Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Geography Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Geography Class 12.
All you need of Humanities/Arts at this link: Humanities/Arts

Q. 1. Why is the area under pastures decreasing in India? How do the changes in the economy effect the changes in land use? Explain.
Ans. The area under pastures is decreasing in India due to the pressure from agricultural land and illegal encroachment due to expansion of cultivation on common pasture land. Changes in economy effect the change in land use :
(i) Size of economy : Growth of the economy over the period of time result in increasing population, change in income levels, available technology and associated factors. As a result, the pressure on land will increase and marginal lands will come under use.
(ii) Composition of economy : The secondary and the tertiary sectors are growing much faster than the primary sector, specifically the agricultural sector. This type of change is common in developing countries like India. This process would result in gradual shift of land from agricultural uses to nonagricultural uses.
(iii) Declining contribution of agriculture : The contribution of the agricultural activities reduces over time. In developing countries, the share of population dependent on agriculture declined slowly as compared to the decline in the sector’s share in GDP. The number of people that the agricultural sector had to feed is increasing day by day.

Q. 2. Define the term ‘Net Sown Area’. Explain any two characteristics each of ‘dryland farming’ and ‘wetland farming.’
Ans. The physical extent of land on which crops are sown and harvested is known as net sown area. It represents the total area sown with crops. Area sown with crops more than once in same year is counted only once.
On the basis of adequacy of soil moisture during the cropping season the farming is divided into two categories, i.e., dryland farming and wetland farming.
Characteristics of dryland farming : 
(i) It is largely confined to the regions having annual rainfall of less than 75 cm.
(ii) These regions grow hardy and drought resistant crops such as ragi, bajra, moong, gram and guar.
(iii) It uses various soil moisture conservation and rain water harvesting techniques.
Characteristics of wetland farming: 
(i) It is largely confined to the regions where rainfall is in excess of the soil moisture requirement of plant during rainy season.
(ii) Such regions may face flood and soil erosion hazards.
(iii) These areas grow various water intensive crops such as rice, jute and sugarcane and practice aquaculture in the fresh bodies.

Q. 3. Mention any five land use categories as maintained in the Land Revenue Records.
Ans. The land-use categories as maintained in the Land Revenue Records are as follows : (i) Forests : It is important to note that area under actual forest cover is different from area classified as forest. The latter is the area which the government has identified and demarcated for forest growth. The land revenue records are consistent with the latter definition. Thus, there may be an increase in this category without any increase in the actual forest cover.
(ii) Land put to non-agricultural uses : Land under settlements (rural and urban), infrastructure ( roads, canals, etc.), industries, shops, etc., are included in this category. An expansion in the secondary and tertiary activities would lead to an increase in this category of land-use.
(iii) Barren and Wastelands : The land which may be classified as a wasteland such as barren hilly terrains, desert lands, ravines, etc., normally cannot be brought under cultivation with the available technology.
(iv) Area under Permanent Pastures and Grazing Lands: Most of this type of land is owned by the Village Panchayat or the Government. Only a small proportion of this land is privately owned. The land owned by the Village Panchayat comes under ‘Common Property Resources’.
(v) Area under Miscellaneous Tree Crops and Groves (Not included in net sown area) : The land under orchards and fruit trees are included in this category. Much of this land is privately owned.
(vi) Culturable Wasteland : Any land which is left fallow (uncultivated) for more than five years is included in this category. It can be brought under cultivation after improving it through reclamation practices.

Q. 4. Explain the term ‘cropping intensity.’ Describe the three cropping seasons in India.
OR
State any two characteristics each of the three distinct cropping seasons of India.
Ans. Cropping intensity means that a higher portion of the net area is being cropped more than once during one agricultural year. This also implies higher productivity per unit of arable land during one agricultural year.
Cropping seasons in India :
Kharif Season : 
(i) This season depends upon southwest monsoon.
(ii) This season falls between June to September.
(iii) Major crops- Rice, Jowar, Maize, Bajra, etc.
Rabi Season : 
(i) This season begins with onset of winter.
(ii) The period of this season is from October to March.
(iii) Major crops- Wheat, Gram, Mustard, Barley, etc.
Zaid Season : 
(i) It is a short duration between Rabi and Kharif.
(ii) Major crops of the season are-watermelons, fruits, vegetables, fodder crops.

Q. 5. What do you know about the rice production in India?
OR
Describe the condition of growth, the production and major area of cultivation of rice in India.
Ans. Rice is a staple food for the overwhelming majority of population in India.
(i) Though, it is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas, it has about 3,000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions. It is a crop of tropical region. The temperature required is 20 to 27 degree centigrade. It requires 75 to 200 cm of rainfall and alluvial soil is considered to the best soil for its cultivation.
(ii) These are successfully grown from sea level to about 2,000 m altitude and from humid areas in eastern India to dry but irrigated areas of Punjab, Haryana, western U.P. and northern Rajasthan. In southern states and West Bengal the climatic conditions allow the cultivation of two or three crops of rice in an agricultural year.
(iii) In the Himalayas and Northwestern parts of the country, it is grown as a kharif crop during southwest monsoon season.
(iv) India contributes 21.2 per cent of rice production in the world and ranks second after China. About one-fourth of the total cropped area in the country is under rice cultivation. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Telangana are six leading rice producing states in the country in 2015-16.
(v) Genetically improved varieties of seed, relatively high usage of fertilisers and pesticides and lower levels of susceptibility of the crop to pests due to dry climatic conditions are responsible for higher yield of rice in Punjab and Haryana.

Q. 6. Explain the importance of foodgrains in the Indian agricultural economy. Describe any three characteristics of rice cultivation.
Ans. The importance of foodgrains: 
(i) Foodgrain crops occupy about two-thirds of the total cropped area in the country.
(ii) Foodgrains are dominant crops in all parts of the country.
(iii) Foodgrains are classified as cereals and pulses.
(iv) Cereals include rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize and ragi.
(v) India accounts for about one-fifth of the total production of pulses in the world.
(vi) Gram and tur are the main pulses cultivated in India.
Characteristics of rice cultivation : 
(i) Rice is a staple food for the majority of population in India.
(ii) It is considered to be a crop of tropical humid areas.
(iii) It has about 3, 000 varieties which are grown in different agro-climatic regions.
(iv) In West Bengal, farmers grow these crops of rice called ‘aus’,’aman’ and ‘boro’.
(v) India contributes 22 per cent of rice production in the world.
(vi) India is the second largest rice producer in the world.

Q. 7. What are the geographical requirements and areas of production of cotton and jute?
Ans. Geographical requirements and areas of production : 
Cotton : (i) Cotton grows well in semi-arid areas/areas of less rainfall.
(ii) It requires hot and wet climate during growing period.
(iii) It requires clear sky during flowering stage.
Areas : 
North-West India, parts of Punjab, Haryana and Northern Rajasthan.
West India: Maharashtra and Gujarat.
South India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. (Any two)
Jute : 
(i) It grows well in hot and humid areas.
(ii) It requires very heavy rain with high temperature throughout the year.
(iii) It requires standing water.
Areas : 
(i) West Bengal.
(ii) Bihar
(iii) Assam

Q. 8. What are the geographical requirements and areas of production of rice and wheat?
OR
What geographical conditions are required to grow wheat?
Ans. Geographical requirements and areas of production :
Rice:

(i) It is grown in tropical humid areas.
(ii) It requires high rainfall, also grown in irrigated areas.
(iii) It is a kharif crop.
Regions : 
West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana. Wheat : (i) It is grown in temperate zone 10° to 20° Celsius temperature required.
(ii) It requires moderate rainfall around 50 to 100 cm.
(iii) It is a Rabi crop. Heavy loamy or light clay in the best suited soil.
(iv) Required 100 frost free days.
Regions: 
Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Bihar.

Q. 9. What are the geographical requirements and areas of production of tea and coffee?
Ans. Geographical requirements and areas of production :
Tea : 
(i) It is grown over undulating topography of hilly areas.
(ii) It requires well-drained soil.
(iii) It grows in humid and sub-humid tropics and sub -tropics.
Regions : 
Brahmaputra Valley of Assam, Sub Himalayan region of West Bengal (Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Cooch Behar districts), the lower slopes of Nilgiri and Cardamom Hills in Western Ghats.
Coffee : 
(i) It requires tropical climate.
(ii) It is grown on undulating highlands. Regions: Highlands of Western Ghats in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Q. 10. Explain how the ‘modern agriculture technology’ and ‘expansion of irrigation’ played a crucial role in enhancing agricultural output in India.
Ans.There has been a significant increase in agricultural output due to improvement in technology and expansion of irrigation :
(i) Production and yield of many crops such as rice and wheat has increased at an impressive rate. Among the other crops, the production of sugarcane, oilseeds and cotton has increased appreciably. India ranks first in the production of pulses, tea, jute, cattle and milk. It is the second largest producer of rice, wheat, groundnut, sugarcane and vegetables.
(ii) Expansion of irrigation has played a very crucial role in enhancing agricultural output in the country. It provided basis for introduction of modern agricultural technology such as high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and farm machinery. The net irrigated area in the country has increased from 20.85 million to 54.66 million ha over the period of 1950-51 to 2000-01. Over these 50 years, area irrigated more than once in an agricu ltural year has increased from 1.71 million ha to 20.46 million ha. This spurt of agricultural growth came to be known as “Green Revolution.’ This also gave impetus to the development of a allege number of agro-inputs, agro-processing industries and small-scale industries. This strategy of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in food-grain production.

Q. 11. Discuss how modern agricultural technology has helped in increasing the chemical consumption and irrigation in enhancing the agricultural production.
Ans. Modern agricultural technology has diffused very fast in various areas of the country. Consumption of chemical fertilizers has increased by 15 times since mid-sixties. In 2001-02, per hectare consumption of chemical fertilizers in India was 91 kg which was equal to its average consumption in the world (90 kg). But in the irrigated areas of Punjab and Haryana the consumption of chemical fertilizers per unit area is three to four times higher than that of the national average. Since, the high yielding varieties are highly susceptible to pests and diseases, the use of pesticides has increased significantly since 1960s.
Expansion of irrigation has played a very crucial role in enhancing agricultural output in the country.It provided basis for introduction of modern agricultural technology such as high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and farm machinery. The net irrigated area in the country has increased from 20.85 million ha to 54.66 million ha over the period 1950-51 to 2000-01. Over these 50 years, area irrigated more than once in an agricultural year has increased from 1.71 million ha to 20.46 million ha.

Q. 12. Discuss the five measures adopted to solve the problems of Indian agriculture in order to increase food production.
Ans. Five measures adopted to solve the problems of Indian agriculture to increase foodgrains production are :
(i)Intensification of cropping over cultivated land.
(ii)Increase cultivated area wherever possible.
(iii)To use HYV seeds, i.e., easy availability of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides.
(iv) Expansion of irrigation facilities.
(v) Use modern agricultural technology.
Detailed Answer : 
(i)Intensification of cropping over cultivated land: Foodgrains are the main consumption item of Indian people. Food availability is a necessary condition for food security. Intensification of cropping over cultivated land has helped in increasing the food production.
(ii)Increase cultivated area wherever possible: The government has introduced measures to abolish intermediary rights on land and all state government adopted legislation for the purpose. More and more land was given to farmers in order to increase the production of crops and hence solve the problem of food scarcity.
(iii)To use HYV seeds, i.e., easy availability of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides : In several regions, the farmers are not able to get information about the availability of new and improved varieties and some are not having access to quality seeds of these varieties., resulting in lesser yields. Farmers are being educated and encouraged to make use of HYV seeds along with easy availability of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides.
(iv)Expansion of irrigation facilities : Improved management of irrigation water is essential in enhancing production and productivity, food security and poverty alleviation. It is necessary that an integrated water use policy is formulated and judiciously implemented. Modern methods of irrigation like sprinklers, drip irrigation, fertigation, among other water efficient tools need to be adopted on larger scale.
(v)User modern agricultural technology: Integrated pest management and integrated weed management has been provided to ensure higher production and sustainability of production base.

Q. 13. ‘Fragmentation of land holdings’ and ‘degradation of cultivable land’ are the serious problems of Indian agriculture. Suggest and explain measures to overcome these problems.
Ans. Fragmentation of land holdings and degradation of cultivable land are serious problems of Indian agriculture.
Measures for fragmentation of land holdings : 
(i)Consolidation of land holdings.
(ii)Strict implementation of land reforms.
Measures to overcome degradation of cultivable land : 
(i)Check waterlogging.
(ii)Use of organic manure.
(iii)Cultivation of leguminous crops.
(iv)Rotation of crops.
Detailed Answer : 
Measures for fragmentation of land holdings : 
(i)Consolidation of land holdings : Consolidation of land holdings will help in readjustment and rearrangement of land parcels and their ownership. It helps in farming larger and more rational land holdings. Big areas of land lying waste can be reclaimed and made fit for cultivation.
(ii)Strict implementation of land reforms : Implementation of land reforms will help the farmers purchase more land and use it for agricultural purposes without being answerable to anyone. The administrative setup should be stream lined and corrupt elements should be punished.
Measures to overcome degradation of cultivated land:
(i)Check waterlogging : Waterlogging should be checked in agricultural lands to prevent degradation of cultivatble land.
(ii)Use of organic manure : The excessive use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers kill the organisms that assist in binding the soil together. Farmers should be educated and encouraged to use organic manure.
(iii)Cultivation of leguminous crops : Cultivation of leguminous crops helps to produce nitrogen compound that help the plant to grow and complete with other plants. The nitrogen released from leguminous crops helps to fertilize the soil.
(iv)Rotation of crops : The practice of crop rotation helps the soil to retain its nutrients and to recover. It also helps in reducing soil erosion and increase soil fertility and crop yield.

Q. 14. Analyse any five major problems of Indian agriculture. OR What are the problems faced by the Indian agriculture system?
OR
Discuss the problems of Indian agriculture?
Ans. The major problems of Indian agriculture are :
(i)Dependency on monsoon due to insufficient irrigation system is major drawbacks of the Indian agriculture system.
(ii)The yield of crops in India is very low. Less productive seeds are used for agriculture instead of hybrid seeds.
(iii)Poor economic system and insufficient infrastruc-tural developments of Indian villages also work as barrier for agricultural development in India.
(iv)The employment of scientific technique, especially in America and Russia has achieved tremendous progress. In the first place, machines have super-seded manual labour. That means a larger areas is brought under cultivation in more efficient man-ner.
(v)All this needs far-sighted planning. When the ownership of land is restored to the cultivators and determined efforts are made to modernise their outlook, agriculture in India will flourish much more.

Q. 15. Write any suggestions to overcome low productivity of land and to overcome fragmentation of land holding.
Ans. Suggestions to overcome low productivity :
(i)Proper irrigation facility.
(ii)Timely availability of good seeds, fertilizers, manure, pesticides, etc.
(iii)Guidance of exports/educate the farmers.
(iv)Easy availability of labs for soil testing.
Suggestions to overcome fragmentation of land holding :
(i)Consolidation of land holdings.
(ii)Adoption of cooperative farming.
(iii)Any other relevant point.
Detailed Answer :
(i)Proper irrigation facility : Crop productivity de-pends not only on the quality of input but also on the irrigation facilities. Therefore, canals, tubewells should be constructed to provide better irrigation facilities for the security of the crops. Extensive flood control measures should be adopted.
(ii)Timely availability of good seeds, fertilizers, manure, pesticides, etc. : The farmers should be supplied with quality inputs at proper time and controlled prices. To protect the farmers from exploitation, effective steps are needed to be taken to check sale of adulterated fertilizers, poor quality seeds, etc.
(iii)Guidance of exports/educate the farmer : Marketing infrastructure should be widened and strengthened to help the farmers to sell their products at local as well as international markets. Besides this, price support policy must be adopted and minimum prices should be guaranteed to the peasants.
(iv)Easy availability of labs for soil testing : Labs for soil testing should be set up in villages so that the farmers can be educated about the soil and how to preserve and regain its fertility.
(v)Agricultural education : In a bid to guide and advise the farmers regarding the adoption of new technology arrangements should be made for agricultural education and extension services. It would assist the farmers to take proper crop-care leading to increase in crop productivity.

Q. 16. Write a few suggestions for solving the problems of erratic monsoon and indebtedness problem faced by Indian farmers.
Ans. Suggestions for solving the problem of erratic monsoon :
(i)Expansion of irrigation facilities.
(ii)Efficient use of water for irrigation.
(iii)Improvement in the methods of irrigation, e.g. use of drip irrigation and sprinklers.
(iv)Rainwater harvesting.
(v)Maintenance of existing lakes, ponds, tanks, etc.
Suggestions for solving the problems of rural indebtedness :
(i)Minimum support price.
(ii)Provision of subsidies (seeds, fertilizers, etc.)
(iii)Storage facilities.
(iv)Provision of loan at low rates.
Detailed Answer :
Suggestions for solving the problem of erratic monsoon :
(i)Expansion of irrigation facilities : Expansion of irrigation facilities with contributionin increasing the agricultural output. This reduces the dependence of farmers on monsoons.
(ii)Efficient use of water for irrigation : People should be educated not to waste water and make efficient use of water for irrigation in order to increase productivity and improve the yield.
(iii)Improvement in the methods of irrigation, e.g., use of drip irrigation and sprinklers : Using advanced methods of irrigation such as drip irrigation sprinklers, etc., will help improve the method of irrigation and reduce the dependence on monsoons.
(iv)Rainwater harvesting : Rainwater harvesting is a technique of collection and storage of rainwater into natural reservoirs or tanks or the infiltration of surface water to sub-surface aquifers. The method of rainwater harvesting helps in storing water for future use and thus helps to reduce dependency on monsoons.
(v)Maintenance of existing lakes, ponds, tanks, etc. :The local administration should look into the maintenance of existing lakes, ponds, tanks, etc. so that the water stored in them can be used in future.
Suggestions for solving the problems of rural indebtedness :
(i)Minimum support price : The government should make provisions for fixing minimum support price so that the poor people are not exploited by the landlords.
(ii)Provision of subsidies (seeds, fertilizers, etc.) : Basic things like seeds, fertilizers, etc, should be provided at subsidised rates, so that the farmers are saved from indebtedness.
(iii)Storage facilities : The government should provide storage facilities to the farmers in order to store their product so that it does not get spoilt while lying in open due to rain or excessive heat.
(iv)Provision of loan at low rates : The government should make provision to provide loan at low rates so that the moneylenders will not get an opportunity to exploit the poor people.

Q. 17. What are the different types of environmental problems of land resources in India?
Ans. The different types of environment problems of land resources in India are:
(i)Soil erosion : The removal of soil by running water and wind is known as soil erosion. India is losing 5,334 million tonnes of soil every year to soil erosion because of indiscreet and excess use of fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides over the years.
(ii)Waterlogging : Waterlogging refers to the saturation of soil with water. Soil may be regarded as waterlogged when it is nearly saturated with water much of the time such that its air phase is restricted and anaerobic conditions prevail.
(iii)Salinization : Salt salinization is also important environmental problem. During salinization the salt content in the soil increases.
(iv)Alkalinisation of land : Alkalinisation of the land occurs when due to poor soil structure and low infiltration capacity. This also causes environmental problem in India.
(v)Drought : When any area is affected by drought it means that there has been a prolonged shortage of water supply.
(vi)Erratic Monsoon : In India, the rainfed crops are dependent on erratic monsoons. Very often the monssons fail to occur exposing India to drought and thus causing environmental problems of land resources in India.

Q. 18. What are the important strategies for agricultural development followed in the post-independence period in India?
Ans. Indian agricultural economy was largely subsistence in nature before the independence. During Partition about one-third of the irrigated land in undivided India went to Pakistan.
(i)After Independence, the immediate goal of the Government was to increase foodgrains production by :
(a)Switching over cash crops to food crops.
(b)Intensification of cropping over already cultiva-ble land.
(c)Increasing cultivated area by bringing cultivable land and fallow land under plough.
(ii)This strategy helped in increasing foodgrains production. But is stagnated during late 1950s. Intensive Agricultural District Programme and Intensive Agricultural Area Programme were launched to overcome this problem.
(iii)New seed varieties of wheat and rice known as HVYs were available for cultivation by mid-1960s. Package technology including HYVs was introduced in Punjab, Haryana, Western UP, Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat.
(iv)This strategy of agricultural development increased the foodgrains at very fast rate and this agricultural growth came to be known as Green Revolution. This strategy of agricultural development made the country self-reliant in foodgrains production.
(v)The Planning Commission of India initiated agro-climatic planning in 1988 to induce regionally balanced agricultural development in the country. It also emphasised the need for diversification of agricultural and harnessing of resources for development of dairy farming, poultry, horticulture, etc.

Q. 19. Describe the major challenging of agriculture in present India.
Ans.The main challenges of Indian agriculture are as follows :
(i)Dependence on erratic monsoon : Irrigation covers only 33% of the cultivated areas of India. Crop production in rest of the country depends on rainfall. Poor performance of South-West Monsoon adversely affects the supply of water for irrigation. On the other hand drought prone areas are meagre and highly unreliable. When in some parts of India there is more rain and cause floods in other parts of the country there is drought.
(ii)Low productivity : Another major problem of Indian agriculture is low productivity. Because of high pressure on land the productivity from land is very low, the vast rainfed areas, and the dryland which mainly grow coarse grain, pulses and oilseeds have very long yield. Though high yielding variety seeds have been introduced but only 16% of the area is covered under this.
(iii)Constraints of financial support and indebtedness : The input of modern agriculture are very expensive. It has become unmanageable for the small and marginal labourer to arrange the finance and so they avail credit from various institutions and moneylenders and fall in the trap of indebtedness.
(iv)Lack of land reforms : Another major problem of Indian agriculture was lack of implementation of land reforms and so continuation of iniquitous distribution of cultivable land was detrimental to agricultural development.
(v)Small farm size : There is large number of marginal and small farmers in the country. More than 60% of the land holdings are small in size.

Q. 20.‘Erratic monsoon’ and ‘indebtedness’ are the major problems of Indian agriculture. Suggest and explain the measures to overcome these problems.
Ans. Agriculture in India is affected by uncertain, unreliable and erratic monsoon rainfall. India cannot achieve sustained progress in agriculture unless and until more than half of the cropped area is brought under assured irrigation. Expansion of irrigation has played a very crucial role in enhancing agricultural output in the country. It provided basis for introduction of modern agricultural technology such as high yielding varieties of seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and farm machinery.
The net irrigated area in the country has increased from 20.85 million ha to 54.66 million ha over the period 1950 -51 to 2000-01. Over these 50 years, area irrigated more than once in an agricultural year has increased from 1.71 million ha to 20.46 million ha.The main suppliers of money to the farmer are the moneylenders, traders and commission agents who charge high rate of interest and purchase the agricultural produce at a very low price. The inputs of modern agriculture are very expensive and are often out of reach of the marginal and small farmers as they have very meagre or no saving to invest in agriculture.
All India Rural Credit Survey Committee showed that in 1950-51 the share of moneylenders stood at as high as 68.6 per cent of the total rural credit and in 1975-76 their share declined to 43 per cent of the credit needs of the farmers. This shows that the moneylender is losing ground but is still the single largest contributor of agricultural credit. Rural credit scenario has undergone a significant change and institutional agencies such as Central Cooperative Banks, State Cooperative Banks, Commercial Banks, Cooperative Credit Agencies and some government agencies are extending loans to farmers on easy terms. There has been a steady increase in the flow of institutional credit to agriculture over the years.

Q. 21. Low productivity and fragmentation of land holdings are the major problems of Indian agriculture. Suggest and explain measures to overcome these problems.
Ans. The pressure of increasing population and the practice of dividing land equally among the heirs has caused excessive sub-divisions of farm holdings.
Consequently, the holdings are small and fragmented. The small size of holdings makes farming activity uneconomical and leads to social tension, violence and discontentment. Consolidation of village lands and cooperative farming will ease the burden of fragmented land holdings.
Indian soils have been used for sowing crops for thousands of years which has resulted in the depletion of soil fertility. With deforestation, the sources of maintaining natural fertility of soil have been dying out. Lack of material resources and ignorance of scientific knowledge have further depleted the soils of the natural fertility. This is a serious problem which can be solved by using more manures and fertilizers. It has been felt that organic manures are essential for keeping the soil in good health. The government has given high incentive especially in the form of heavy subsidy for suing fertilizers.

Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

study material

,

Summary

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

Exam

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Viva Questions

,

Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Important questions

,

Extra Questions

,

MCQs

,

Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

,

Semester Notes

,

past year papers

,

practice quizzes

,

video lectures

,

pdf

,

Objective type Questions

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

Sample Paper

,

Free

,

Long Questions with Answers- Land Resources and Agriculture Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

;