Previous Year: Short Questions with Answers - Alternative Centres of Power Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Previous Year: Short Questions with Answers - Alternative Centres of Power Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Q. 1. Which four common symbols make the European Union look like a nation-state?
Ans. 
Flag, anthem, founding date and currency.

Q. 2. In the European Union Flag, what does the symbol of ‘twelve golden stars’ signify?
Ans. The circle of the golden stars stands for solidarity and harmony between the peoples of Europe. It has twelve stars as the number twelve is traditionally the symbol of perfection, completeness and unity.

Q. 3. How has the European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one?
Ans. 
Formation of the European Union was aided by the Cold War. It became a forum for the western European states to co-operate on trade and economic issues.
(i) It also laid stress on a common foreign and security policy, co-operative on justice and home affairs and the creation of a common currency.
(ii) It has also started to act more as a nation state.
(iii) While the attempts to have a common Constitution for the EU have failed still it has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency. It also has some form of a common foreign and security policy in its dealings with other nations. It shows that European Union evolved over time from an economic union to an increasingly political one.

Q. 4. Explain the economic and military influence of the European Union.
Ans. 
Economic Influence: (i) EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of more than 12 trillion in 2015, slightly larger than that of the USA.
(ii) Its currency Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(iii) Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the US.

Military Influence: (i) The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
(ii) Its total spending on defence is second after that of the US.
(iii) Two members of the EU have large arsenals of nuclear warheads.
(iv) It is the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

Q. 5. Explain the political and diplomatic influence of European Union as a supranational organisation.
Ans. 
The EU has political and diplomatic influence. Two members of the EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.  The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation.

Q. 6. Why was ASEAN established?
Ans. 
ASEAN was established : (i) to accelerate the economic growth.
(ii) for social progress and cultural development.
(iii) to promote regional peace and development.

Q. 7. What does the logo of ASEAN flag symbolise?
Ans.
The logo of ASEAN flag symbolises that the ten stalks of paddy represent the ten south-east Asian countries bound together in friendship and solidarity. The circle represents the unity of ASEAN.

Q. 8. What does ‘ASEAN Way’ stand for?
Or
Explain the meaning of the ‘ASEAN Way’.)
Or
What does ‘ASEAN Way’ imply?
Ans. 
ASEAN Way— (i) A form of interaction that it is informal, nonconfrontationist and co-operative.
(ii) Respect for national sovereignty is critical to the functioning of ASEAN.

Q. 9. Correct the following statement and re-write: ASEAN stands for “Association of South East African Nations”.
Ans. 
ASEAN stands for ‘Association of South East Asian Nations.’

Q. 10. W hen was ASEAN Regional Forum was established? What was its main objective?
Ans. ASEAN Regional Forum was established in 1994. The main objective of ARF was :
(i) To accelerate economic growth and through that achieve social progress and cultural development.
(ii) To promote regional peace and stability based on the rule of law and the principles of the United Nations.

Q. 11. What are the objectives of establishing regional organisations?
Ans. 
Following are the objectives of establishing regional organisations:
(i) To make the economy of the region at par with the global economy.
(ii) To accelerate the economic growth through social progress and cultural development. (iii) To promote regional balance of power.

Q. 12. How does the geographical proximity influence the formation of regional organisations?
Ans. 
The geographical proximity influences the formation of regional organisations in the following ways:
(i) Same culture and traits influence the formation of regional organisations.
(ii) Similar interests because of geographical proximity.
(iii) People of same geographical area follow the same economy and it also influences in the formation of regional organisation.

Q. 13. What are the components of the ASEAN Vision 2020?
Ans. Following are the visions of the ASEAN Vision 2020:
(i) ASEAN will play an outward-looking role in the international community.
(ii) ASEAN will encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.
(iii) ASEAN will try to solve the problems of the country through mediation.

Q. 14. Mention the four main objectives of ASEAN Economic Community.
Ans. 
Objectives of ASEAN Economic Community:
(i) To create common market and production base with ASEAN status.
(ii) To aid social and economic development in the region.
(iii) To improve ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
(iv) To create Free Trade Area (FTA) for investment, labour and services.

Q. 15 Why does ASEAN still remain principally an economic association?
Ans. 
ASEAN still remains principally an economic association because:
(i) ASEAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy compared to the EU, the US and Japan.
(ii) ASEAN economy is growing much faster than the EU, the US and Japan.
(iii) Its objective is to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states.(iv) It also wants to aid social and economic development in the region.
(v) It also likes to improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes.

Q. 16. Highlight any four features of ‘ASEAN’.
Ans. 
Four features of ASEAN:
(i) To accelerate economic growth and through that social progress and cultural development.
(ii) To promote regional peace and stability based on the Rule of Law and the UN Charter.(iii) ASEAN countries celebrated a non-formal, nonconfronting and co-operative way of interaction known as the ASEAN way
(iv) In 2003, the ASEAN broadened its objective beyond the economic and social sphere by establishing the ASEAN Security Community, ASEAN Economic Community and ASEAN Socio Cultural Community.

Q. 17. How far is it correct to describe ASEAN as an alternative centre of power in the world?
Ans. 
(i) While the ASEAN region as a whole is a much smaller economy compared to the US, the EU, and Japan. Its economy is growing much faster than all these. This accounts for the growth in its influence both in the region and beyond.
(ii) ASEAN has focused on creating a “Free Trade Area for investment, labour, and services. The US and China have already moved fast to negotiate FTAs with ASEAN.
(iii) ASEAN is rapidly growing into a very important regional organisation. Its Vision 2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. This builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. Thus ASEAN has mediated the end of Cambodian conflict and the East Timor crisis.
(iv) The current economic strength of ASEAN, especially its economic relevance as a trading and investment partner to the growing Asian economies such as India and China, makes this an attractive proposition.

Q. 18. ‘China has been the fastest growing economy since the reform first began there’. Justify.
Ans. 
‘China has been the fastest growing economy.’
(i) The Chinese leadership took major policy decisions in the 1970s. China ended its political and economic isolation with the establishment of relations with the United States in 1972.
(ii) Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the ‘four modernisations’ (agriculture, industry, science and technology and military) in 1973. By 1978, the then leader Deng Xiaoping announced the ‘open door’ policy and economic reforms in China. The policy was to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and technology from abroad.
(iii) The privatisation of agriculture in 1982 was followed by the privatisation of industry in 1998. Trade barriers were eliminated only in Special Economic Zones (SEZs) where foreign investors could set up enterprises.
(iv) The new trading laws and the creation of Special Economic Zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade. China has become the most important destination for foreign direct investment (FDI).

Q. 19. In what ways did the economic policy of China benefit its economy?
Ans. 
(i) Break from stagnation.
(ii) Privatisation of agriculture.
(iii) New trading laws and creation of special economic zones.
(iv) High personal savings in the rural economy led to an exponential growth.

Q. 20. While Chinese economy has improved dramatically, why has every Chinese not received the benefits of the reforms? Give any four reasons.
Ans. 
While the Chinese economy improved dramatically, everyone in China could not get the benefits because:
(i) Unemployment has risen.
(ii) Working conditions were not good.
(iii) Environmental degradation increased.
(iv) Corruption was also on the increase.
Detailed Answer: After the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, following the communist revolution under the leadership of Mao, its economy was based on the Soviet model. The economically backward communist China chose to severe its links with the capitalist world. The model was to create a state-owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture The model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before: Following reasons were responsible because of which every Chinese failed to receive the benefits of the economy:
(a) An annual growth rate of 2-3 per cent in population meant that economic growth was insufficient to meet needs of a growing population.
(b) Agricultural production was not sufficient to generate a surplus for industry.
(c) Unemployment had risen in China with nearly 100 million people looking for jobs.
(d) Female employment and conditions of work were as bad as in Europe of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
(e) Environmental degradation and corruption had increased. Besides there was a rise in economic inequality between rural and urban residents and coastal and inland provinces.

Q. 21. What were the two major policy decisions taken by the Chinese leadership in the 1970s?
Ans. 
Major decisions taken by China in 1970 are:
(i) China ended its political and economic isolation and established relations with the US in 1972.
(ii) Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the four modernisations—Agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology and Military in 1973.
(iii) Deng Xiaoping announced open door policy and economic reforms in China.

Q. 22. Describe any four new economic policies of China to make it grow at a faster rate.
Or
Explain any four steps taken by China that led to the rise of its economy.
Ans. 
Steps taken by China, that led to the rise of its economy:
(i) Introduction of four modernisations (agriculture, industry, science and technology and military) proposed by Premier Zhou Enlai in 1973.
(ii) Open door policy announced by Deng Xiaoping with economic reforms in China.
(iii) Trade barriers were eliminated in Special Economic Zones (SEZs), where foreign investors could set up enterprises.
(iv) China introduced a market economy with step by step strategy of privatisation of agriculture followed by privatisation of industry in 1998.

Q. 23. “China followed its own path in introducing a market economy”. Justify this statement with four suitable arguments?
Ans. 
“China followed its own path in introducing a market economy”. Four suitable arguments are:-
(i) The Chinese did not go for shock therapy but opened their economy step by step.
(ii) The privatisation of agriculture began in 1982 and was followed by the privatisation of industry in 1998.
(iii) Trade barriers were eliminated only in Special Economic Zones (SEZs) where foreign investors could set up enterprises.
(iv) In China, the state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.

Q. 24. Mention any four significant changes in IndoChina relations that have taken place after the Cold War.
Ans. 
Changes in Indo-China relations after the Cold War are:
(i) The relations since then have strategic as well as economic dimensions.
(ii) Both view themselves as rising power in global politics.
(iii) Bilateral trade between India and China has increased.
(iv) Both countries have agreed to co-operate with each other.
Detailed Answer: India and China were great powers in Asia before the advent of Western imperialism. China had considerable influence and control on the periphery of its borders based on its unique tributary system. Various kingdoms and empires of India also extended their influence beyond their borders. In both the cases, this influence was political, economic and cultural. However, there was limited political and cultural interaction between the two. This resulted that neither of the country became familiar with each other. Since the end of the Cold War, there have been significant changes in Indo-China relations.
(a) The conflict of 1962, in which India suffered heavy military reverses, had long term repercussions on India Indo-China relations.  Diplomatic relations between the two countries were downgraded until 1976.
(b) Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in December 1988 provided the impetus for an improvement in Indo- China relations.
(c) Both the countries have signed agreements on cultural exchanges and co-operation in science and technology and opened four border posts for trade.
(d) At the global level, India and China have adopted similar policies in international economic institutions like the World Trade Organisation.

Q. 25. Describe any four long term implications of the conflict of 1962 between India and China.
Ans. 
Long term implications of the conflict of 1962 are:
(i) Diplomatic relations downgraded until 1976.
(ii) After that relations began to improve.
(iii) With the change in political leadership in China, mid to late 1970’s contentious issues were put off while improving relations.
(iv) A series of talks to resolve the border issue was influential in 1981.

Q. 26. Evaluate the causes for the strained relations between India and China.
Ans. 
Causes for the strained relations between India and China:
(i) Military conflict over a border dispute between the two countries marred the hope of the two countries coming together to shape the future of the developing world and of Asia particularly.
(ii) Soon after independence, both states were involved in differences arising from the Chinese  takeover of Tibet in 1950 and the final settlement of the Sino-Indian border.
(iii) China and India were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
(iv) The conflict of 1962 in which India suffered military reverses, had long term implications for Indo-China relations.

Q. 27. The emerging economies of China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world. Do you agree with the statement? Substantiate your arguments.
Ans. 
Yes , I agree with the statement that China and India have great potential to challenge the unipolar world.
(i) The new economic policies of India and China have helped both the countries to break from the stagnation.
(ii) Creation of Special Economic Zones in both the countries have helped enormously in the increase of foreign trade.
(iii) Both, China and India have become the most important destination for foreign direct investment anywhere in the world.
(iv) At the international level, both India and China have adopted similar policies regarding the WTO.

Q. 28. Identify the contentious issues between China and India. How could these be resolved for greater co-operation? Give your suggestions.
Ans. 
Following are the contentious issues between India and China:
(i) India and China were involved in a border conflict in 1962 over competing territorial claims principally in Arunachal Pradesh and in the Aksai Chin region of Ladakh.
(ii) The conflict of 1962, in which India suffered military reverses had long-term implications for Indo-China relations. These issues can only be solved through talks. Rajiv Gandhi’s visit to China in December 1988 was a step in the direction. It provided the impetus for an improvement in Indo-China relations. Since then both the governments have taken measures to contain conflict and maintain ‘peace and tranquility’.

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