   Example 19: Eigenvalues of operator A are 0, 2a0 , 2a0 and corresponding normalized eigen vector are respectively,  then if the system is in state then
(a) When A is measured on system in state then what is the probability of getting value 0, 2a0, respectively?
(b) What is the expectation value of A ? λ2 = λ3 = 2a0 i.e., λ = 2a0 is doubly degenerate.    Example 20: A free particle which is initially localized in the range -a < x < a is released at time t = 0. (a) Find A such that ψ (x) is normalized.
(b) Find ϕ(x) i.e., wave function in momentum space.
(c) Find ψ (x, t) i.e., wave function after time t.  Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

## Modern Physics

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