Q. 1. What is sex ratio? Explain the world pattern of sex ratio with suitable examples.
Ans. Sex ratio: The ratio between the number of women and men in the population is called the sex-ratio. It can also be defined as the number of males and females in the given population.
World pattern of sex ratio:
(i) An average sex ratio reflected in the world’s population is 102 males per 100 females.
(ii) La tvia is the only country which has recorded the highest sex ratio of 85 males per 100 females.
(iii) UAE has recorded the lowest sex ratio of 468 females per 1000 males.
(iv) T he developed regions of the world do not exhibit so much variation in the world pattern of sex ratio.
(v) Ac cording to the UN, 139 countries of the world exhibit favourable sex ratio whereas, 72 countries exhibit unfavourable one.
(vi) A sian countries such as India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Saudi Arabia have recorded a low sex ratio.
(vii) I n other case, there are many European countries like Russia where males are in minority.
(viii) Most of the European countries have recorded better status to women as there are less number of males due to male-dominated out-migration to various other countries.
Q. 2. The population can be classified into how many groups? Write the criteria for differentiating the population.
Ans. (i) Classification of Population:
(ii) Urban Criteria for differentiation:
(iii) Social condition
(iv) Age-sex-occupational structure
(v) Density of population
(vi) Level of development
Detailed Answer :
Classification of population
(i) Rural : Rural population can be defined as the population which lives in villages, hamlets and other small settlements.
(ii) Urban : Urban population can be defined as the population which lives in towns and cities and have access to basic facilities such as hospitals and markets.
Criteria for differentiation of the population :
(i) The division of population is based on the residence because rural and urban lifestyles differ from each other in terms of their livelihood and social conditions.
(ii) The age-sex-occupational structure, density of population and level of development vary between rural and urban areas.
(iii) The criteria for differentiating the population varies from country to country.
(iv) Generally, rural population is engaged in primary activities whereas majority of urban population is engaged in non-primary activities.
Q. 3. “The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population”. Support the statement with examples.
Discuss the factors responsible for imbalances in the sex-age found in different parts of the world and occupational structure.
Ans. The shape of the population pyramid reflects the characteristics of the population :
(i) Expanding Population : The age-sex pyramid of Nigeria is a triangular shaped pyramid with a wide base and is typical of less developed countries. These have larger populations in lower age groups due to high birth rates. Same is the case with Bangladesh and Mexico.
(ii) Constant Population : Australia’s age-sex pyramid is bell shaped and tapered towards the top. This shows birth and death rates are almost equal leading to a near constant population.
(iii) Declining Population : Japan’s pyramid has a narrow base and a tapered top showing low birth and death rates. The population growth in developed countries is usually zero or negative.
(iv) Proportion of literate population of a country is an indicator of its socio-economic development as it reveals the standard of living, social status of females, availability of educational facilities and policies of government.
(v) The working population (i.e. women and men of the age group - 15 to 59) take part in various occupations ranging from agriculture, forestry, fishing, manufacturing construction, commercial transport, services, communication and other unclassified services.