Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers - Security in the Contemporary World (Part - 2) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers - Security in the Contemporary World (Part - 2) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers - Security in the Contemporary World (Part - 2) Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
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Q. 12. What is the difference between traditional and nontraditional notion of security? Which category would the creation and sustenance of alliance belong to?
Ans. 
Traditional Notion of Security
(i) In the traditional notion of security, the greatest danger to a country is from military threats.
(ii) The threat to traditional security by another country which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
(iii) The traditional notion of security is also concerned with balance of power and alliance building.
(iv) Traditional security is also concerned with internal security.
(v) In traditional security, there is recognition that co-operation in limiting violence is possible.
(vi) It also includes other types of co-operation like, disarmament, arms control and confidence building.
Non-traditional Notion of Security
(i) non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence.
(ii) non-traditional view of security is concerned with human security or global security.(iii) Human security is about the protection of people more than the protection of states.(iv) non-traditional notion includes hunger, disease and natural disasters as threats.
(v) Terrorism is a new source of non-traditional threat as it refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
(vi) Poverty has also been recognised as a new threat as in the south it has led to large-scale migration to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities in the north.

Q. 13. Rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security? Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
Ans. 
The given notion of security comes under the nontraditional notions of security. non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. I agree with the statement that environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security. Global warming is a dangerous environmental degradation. Global warming can cause a rise in sea level of 1.5–2.0 meters. This rise in sea level can submerge 20 per cent of Bangladesh, inundate most of the Maldives and threaten nearly half the population of Thailand. This rise in sea level can pose serious threat to human security. Environmental degradation is also responsible for aggravating diseases in people. Air pollution is causing rise in cases of asthma. Even young people are prone to many kinds of diseases which are related to environmental degradation. Water pollution is an another example of environment degradation. It also has an adverse affect on the life of the people. Many water borne diseases are posing threats to people.  so it is beyond any doubt that rapid environmental degradation is causing a serious threat to security.

Q. 14. Describe the security challenges faced by newly independent countries of Asia and Africa after the Second World War.
Ans. 
Newly independent countries of Asia and Africa face completely different security challenges than those faced by the First World countries.
(i) Internal security is based on internal peace and safety and therefore, nations must ensure that their county is secure within its boundary/border.
(ii) In order to face, security challenges from outside the border, the nations should make sure that they deal with the threats inside the border.
(iii) After the second World War, the internal security of the Western countries, the most powerful countries in the world seemed to be more or less assured.
(iv) Although internal security remained a concern for the Western countries governments, after the second World War, there was a situation of peace where internal security did not matter as much as it had in the past.
(v) These countries did not face violent threats or challenges from the groups and communities living within their borders.

(vi) They did worry about violent protests in their colonies where the colonised population demanded independence.
(vii) However, the newly independent countries of Asia and Africa faced severe security challenges from within. They encouraged internal conflicts, there were disputes between communities and conflicts on borders and territories as well as control of population and people.
(viii) These countries feared threats of successions by communities demanding independent states. The threats came not only from their immediate neighbours, but also from within.
(ix) The new countries had to deal with problems like: Poverty, which affected millions. Migration, which included proper healthcare not being available to several people and development, which required the countries to balance between economic growth and environmental responsibility.

Q. 15. Describe any three new sources of threat to security giving examples for each.
Ans. 
New Sources of Threat are
(i) Terrorism: It refers to political violence that targets civilians indiscriminately. They use civilians as weapon against national government to change a political context or condition they do not like.
(ii) Human Rights: These are in the form of political, economical, social rights and the rights of colonised people or ethnic and indigenous minorities. Example-Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Indonesian military’s killing of people in East Timor.
(iii) Health Epidemics: Due to migration, business, tourism, etc, epidemics like HIV-AIDS, bird flu and SARS have rapidly spread across countries. By 2003, an estimated 4 crore people were infected with HIV-AIDS worldwide. Treatment of these epidemics have proved to be a major factor in driving the region backward into deeper poverty.

Q. 16. Describe migration and health epidemics as the new sources of threat to the non-traditional notion of security.
Ans.
New sources of threat
(i) Migration–Poverty in south has led to a large migration to seek a better life into north. This has created political friction in the international field. It took place in two ways–People who voluntarily left the country were called migrants and the other way was refugees who left home because of war, natural disasters or political persecution.
(ii) Health Epidemics, such as HIV-AIDS, bird flu, etc., like due to the migration of the people due to business, tourism and military operations.
(iii) In 2003, an estimated of four crore people were influenced with HIV-AIDS worldwide. other new diseases emerged as a threat, they are SARS, bird flu, Ebola, virus and hepatitis, etc.

Q. 17. What is meant by Co-operative Security? How can this be made more effective?
Ans. 
Many non-traditional threats to security need to be tackled jointly by various countries all over the world. For example, in case of alleviation of poverty, management of migration and refugees and control of epidemics, co-operation from all countries is required. This is called co-operative security.
(i) More effective strategies should be devised.
(ii) Both governmental and non-governmental organisations are required to work together.
(iii) Great personalities of the world should be involved to bring awareness among the people.
(iv) co-operative security may involve the use of force only as a last resort.

Q. 18. Read the following passage and answer the following questions : There has been an attempt in India to develop its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens are lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist. The attempt has not quite succeeded; we are still a very poor and unequal country. Yet democratic politics allows spaces for articulating the voice of the poor and the deprived citizens. There is a pressure on the democratically elected governments to combine economic growth with human development. Thus democracy is not just a political ideal; a democratic government is also a way to provide greater security.
(i) Mention the major security threats to  India.
(ii) Highlight the broad components of security strategy of democratic India.
Ans. 
(i) Security threats to India : Terrorism, poverty, diseases and epidemics, human rights violation, ecological issues and illegal migration.
(ii) Components of security strategy : Military capabilities, to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. several militant groups from areas such as the nagaland, Mizoram, the Punjab and Kashmir among other have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. our country India has tried its best to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system which allows different groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.

Q. 19. Describe any three broad components of India’s security strategy
Or
Analyse any three broad components of the security strategy of India.
Ans. 
Three broad components of security strategy of India
(i) Strengthening military capabilities
• India’s involvement in conflicts with its neighbours : Indo–Pak (1947–48, 1965, 1971 and 1999) & Indo–china (1962)
• conducted nuclear test in 1998, it was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security.
(ii) Strengthening international norms and institutions
• India supports, Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament and peaceful settlement of disputes.
• Universal and non-discriminatory nuclear disarmament.
• support for NAM, nIEo and Kyoto Protocol.
• Participation in UN Peacekeeping missions.
(iii)Security within the country
• separatist movements in nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir have been dealt with.
• India preserved its national unity by adopting a democratic political system. (iv)Economic development
• Efforts to end economic inequalities.
• combine economic growth with human development.
Detailed Answer : Following are the three broad components of India’s security strategy.
(a) The first component was strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours. It was in conflict with Pakistan in 1947–48, 1965, 1971 and 1999. It  had also been involved in conflict with china in the year 1962. since India is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the south Asian region, India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998, was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
(b) The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal nehru, supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament and the Un as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and nondiscriminatory non-proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
(c) The third component of Indian security strategy is directed towards meeting security challenges within country. several militant groups from areas such as the nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. our country India has tried its best to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system which allows different groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.

Q. 20. What is meant by Security? Mention any four components of Indian security strategy.
Or
Explain any four components of India’s security strategy.
Ans. 
security means “freedom from threats”. Four different components of India’s strategy are:
(i) The first component is strengthening its own military capabilities because India has been involved in conflict with neighbours, i.e, Pakistan and china.
(ii) The second component has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security.
(iii) The third component is towards meeting security challenges within the country such as nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Jammu & Kashmir.
(iv) The fourth concept has been an attempt to develop its economy and to bring the citizens out of poverty and economic inequalities.
Detailed Answer : India has faced traditional and non-traditional threats to its security. These threats have emerged from within as well as outside its borders. The security strategy of India has four broad components which have been used in varying combination from time to time.
Following are the four components of India’s security strategy :
(i) The first component is strengthening its military capabilities because India has been involved in conflicts with its neighbours. It was in conflict with Pakistan in 1947-48, 1965, 1971 and 1999. It  had also been involved in conflict with china in the year 1962. since India is surrounded by nucleararmed countries in the south Asian region, India’s decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974.
(ii) The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal nehru, supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament and the Un as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory nonproliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction.
(iii) The third component of Indian security strategy is directed towards meeting security challenges within country. several militant groups from areas such as nagaland, Mizoram, Punjab and Kashmir among others have, from time to time, sought to break away from India. our country India has tried its best to preserve national unity by adopting a democratic political system which allows different groups of people to freely articulate their grievances and share political power.
(iv) The fourth component of India’s security strategy is its economic development. India is developing its economy in a way that the vast mass of citizens is lifted out of poverty and misery and huge economic inequalities are not allowed to exist.
There is a pressure on the democratically elected governments to combine economic growth with human development.

Q. 21. Suggest the type of security India should prefer to fight the threats like poverty, terrorism and epidemics.
Ans. 
India has faced both traditional and non-traditional threats to its security. As far as poverty, terrorism and epidemics are concerned, its approach should be:
(i) To overcome poverty, India needs to develop its economy so that the lives of vast mass of citizens improve. Huge amount of inequalities should not be allowed to exist. Harmful impact of globalisation should be countered by the positive role of the state.
(ii) To prevent epidemics, proper living conditions, sanitation, clean drinking water, enforcement of swachh Bharat, proper immunisation and education of the people should be there. We need to improve our public health system and work with all stake holders.
(iii) To counter terrorism we have to form a firm military strategy, intelligence including cyber intelligence. Yet at the same time our democracy should have space for dialogue and negotiation to deal with groups like Maoists, insurgents, etc.

Q. 22. Looking at the Indian scenario, what type of security has been given priority in India, traditional or non-traditional? What examples could you cite to substantiate the arguments?
Ans. 
In India, the traditional type of security has been given priority. India has faced traditional threats to its security that have emerged outside its borders.
India has been involved  in conflicts with Pakistan, its neighbour, in 1947–48, 1965, 1971 and 1999 and china another neighbour in 1962. since India is surrounded by nuclear-armed countries in the south Asian region. India’decision to conduct nuclear tests in 1998 was justified by the Indian Government in terms of safeguarding national security. India first tested a nuclear device in 1974. The second component of India’s security strategy has been to strengthen international norms and international institutions to protect its security interests. India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal nehru, supported the cause of Asian solidarity, decolonisation, disarmament, and the UN as a forum in which international conflicts could be settled. India also took initiatives to bring about a universal and non-discriminatory non-proliferation regime in which all countries would have the same rights and obligations with respect to weapons of mass destruction. Taking into consideration the Indian scenario, the traditional security has been given priority in India.

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