Very Short Question With Answer (1 Mark Each)
Q.1. What was Kaba?
Ans. Kaba was the cube-like structure that was situated in Mecca. Idols were placed in it. Tribes outside Mecca also considered Mecca as a holy place. That is why they were making annual pilgrimages to the shrine, i.e., Hajj.
Q.2. Why was the city of Mecca important?
Ans. (i) The city of Mecca was known for its holy ‘Kaba’.
(ii) It was located on the crossroads of a trade route between Syria and Yemen. That is why it was considered important.
Q.3. When did Prophet Muhammad declare himself to be the messenger of God? Which two things did he tell people?
Ans. Prophet Muhammad declared himself to be the messenger of God around 612 CE. He told people the following two things:
(i) Allah alone must be worshipped.
(ii) They must found a community of believers who must be bound by a common set of religious beliefs.
Q.4. What were the people who accepted Prophet Muhammad’s doctrine called? Which two things were they promised?
Ans. The people who accepted Prophet Muhammad’s religious doctrine were called the Muslims. They were promised the following two things:
(i) They were promised salvation on Judgement Day.
(ii) They would be given a share of the resources of the community while on earth.
Q.5. Why did the Muslims face opposition from affluent people in Mecca?
Ans. The Muslims faced opposition from affluent people in Mecca because these people took offense to the rejection of their deities and found the new religion a threat to the status and prosperity of Mecca.
Q. 6. What is meant by hijra? What is its importance in the history of Islam?
Ans. Prophet Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina with his followers in 622 CE is called hijra. The year of his arrival in Medina marked the beginning of the Muslim calendar. That is why hijra is important in the history of Islam.
Q.7. How was the institution of the Caliphate created?
Ans. There was no one, after the death of Prophet Muhammad in 632 CE, who could legitimately claim to be the next Prophet of Islam. There was also no established rule of succession. That is why Islamic political authority was transferred to the Umma. In this way, the institution of the Caliphate was created.
Q.8. What were the two main objectives of the institution of the Caliphate?
Ans. Following were the two main objectives of the institution of the Caliphate:
(i) To retain control over the tribes constituting the Umma.
(ii) To raise resources for the state.
Q.9. Which factors contributed to the success of the Arabs against the Byzantine and the Sasanian empires?
Ans. (i) Military strategy of the Arabs
(ii) Religious fervor of the Arabs
(iii) Weakness of the opposition.
Q.10. Why was the third Caliph, Uthman assassinated?
Ans. The third Caliph, Uthman was a Quraysh. He filled his administration with his own men to keep greater control. So other tribes were against him, and they assassinated him.
Q.11. Which wars did the fourth Caliph Ali fight? What was the result of these wars?
Ans. The fourth Caliph Ali fought the following two wars:
(i) Ali fought the first war against Muhammad’s wife, Aisha. This war was known as the Battle of the Camels. Aisha was defeated in this war.
(ii) He fought the second war at Siffin in northern Mesopotamia. It ended in a treaty.
Q.12. Why was Islam divided into two sects? Which were these sects?
Ans. During Caliph Ali’s regime, two wars were fought against those who represented the Meccan aristocracy. It deepened the rifts among the Muslims, and Islam was divided into two sects. These sects were Shias and Sunnis.
Q.13. By whom and where was Ali assassinated?
Ans. Ali was assassinated by a Kharji in a mosque at Kufa.
Q.14. When and by whom was the Umayyad dynasty founded? How long did this dynasty last?
Ans. The Umayyad dynasty was founded in 661 CE by Muawiya. This dynasty lasted till 750 CE.
Q.15. Who were the Abbasids? How did they legitimate their bid for power?
Ans. The Abbasids were descendants of Abbas, Prophet Muhammad’s uncle. They promised to various Arab groups that a messiah from the family of the Prophet would liberate them from the oppressive Umayyad regime. By this promise, they legitimated their bid for power.
Q.16. Which two traditions of the Umayyad dynasty were retained by the Abbasids?
Ans. Following two traditions of the Umayyad dynasty were retained by the Abbasids:
(i) They retained the centralized nature of government and the state.
(ii) They maintained the magnificent imperial architecture and elaborate court ceremonials of the Umayyads.
Q.17. Tell two reasons for the weakness of the Abbasid state in the ninth century.
Ans. (i) There was a decline in control of Baghdad over the distant provinces.
(ii) There was a conflict between pro-Arab and pro-Iranian groups in the bureaucracy and army.
Q.18. Write two functions of the Buyid rulers of Baghdad.
Ans. (i) The Buyid rulers assumed many titles. One of these titles was ‘Shahanshah.’
(ii) These rulers patronized Shiite administrators, poets, and scholars.
Q.19. Who were the Fatimids? Why did they consider themselves as the sole rightful rulers of Islam?
Ans. The Fatimids belonged to the Ismaili sub-sects of Shiism. They considered themselves as the sole rightful rulers of Islam because they claimed that they were the descendants of Fatima, the Prophet’s daughter.
Q.20. Write two functions performed by Abdal-Malik of the Umayyad dynasty for the development of Arab-Islamic identity.
Ans. (i) Abd-al-Malik introduced an Islamic coinage. The coins carried Arabic inscriptions. (ii) He built the Dome of the Rock.
Q.1. Which was the main shrine of Mecca? What was its importance?
Ans. The main shrine of Mecca was Kaba. It was a cube-like structure in which idols were placed. Even tribes outside Mecca considered Kaba holy. They also installed their own idols at Kaba and made annual pilgrimages to it. Kaba was a sanctuary where violence was prohibited, and all the visitors were given protection.
Nomadic and settled tribes got opportunities with pilgrimage and commerce to communicate with each other and share their customs and beliefs. It established unity amongst the Arab tribes.
Q.2. How did the institution of the Caliphate come into existence? What were its objectives?
Ans. Prophet Muhammad passed away in 632 CE. After him, there was no one who could legitimately claim to be the next Prophet. There was no established principle of succession. That is why the political authority of the Prophet was given to the Umma. It created opportunities for innovations but brought great divisions among the Muslims. One of the biggest innovations was the creation of the institution of the Caliphate. In it, the leader of the community was given the responsibility of becoming the deputy (Khalifa) of the Prophet. The first four Caliphs (632– 61) had a close association with the Prophet and that is why they justified their powers. These Caliphs continued the works of the Prophet under the general guidelines given by him. Objectives: The institution of the Caliphate had the following two objectives :
(i) To keep or retain control over the tribes constituting the Umma.
(ii) To raise resources for the state.
Q.3. Describe the main features of the administrative structure of the Arab Empire under the early Caliphs.
Ans. The Caliphs introduced a new administrative structure in all the conquered states. These states were headed by governors (amirs) and tribal chieftains (ashraf). There were two main sources of revenue for central authority-taxes paid by the Muslims and share of the booty obtained from raids. Soldiers of the Caliph were settled in camp cities at the edge of the desert, like Kufa and Basra, so that they could remain within reach of Caliph’s Command as well as their natural habitat. The ruling class and soldiers received their shares of the booty and monthly payments (ata). The non-Muslim people paid taxes called Kharaj and Jiziya. For this, they were free to retain their rights of property and religious practices. Jews and Christians were declared as protected subjects of the state. They were given enough autonomy in the conduct of their communal affairs.
Q.4. Which circumstances were responsible for the assassination of the third Caliph, Uthman?
Ans. Arab tribes completed their work of political expansion and unification very easily. With the territorial expansion, conflicts arose over the distribution of offices and resources of the state. These conflicts became a threat to the unity of the Umma. Actually, the ruling class of the early Islamic state mainly belonged to the Quraysh tribe of Mecca. The third Caliph, Uthman (644–56 CE) was also a Quraysh. He filled the administration with his men to increase his control over the administration. As a result, the conflict intensified among other tribes. Opposition in Iraq and Egypt was coupled with opposition in Medina. That is why Uthman, the third Caliph, was assassinated. After his death, Ali was appointed as the fourth Caliph.
Q.5. Write a note on the regime of the fourth Caliph, Ali.
Ans. The Caliph Ali (656–61 CE) fought two wars against the people representing the aristocracy of Mecca. As a result, the rifts among the Muslims deepened. Later on, Ali’s supporters and enemies formed two main sects of Islam, i.e., Shias and Sunnis. Ali established himself at Kufa. He defeated the army led by Aisha, Muhammad’s wife, in the Battle of Camels in 657 CE. But he was unable to suppress the groups led by Muawiya, a kinsman of Uthman and the governor of Syria. Then Ali fought another battle with him at Siffin (northern Mesopotamia). This battle ended in a truce. This battle divided his followers into two groups. Some of them remained loyal to him, and some of them left him. Those who left him came to be known as Kharjis. Soon after, Ali was assassinated by a Kharji in a mosque at Kufa.
Q.6. Under which circumstances was the Umayyad dynasty established? Throw light on the regime of the first Umayyad ruler, Muawiya.
Ans. The Caliphate based in Medina was destroyed with the conquest of large territories and was replaced with an increasingly authoritarian polity. In 661, Muawiya declared himself as the next Caliph and founded the Umayyad dynasty. Umayyads took certain political steps with which their leadership was consolidated within the Umma. First Umayyad Caliph Muawiya made Damascus his capital. He adopted the administrative institutions and court ceremonies of the Byzantine Empire. The tradition of hereditary succession was also introduced by him. He also convinced the leading Muslims to accept his son as his successor. These new changes were also adopted by the Caliphs, who followed him. As a result, Umayyads retained power for almost 90 years.
Q.7. Discuss main features of the Umayyad state after Muawiya.
Ans. The main features of the Umayyad state after Muawiya were as follows:
(i) The Umayyad state was now one of the powerful states. Now it was not directly based on Islam and ran on the basis of statecraft and on the loyalty of Syrian troops.
(ii) The Christian advisers, Zoroastrian scribes, and bureaucrats were also included in the administration. Even then, Islam remained a base of the legitimacy of Umayyad rule. The Umayyads always appealed for unity, and they used to suppress the rebellions in the name of Islam.
(iii) They also maintained their Arabian social identity. During the reign of Abd al-Malik (685–705 CE) and his successors, both the Arabian and Islamic identities were greatly emphasized. That is why Abd al-Malik made Arabic the language of the administration. He also introduced Islamic coinage. The gold dinar and silver dirham which were in circulation within the country were copies of Iranian and Byzantine coins. These coins had the symbols of crosses and fire altars. These symbols were removed, and the coins now carried the Arabic inscriptions. Abd al-Malik built the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and gave a great contribution to the development of an Arab-Islamic identity.
Q.8. What were the main features of Abbasid rule? Were Abbasid rulers able to abolish monarchy?
Ans. Following were the main features of Abbasid rule:
(i) Arab influence declined under the Abbasid rule. On the contrary to it, the importance of Iranian culture increased.
(ii) The Abbasids established their capital in Baghdad.
(iii) The Abbasids reorganized the army and bureaucracy on a non-tribal basis. It ensured more participation of Iraq and Khurasan in the army and bureaucracy.
(iv) The religious status and functions of the Caliphate were strengthened by the Abbasid rulers. They also patronized Islamic institutions and scholars. Abbasid Rulers and Monarchy. No, Abbasid rulers were not able to abolish the monarchy. The needs of government and empire forced them to retain the centralized nature of the state. They not only maintained the magnificent imperial architecture but also maintained the court ceremonies of the Umayyads. In this way, the Abbasid rulers, who claimed to bring down the monarchy, were forced to establish the monarchy again.
Q.9. Who were the Saljuq Turks? How did they establish and expand the Turk authority?
Ans. The Saljuq Turks were non-Muslims from the far east. They entered Turan as soldiers in the armies of the Samanids and Qarakhanids. Then later on, under the leadership of two brothers, Tughril Beg and Chaghri Beg, they established themselves as a powerful group. They took advantage of the chaos after the death of Mahmud of Ghazni and conquered Khurasan in 1037 CE. They made Nishapur their first capital. Then they concentrated on Western Persia and Iraq. They restored Baghdad to Sunni rule in 1055 CE. The Caliph, al-Qaim became very happy and conferred the title of Sultan to Tughril Beg. The Saljuq brothers ruled together according to the tribal notion of rule by the family. After Tughril Beg, his nephew Alp Arsalan became his successor. Under the reign of Alp Arsalan, the Saljuq empire expanded to Anatolia, i.e., modern Turkey.
Q.10. Who were the Turks? How was the Turkish authority established and strengthened in Ghazni?
Ans. The Turks were nomadic tribes of the Central Asian steppes of Turkistan. They adopted Islam. They were very good warriors and riders. They began working as slaves and soldiers under the Abbasid, Samanid, and Buyid administrations. Just because of their loyalty and military abilities, they rose to high positions. In 961 CE, a Turk Alptegin established the Ghaznavid Sultanate. It was consolidated by Mahmud of Ghazni (998–1030). The Ghaznavids, like the Buyids, were also a military dynasty. They had a professional army of Turks and Indians. But Khurasan and Afghanistan were their centers of power. For them, the Abbasid Caliphs were a source of legitimacy. Mahmud was the son of a slave. That is why he wanted to receive the title of Sultan from the Caliph. On the other hand, the Caliph also wanted to support the Sunni Ghaznavids against the Shiite power. So the Abbasid Caliphs became a source of legitimacy to the Turkish authority in Ghazni.
Q.11. What are the sources used for the description of the Central Islamic lands?
Ans. These are Chronicles-
Epigraphy- Study of inscriptions.
Numismatic- Study of coins.
Q.11. Who was Muhammed?
Ans. He was an Arab by culture and a merchant by profession. His tribe was Quraysh. He was murals and, therefore, chosen as chief of his tribe. Subsequently, he became a prophet to Islam.
Q.12. Who are Muslims?
Ans. Followers of Islamic order or religion are Muslims because since Prophet Muhammed’s ruling, coincide religion made integral parts to constitution and raids for booty were not considered “theft”; however; abstain from theft was the feature of eligibility to become a member of Umma.
Q.13. What were the basic tenets of Islam?
Q.14. Which kind of political order had Muhammed created?
Q.15. Describe the area expansion under the Caliphate regime in Arab.
Ans. The regions carried under the Arab empire were Syria, Iraq, Iran (Sasanian empire), and Egypt, including the Byzantine empire. Three successful campaigns from 637-642 had brought frontiers of the Arab empire so extended.
Q.16. Describe the Sufis and their new method of devotion
Ans. Sufis were religious-minded people in medieval Islam. They preached knowledge of God through asceticism (Rahbaniya) and mysticism. These people sought to renounce the world (Zuhd) and rely on God alone (Tawakkul). Mysticism attained new heights by the idea of pantheism and love. Pantheism is the idea of the oneness of God and His creation which implies that the human soul must be united with its maker. Ishq or intense love can only help in the merger of the soul with god. Sufis used musical concerts (Sama) to introduce ecstasy and stimulate emotions of love and passion. Rabia and Bayazid Bistani were some Sufis. Sufism was beyond the boundaries of caste, race, religion, and creed. According to theory, religion is more personal and less institutional.
Q.17. Discuss the influence of Greek philosophy, mathematics and medicine added to the curriculum of schools under the central Islamic Lands?
Ans. Study on these subjects promoted critical inquiry and had a profound influence on Islamic intellectual life. Scholars with a logical bent of mind Eg. Mutazila, started using Greek logic and methods of reasoning (Kalam) to defend Islamic beliefs. Philosophers (Malaysia) posed wider questions and provided fresh answers. Books on medicines were confused, like al-Qanun fil Tibb (Canon of Medicine) by Ibn Sina.
The poetry of that period is called Nazm and prose is called nature. Ode (qasida) is the poetic composition by poets of the Abbasid period. Abu Nawas composed classical poetry on themes like wine and male love. Sufi’s glorified the intoxication caused by the wine of mystical love. An Arabic vocabulary was developed. The Father of the new Persian poetry was Radaki, a court poet under Samanids.
Rubai and Ghazals were composed. The rubai is a four line-stanza in which the first two lines set the stage, the third is finely poised, and the fourth delivers the point. Umarkhayyam of Bukhara was a famous poet who composed rubai. Diwans and Mathnavi (anthologies and epic poetry) were composed during the period of Mahmud of Ghazni. Firdausi composed Shahnama (Book of King) and Kitab-Al-Fihrist describes a large number of works written in prose for the moral education and amusement of readers. Other books written during this period were Kalilawa Dimna, Stories of Alexander and Sindbad, The Thousand and One Nights, Kitab al-Bukhala, Akhlaq, Mirrors for Princes Tarikh (Ansab al-Ashraf) and Tarikh al-Rusul Wal Muluk, Rihla and Ahsan al-Taqasim, Muruj al Dhahab and Tahqiq mail-Hind.
Q.18. Explain the Quran and the difficulties in case of it as source material for the history of early Islam.
Ans. The Quran is a book in Arabic consisting of 114 chapters (Suras). Chapters are in descending order of length i.e.; the shortest chapter is the less. Only first Sura is a short prayer (al-Fatihah. This book is considered a collection of messages which God gave to Prophet Muhammad between 610 and 632, first in Mecca and then in Medina. It was completed in 650 CE. The verses engraved on the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and oh the coins in the seventh century are the earliest.
Problems for the use of the Quran as source material for the history of early Islam have arisen. The one is to understand it literally as the theologians believe these as the speech of God (Kalam Allah). The rationalists have given a wider interpretation of the Quran. Such dual-position raises controversy to arrive at the conclusion. The second problem is that of events not narrated by m Quran. It only refers to the events; therefore, Medieval scholars have to make sense of many verses with the help of hadith. We see, there are many hadith written to help in the reading of the Quran.
Q.19. Whether the thoughts of Abdul-Latif, a twelfth-century legal and medical scholar of Baghdad, about an ideal student as extracted in this chapter are relevant to a student today?
Ans. We think the suggestions are all relevant to a student today, provided that one could construe the meaning and implication of this extract in a positive manner. We can sum up the main points suggested as under-.
On the basis of the above points, the study becomes perfect and scientific, for which no options remain. Here literally suggested submission before Prophet and distrust your nature, but its implication leads to the scientific process of the study. We can replace prophet with the generalization which is made after experiments done impartially. Similarly, distrust of your nature implies cleanliness of head and heart while in a study which is necessary to grasp the sense in its basic form, and generalization thereafter would automatically provide with the apparent light in the matter so churned.
Conclusion: Hence, we can state that cramming and study are useless even in modem sense and curriculum, and the same has been started and suggested in the aforesaid extract.
Q.19. Outline the fiscal system adopted in die Central Islamic lands.
Ans. Fiscal System-Owing to the rapid growth of urban centers, cities, towns and, the trade, income, and expenditure of the state had also spurt up. This increased the importance of money in the central Islamic Lands. In order to pay for goods and services, coins of gold, silver, and copper were minted and circulated in bags sealed by money-changers.
Gold was brought from Sudan in Africa, silver from Europe (Zarafshan valley), and precious metals and coins were also brought from Europe. Demand for money inspired dead people to release their accumulated reserves and idle wealth into circulation. Credit facilities were also developed. Letter of Credit (Sakk) and bill of exchange (Suftajer) were used for the transfer of money from one place to another. Commercial papers like promissory notes, cheques, etc., freed merchants from the need to carry cash everywhere. It made their journey safer. Salaries to soldiers or rewards to poets and minstrels were paid in Sakk (cheques). Investment increased, and partnership business’s opened. Thus, the fiscal system under Islamic land was approximately in modem line.
Q.20. Discuss the causes and consequences of the Abbasid revolution.
Ans. It was named as Dawa movement, and it brought down the Umayyads and replaced them with another family of Meccan regions, the Abbasids, in 750 CE. Abbasids were the descendants of Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. This revolution broke out in Khurasan (eastern Iran), where a mixed Arab-Iranian population was mobilized. Arab soldiers were from Iraq and resented the dominance of the Syrians. The Umayyad regime had not reduced the taxes and their demand for privileges left unaccepted. Iranian Muslims (Mawalis) were discriminated against by Arabs. Thus, Umayyad’s Caliph Marwan was defeated in a battle at the river Zab and thereafter, Abbasid Caliphate formed.