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Density and Crowding
You should spend about 20 minutes on question 1-13, which are based on reading passage 1 on the following pages.
(A) Of the great myriad of problems which man and the world face today, there are three significant fiends which stand above all others in importance: the uprecedented population growth throughout the world a net increase of 1,400,000 people per week and all of its associations and consequences; the increasing urbanization of these people, so that more and more of them are rushing into cities and urban areas of the world; and the tremendous explosion of communication and social contact throughout the world, so that every part of the world is now aware of every other part. All of these fiends are producing increased crowding and the perception of crowding.
(B) It is important to emphasize at the outset that crowding and density are not necessarily the same. Density is the number of individuals per unit area or unit space. It is a simple physical measurement. Crowding is a product of density, communication, contact, and activity. It implies a pressure, a force, and a psychological reaction. It may occur at widely different densities. The frontiersman may have felt crowded when someone built a homestead a mile away. The suburbanite may feel relatively uncrowded in a small house on a half-acre lot if it is surrounded by trees, bushes, and a hedgerow, even though he lives under much higher physical density than did the frontiersman. Hence, crowding is very much a psychological and ecological phenomenon, and not just a physical condition.
(C) A classic crowding study was done by Calhoun (1962), who put rats into a physical environment designed to accommodate 50 rats and provided enough food, water, and nesting materials for the number of rats in the environment. The rat population peaked at 80, providing a look at ramped living conditions. Although the rats experienced no resource limitations other than space restriction, a number of negative conditions developed: the two most dominant males took harems of several female rats and occupied more than their share of space, leaving other rats even more crowded; many females stopped building nests and abandoned their infant rats; the pregnancy rate declined; infant and adult mortality rates increased; more aggressive and physical attacks occurred; sexual variation increased, including hypersexuality, inhibited sexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality.
(D) Calhoun's results have led to other research on crowding's effects on human beings, and these research findings have suggested that high density is not the single cause of negative effects on humans. When crowding is defined only in terms of spatial density (the amount of space per person), the effects of crowding are variable. However, if crowding is defined in terms of social density, or the number of people who must interact, then crowding better predicts negative psychological and physical effects.
(E) There are several reasons why crowding makes US feel uncomfortable. One reason is related to stimulus overload - there are just too many stimuli competing for our attention. We cannot notice or respond to all of them. This feeling is typical of the harried mother, who has several children competing for her attention, while she is on the phone and the doorbell is ringing. This leaves her feeling confused, fatigued and yearning to withdraw from the situation. There are strong feelings of a lack of privacy - being unable to pay attention to what you want without being repeatedly interrupted or observed by others.
(F) Field studies done in a variety of settings illustrate that social density is associated with negative effects on human beings. In prison studies, males generally became more aggressive with increases in density. In male prison, inmate; living in conditions of higher densities were more likely to suffer from fight. Males rated themselves as more aggressive in small rooms (a situation of high spatial density), whilst the females rated themselves as more aggressive in large rooms (Stokols et al., 1973). These differences relate to the different personal space requirements of the genders. Besides, Baum and Greenberg found that high density leads to decreased attraction, both physical attraction and liking towards others and it appears to have gender differences in the impact that density has on attraction levels, with males experiencing a more extreme reaction. Also, the greater the density is, the less the helping behavior. One reason why the level of helping behavior may be reduced in crowded situations links to the concept of diffusion of responsibility. The more people that are present in a situation that requires help, the less often help is given. This may be due to the fact that people diffuse responsibility among themselves with no-one feeling that they ought to be the one to help.
(G) Facing all these problems, what are we going to do with them? The more control a person has over the crowded environment the less negatively they experience it, thus the perceived crowding is less (Schmidt and Keating). The ability to cope with crowding is also influenced by the relationship the individual has with the other people in the situation. The high density will be interpreted less negatively if the individual experiences it with people he likes. One of the main coping strategies employed to limit the impact of high density is social withdrawal. This includes behaviors such as averting the gaze and using negative body language to attempt to block any potential intrusions.
Questions 1-7 Reading passage 1 has seven paragraphs, A-G
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A -G from the list of headings below.
Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.
List of headings
(i) Other experiments following Calhoun’s experiment offering a clearer indication
(ii) The effects of crowding on people in the social scope
(iii) Psychological reaction to crowding
(iv) Problems that result in crowding
(v) Responsibility does not work
(vi) What cause the upset feel of crowding
(vii) Definitions of crowding and density
(viii) Advice for crowded work environment
(ix) Difference between male and females’ attractiveness in a crowd
(x) Nature and results of Calboun’s experiment
Q.1. Paragraph A
Q.2. Paragraph B
Q.3. Paragraph c
Q.4. Paragraph D
Q.5. Paragraph E
Q.6. Paragraph F
Q.7. Paragraph G
Questions 8-13: Complete the sentences below.
Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.
Q.8. Being disturbed repeatedly, the harried mother feels frustrated for the lack of______.
Q.9. Inmates in high density settings were more aggressive in______.
Q.10. The different result between male and female is associated with the varying need of______.
Q.11. Especially for male, Baum and Greenberg found that______declined with high density.
Q.12. The idea of responsibility diffusion may explain a person's reluctant to______.
Q.13. Schmidt and Keating suggest that if more______was present there would be a reduction in crowding stress.
The reconstruction of community in Talbot Park, Auckland
(A) An architecture of disguise is almost complete at Talbot Park in the heart of Auckland's Glen Innes. The place was once described as a state housing ghetto, rife with crime, vandalism and other social problems. But today after a $48 million urban renewal makeover, the site is home to 700 residents — 200 more than before — and has people regularly inquiring whether they can buy or rent there. "It doesn't look like social housing," Housing New Zealand housing services manager Dene Busby says of the tidy brick and weatherboard apartments and townhouses which would look just as much at home in "there is no reason why public housing should look cheap in my view," says Design Group architect Neil of the eight three-bedroom terrace houses his firm designed.
(B) Talbot Park is a triangle of government-owned land bounded by Apirana Ave, Pilkington Rd and Point England Rd. In the early 1960s it was developed for state housing built around a linear park that ran through the middle. Initially, there was a strong sense of a family-friendly community. Former residents recall how the Talbot Park reserve played a big part in their childhoods — a place where the kids in the block came together to play softball, cricket, tiggy, leapfrog and bullrush. Sometimes they'd play "Maoris against Pakehas" but without any animosity. "It was all just good fun", says Georgie Thompson in Ben Schrader's We Call it Home: A History of State Housing in New Zealand. "We had respect for our neighbours and addressed them by title Mr. and Mrs. soand- so," she recalls.
(C) Quite what went wrong with Talbot Park is not clear. We call it Home Records that the community began to change in the late 1970s as more Pacific Islanders and Europeans moved in. The new arrivals didn't readily integrate with the community, a "them and us" mentality developed, and residents interacted with their neighbours less. What was clear was the buildings were deteriorating and becoming dilapidated, petty crime was on the rise and the reserve — focus of fond childhood memories — had become a wasteland and was considered unsafe.
(D) But it wasn't until 2002 that Housing New Zealand decided the properties needed upgrading. The master renewal plan didn't take advantage of the maximum accommodation density allowable (one unit per 100 sq metres ) but did increase density to one emit per 180 sq m by refurbishing all 108 star flat units, removing the multis and building 111 new home. The Talbot strategy can be summed up as mix, match and manage. Mix up the housing with variety plans from a mix of architects, match house styles to what7 s built by the private sector, match tenants to the mix, and manage their occupancy. Inevitably cost comes into the equation." If you're going to build low cost homes, you've got to keep them simple and you can't afford a fancy bit on them. " says Michael Thompson of Architectus which designed the innovative threelevel Atrium apartments lining two sides of a covered courtyard. At $300,000 per two bedroom unit, the building is more expensive but provides for independent disabled accommodation as well as offering solar hot water heating and rainwater collection for toilet cisterns and outside taps.
(E) The renewal project budget at $1.5 million which will provide park pathways, planting, playgrounds, drinking fountains, seating, skateboard rails, a half-size basketball hard court, and a pavilion. But if there was any doubt this is a low socio-economic area, the demographics for the surrounding Tamaki area are sobering. Of the 5000 households there, 55 per cent are state houses, 28 per cent privately owned (compared to about 65 per cent nationally) and 17 per cent are private rental. The area has a high concentration of households with incomes in the $5000 to $15,000 range and very few with an income over $70,000. That's in sharp contrast to the more affluent suburbs like Kohimarama and St John's that surround the area.
(F) "The design is for people with different culture background," says architect James Lunday of Common Ground which designed the 21 large family homes. "Architecturally we decided to be relatively conservative — nice house in its own garden with a bit of space and good indoor outdoor flow." There's a slight reflection of the whare and a Pacific fale, but not overplayed "The private sector is way behind in urban design and sustainable futures," says Bracey. "Redesigning sheets and parks is a big deal and very difficult to do. The private sector won't do it, because It's so hard."
(G) There's no doubt good urban design and good architecture play a significant part in the scheme. But probably more important is a new standard of social control. Housing New Zealand calls it "intensive tenancy management". Others view it as social engineering. "It's a model that we are looking at going forward," according to Housing New Zealand's central Auckland regional manager Graham Bodman.1 The focus is on frequent inspections, helping tenants to get to know each other and trying to create an environment of respect for neighbours, " says Bodman. That includes some strict rules — no loud parties after 10 pm, no dogs, no cats in the apartments, no washing hung over balcony rails and a requirement to mow lawns and keep the property tidy. Housing New Zealand has also been active in organising morning teas and sheet barbecues for residents to meet their neighbours. "IVs all based on the intensification," says Community Renewal project manager Stuart Bracey. "We acknowledge if you are going to put more people living closer together, you have to actually help them to live closer together because it creates tension — especially for people that aren't used to it."
Questions 14-20: Reading Passage 2 has seven paragraphs, A-G.
Choose the correct heading for paragraphs, A-G from the list below. Write the correct number, i-x, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.
List of Headings
(i) Financial hardship of community
(ii) A good tendency of strengthening the supervision
(iii) Details of plans for the community’s makeover and upgrade
(iv) Architecture suits families of various ethnic origins
(v) Problems arise then the mentality of alienation developed later
(vi) Introduction of a social housing community with unexpected high standard
(vii) A practical design and need assist and cooperate in future
(viii) Closer relationship among neighbors in original site
(ix) Different need from a makeup of a low financial background should be considered
(x) How to make the community feel safe
(xi) A plan with details for house structure
Q.14. Paragraph A
Q.15. Paragraph B
Q.16. Paragraph c
Q.17. Paragraph D
Q.18. Paragraph E
Q.19. Paragraph F
Q.20. Paragraph G
Questions 21-23: Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters, A-E, in boxes 21-23 on your answer sheet.
List of people
(a) Michael Thompson
(b) Graham Bodman
(c) Stuart Bracey
(d) James Lunday
(e) Dene Busby
Q.21. Design should meet the need of mix-raced cultural background
Q.22. for better living environment, regulations and social control should be imperative
Q.23. organising more community's activities helps strengthening relationship in community
Questions 24-27: Complete the folbwing summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage 2 Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.
Write your answers in boxes 24-27 on your answer sheet.
In the year 2002, the Talbot decided to raise housing standard, yet the plan was to build homes go much beyond the accommodation limit and people complain about the high living 24_______ And as the variety plans were complemented under the designs of many 25_______together, made house styles go with the part designed by individuals, matched tenants from different culture. As for the finance, reconstruction program's major concern is to build a house within low 26_______ finally, just as expert predicted residents will agree on builbing a relatively conventional house in its own 27_______which provides considerable space to move around.
You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 27-40, which are based on reading passage III below.
(A) James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin- Madison, played his first video game years ago when his six-year-old son Sam was playing Pajama Sam: No Need to Hide When It’s Dark Outside. He wanted to play the game so he could support Sam’s problem solving. Though Pajama Sam is not an “educational game”, it is replete with the types of problems psychologists study when they study thinking and learning. When he saw how well the game held Sam’s attention, he wondered what sort of beast a more mature video game might be.
(B) Video and computer games, like many other popular, entertaining and addicting kid’s activities, are looked down upon by many parents as timewasters, and worse, parents think that these games rot the brain. Violent video games are readily blamed by the media and some experts as the reason why some youth become violent or commit extreme anti-social behavior. Recent content analyses of video games show that as many as 89% of games contain some violent content, but there is no form of aggressive content for 70% of popular games. Many scientists and psychologists, like James Paul Gee, find that video games actually have many benefits - the main one being making kids smart. Video games may actually teach kids high-level thinking skills that they will need in the future.
(C) "Video games change your brain," according to University of Wisconsin psychologist Shawn Green. Video games change the brain’s physical structure the same way as do learning to read, playing the piano, or navigating using a map. Much like exercise can build muscle, the powerful combination of concentration and rewarding surges of neurotransmitters like dopamine, which strengthens neural circuits, can build the player’s brain.
(D) Video games give your child’s brain a real workout. In many video games, the skills requ ừ ed to win involve abstract and high level thinking. These skills are not even taught at school. Some of the mental skills trained by video games include: following instructions, problem solving, logic, hand-eye coordination, fine motor and spatial skills. Research also suggests that people can learn iconic, spatial, and visual attention skills from video games. There have been even studies with adults showing that experience with video games is related to better surgical skills. Jacob Benjamin, doctor from Beth Israel Medical Center NY, found a direct link between skill at video gaming and skill at keyhole or laparoscopic surgery. Also, a reason given by experts as to why fighter pilots of today are more skillful is that this generation’s pilots are being weaned on video games.
(E) The players learn to manage resources that are limited, and decide the best use of resources, the same way as in real life. In strategy games, for instance, while developing a city, an unexpected surprise like an enemy might emerge. This forces the player to be flexible and quickly change tactics. Sometimes the player does this almost every second of the game giving the brain a real workout. According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier, a cognitive scientist, games simulating stressful events such as those found in battle or action games could be a training tool for real-world situations. The study suggests that playing action video games primes the brain to make quick decisions. Video games can be used to train soldiers and surgeons, according to the study. Steven Johnson, author of Everything Bad is Good For You: How Today's Popular Culture, says gamers must deal with immediate problems while keeping their long-term goals on their horizon. Young gamers force themselves to read to get instructions, follow storylines of games, and get information from the game texts.
(F) James Paul Gee, professor of education at the University of Wisconsin- Madison, says that playing a video game is similar to working through a science problem. Like students in a laboratory, gamers must come up with a hypothesis. For example, players in some games constantly try out combinations of weapons and powers to use to defeat an enemy. If one does not work, they change hypothesis and try the next one. Video games are goal-driven experiences, says Gee, which are fundamental to learning. Also, using math skills is important to win in many games that involve quantitative analysis like managing resources. In higher levels of a game, players usually fail the first time around, but they keep on trying until they succeed and move on to the next level.
(G) Many games are played online and involve cooperation with other online players in order to win. Video and computer games also help children gain selfconfidence and many games are based on history, city building, and governance and so on. Such games indirectly teach children about aspects of life on earth.
(H) In an upcoming study in the journal Current Biology, authors Daphne Bavelier, Alexandre Pouget, and C. Shawn Green report that video games could provide a potent training regimen for speeding up reactions in many types of real-life situations. The researchers tested dozens of 18-to 25-year-olds who were not ordinarily video game players. They split the subjects into two groups. One group played 50 hours of the fast-paced action video games "Call of Duty 2" and "Unreal Tournament," and the other group played 50 hours of the slowmoving strategy game "The Sims 2." After this training period, all of the subjects were asked to make quick decisions in several tasks designed by the researchers. The action game players were up to 25 percent faster at coming to a conclusion and answered just as many questions correctly as their strategy game playing peers.
Questions 28-31: Choose the correct letter, A, B, c or D.
Write your answers in boxes 28-31 on your answer sheet.
Q.28. What is the main purpose of paragraph ONE?
(a) Introduction of professor James Paul Gee.
(b) Introduction of the video game: Pajamas Sam.
(c) Introduction of types of video games.
(d) Introduction of the background of this passage.
Q.29. What does the author want to express in the second paragraph?
(a) Video games are widely considered harmful for children’s brain.
(b) Most violent video games are the direct reason of juvenile delinquency,
(c) Even there is a certain proportion of violence in most video games; scientists and psychologists see its benefits of children’s intellectual abilities.
(d) Many parents regard video games as time-wasters, which rot children’s brain.
Q.30. What is correctly mentioned in paragraph four?
(a) Some schools use video games to teach students abstract and high level thinking.
(b) Video games improves the brain ability in various aspects,
(c) Some surgeons have better skills because they play more video games.
(d) Skillful fighter pilots in this generation love to paly video games.
Q.31. What is the expectation of the experiment the three researchers did?
(a) Gamers have to make the best use of the limited resource.
(b) Gamers with better math skills will win in the end.
(c) Strategy game players have better ability to make quick decisions.
(d) Video games help increase the speed of players’ reaction effectively.
Questions 32-35 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 32-35 on your answer sheet, write
Q.32. Most video games are popular because of their violent content.
Q.33. The action game players minimized the percentage of making mistakes in the experiment.
Q.34. It would be a good idea for schools to apply video games in their classrooms.
Q.35. Those people who are addicted to video games have lots of dopamine in their brains.
Questions 36-40 Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.
(a)The writer’s opinion
(b) James Paul Gee
(c) Shawn Green
(d) Daphne Bavelier
(e) Steven Johnson
(f) Jacob Benjamin
Q.36. Video games as other daily life skills alter the brain’s physical structure.
Q.37. Brain is ready to make decisions without hesitation when players are immersed in playing stressful games.
Q.38. The purpose-motivated experience that video games offer plays an essential role in studying.
Q.39. Players are good at tackling prompt issues with future intensions.
Q.40. It helps children broaden their horizon in many aspects and gain self-confidence.
Section - 1
Section - 2
Section - 3