Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part - 2) - The Cold War Era Notes | EduRev

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Q.13. Here is a list of countries. Write against each of these the bloc they belonged to during the Cold War.
(i) Poland
(ii) France
(iii) Japan
(iv) Nigeria
(v) North Korea
(vi) Sri Lanka
Ans. 

(i) Poland ------ Warsaw Bloc
(ii) France ------ NATO Bloc
(iii) Japan ------ Others
(iv) Nigeria ----- Others
(v) North Korea ------ Warsaw Bloc
(vi) Sri Lanka ------ Others

Q.14. Sometimes it is said that the Cold War was a simple struggle for power and that ideology had nothing to do with it. Do you agree with this? Give one example to support your position.
Ans. The Cold War was not simply a matter of power rivalries, of military alliances and the balance of power. These were accompanied by real ideological conflicts as well, a difference over the best and the most appropriate way of organising political, economic and social life all over the world. Two alliances came into existence during the Cold War—The Western Alliance and the Eastern Alliance. The Western Alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the Eastern Alliance headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism. Cuba was a communist country and was an ally of the Soviet Union. The leader of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev was worried that the USA would invade Cuba. He installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. This was done not to protect Cuba but it was done to protect the ideology of socialism and communism.

Q.15. How did the idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originate? In 1972, which four reforms were proposed by UNCTAD to benefit the Least Developed Countries (LDCs)?

OR

What is meant by the New International Economic Order? Mention any four reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972.
Ans. The non-aligned countries were categorised as the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and the challenge they faced was to be more developed. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free and then be dependent on richer countries. The idea of a New International Economic Order (NIEO) originated with this realisation.
Reforms of the global trading system proposed by UNCTAD in 1972:
(i) To give the LDC ’s control over their natural resources which were earlier exploited by the developed western countries.
(ii) To obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
(iii) To reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
(iv) To provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.

Q.16. Assess three reforms proposed by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) as new trade policy development.
Ans. Following were the three reforms proposed by the UNCTAD as new trade policy development. The report proposed a reform of the global systems as to:
(i) Give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries.
(ii) Obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries.
(iii) Reduce the cost of technology from the western countries.
(iv) Provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions.
Detailed Answer: The non-aligned countries were more than merely mediators during the Cold War. The challenge for most of the non-aligned countries was to be more developed economically and to lift their people out of poverty. A majority of them were categorised as the Least Developed Countries. Economic development was also vital for the independence of the new countries. Without sustained development, a country could not be truly free. It would remain dependent on the richer countries including the colonial powers from which political freedom had been achieved. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development. The report proposed a reform of the global trading system so as to:
(i) Give the LDCs control over their natural resources exploited by the developed western countries. For the development of a country it is must that the natural resources should be under its control. It can use these resources as per its requirement.
(ii) Obtain access to western markets so that the LDCs could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the poorer countries. Only production of goods and services are not going to help. For goods and services markets are also required so that they could be sold. But for developing countries searching markets is not easy work. So, they had been allowed easy access to western markets.
(iii) Reduce the cost of technology from the western countries. It was also aimed to reduce the cost of technology imported from the western countries. For developing countries, it was not possible to bear the cost of the technology.
(iv) Provide the LDCs with a greater role in international economic institutions. The report also proposed that the Least Developed Countries should be given a greater role in international economic institutions. It will help them in obtaining financial assistance also.

Q.17. How did the ‘New International Economic Order’ come into being? Which reforms were proposed by UNCTAD in its report in 1972?
Ans. 
Since the early 1970s, the issue of the New International Economic Order has been the frontal issue in international relations involving the developing countries on one side and the developed countries on the other side. Developing countries of the third world made persistent demands for the establishment of the New International Economic Order (NIEO). While the South again and again makes a demand for NIEO, the North resists it. The third world countries regard the restructuring of the existing international economic order as the only way to get out of the present problems related to poverty, scarcity, unemployment and economic problems.
NIEO stands for making the international system fair, just and equitable by adopting a code of conduct for the developed countries and by accepting the due rights of the underdeveloped countries. The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development brought out a report in 1972 entitled Towards a New Trade Policy for Development.
The report proposed a reform in the global trading system as follows:
(i) The developing countries should be given control over natural resources which are exploited.
(ii) The least developing countries should be given access to western markets so that they can sell their products and therefore, make trade more useful for the poorer countries.
(iii) Reduce the cost of technology of the western countries.
(iv) LDCs should be provided role in international economic institutions.

Q.18. Read the passage carefully and answer the following questions: Non-alignment as a strategy evolved in the Cold War context….. With the disintegration of USSR and the end of Cold War in 1991, Non-alignment, both as an international movement and as the core of India’s foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(i) Why did India adopt Non-alignment?

(ii) Explain any two reasons for the loss of its relevance by the Non-Alignment Movement.
(iii) How far do you agree that the Non-Alignment has become an international movement?
Ans. 

(i) India adopted Non-alignment to make inter-national policies and decisions in a free manner and to actively intervene in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries.
(ii) Due to the end of Cold War.
Disintegration of USSR.
(iii) NAM has become an international movement because it is based on a resolve to democratise its international system. It provides an alternative world in order to redress the existing inequalities in various countries, especially the newly independent countries.

Q.19. As a leader of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM), explain India’s role during the Cold War.
Ans. 
India’s role during the Cold War:
(i) India took particular care in staying away from the two alliances.
(ii) India raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries from becoming part of these alliances.
(iii) India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries.
(iv) Indian leaders and diplomats were often used to communicate and meditate.
(v) India chose to involve other members of the NAM in this mission.
(vi) India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organisations which were not a part of the alliances led by the US and the USSR.
Detailed Answer: During the Cold War, India took particular care in staying away from the two alliances. But it did not mean isolation or neutrality. India played an active role in mediating between the two rival alliances for the cause of peace and stability. India raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries from becoming part of these alliances.
The Cold War threatened to divide the world into two alliances. Under these circumstances, many of the newly independent countries, after gaining their independence from colonial powers, were worried that they would lose their freedom as soon as they gained formal independence.
The Non-Aligned Movement gave the newly independent countries a way of staying out of the alliance. India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries. India’s strength was based on its resolve to remain non-aligned despite the attempt by the two superpowers to bring them into their alliances. It is important to remember that India chose to involve other members of the non-aligned group in the mission.
During the Cold War, India repeatedly tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which were not a part of the alliances led by the US and the USSR. Nehru reposed great faith in ‘a genuine commonwealth nations’ that would play a positive role in softening, if not ending, the Cold War.

Q.20. Suppose there had been no Cold War, how would that situation have affected India’s foreign policy?
Ans. 
If the Cold War had not taken place, it would have affected Indian foreign policy in the following manners:
(i) India would have retained the adopted independent foreign policy.
(ii) Since the rivalry between many major powers would have increased hatred and enmity, India would have been compelled to join the arms race to become a strong nation to defend its independence and sovereignty.
(iii) Indian would have become a superpower in Asia because of her large territory, human resource and strategy location.
Detailed Answer: India got its independence in the year 1947. It faced a lot of challenges after becoming independent. These challenges cautioned our leaders to be careful about the foreign policy of India. NAM came into existence because of the Cold War. Many countries came under the aegis of NAM to avoid groups. In the absence of the Cold War, India would have adopted an independent policy and under this policy, it would have made its presence felt independently. Since the rivalry between many major powers would have increased hatred and enmity, India would have been compelled to join the arms race to become a strong nation to defend its independence and sovereignty.
India might have emerged as a superpower in Asia because of its large territory, human resources and strategic location. It would have also increased piles of its nuclear weapons and would have become one of the biggest supplier of nuclear arms.

Q.21. Describe the role played by India in keeping the Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant.
Ans. Role played by India in keeping the Non-Aligned Movement alive and relevant:
(i) India has always tried its voice against the newly decolonised countries becoming members of superpower alliances.
(ii) India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries.
(iii) India tried to reduce the differences between the superpowers.
(iv) India tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which were not a part of the alliances led by the US and the USSR.
(v) The policy of Non-alignment is not a policy of fleeing away rather it is a positive role in world affairs.
(vi) Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between Cold War rivals such as in the Korean War in the early 1950s.
Detailed Answer: The Non-Aligned Movement aimed at establishing a new and equitable international economic, social and political order.
(i) Stabilisation of World Peace: The nonaligned countries always kept themselves away from the power blocs so that they could reduce the tension in the world and if at all there is any war, they can bring peace in the particular area by mediating between the enemy countries.
(ii) To put an end to Imperialism and Colonisation: The non-aligned countries wanted to put an end to imperialism as they did not support exploitation. The members of the NAM support the freedom struggle movements in Asia and Africa.
(iii) Oppositions of Alliances: The world had already witnessed two crucial and dreadful wars because of the alliances of the military powers. So the non-aligned countries decided not to join any power bloc which might create tension in the world and ultimately, its results in the world war. Being the founder member of NAM, India has always played an active role in keeping the movement alive. India has always raised its voice against the newly decolonised countries aligning their faith with the superpower alliances. India had always favoured active intervention in world affairs to soften cold war rivalries.
India tried to reduce the differences between the Superpowers, although the efforts did not turn out successful. India tried to activate those regional and international organisations, which were not a part of the alliances led by the US and the USSR. For India, the policy of Non-alignment is not a policy of fleeing away rather it is a positive role in world affairs. Indian diplomats and leaders were often used to communicate and mediate between Cold War rivals such as in the Korean War in the early 1950s.

Q.22. Evaluate the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement after the end of the Cold War.

OR

“Non-Aligned Movement has become irrelevant today.”Do you agree with this statement? Give any three suitable arguments to support your answer.

OR

What do you think about the statement that NAM has become irrelevant today? Give reasons to support your opinion. (NCERT)
Ans. 
Non-alignment, as the name suggests, means a decision of not associating oneself with any groups. This policy was of great relevance till the Cold War. But then the Cold War ended, and with the collapse of Soviet Union the world order started to change.
(i) The world since the Cold War has had a wide-ranging impact on global politics. With the disappearance of the Bipolar system followed by uni-polarity and now with changing nature of power and power relations, with the rise of India, China and other powers, the world is moving towards multipolarity. Thus, it has posed a new fundamental question of ‘Non-alignment against whom’?
(ii) Today, in the era of liberalisation and globalisation, the world has become a unified society where all nations depend on each other for trade and commerce. The world has become  cosmopolitan and a country cannot survive if it follows the ‘policy of isolation’ or ‘policy of non-interference’. In such a scenario, the relevance of NAM is often questioned.
(iii) Even though the goals of NAM have changed since its formation, it cannot be said to occupy the same position in the international society as it enjoyed earlier. Today it is more focused on economic issues, issues like terrorism, health. Moreover, there is practically nothing innovative or fruitful regarding its meeting and conferences. NAM summits are merely a repetition of the resolutions of the UN and its agencies. Thus, the scheduling of regular summit meetings and increasing membership of NAM cannot be considered any evidence of its relevance.

Q.23. Explain the relevance of the Non-Aligned Movement after the Cold War era.

OR

What is the relevance of the Non-Alignment Movement after the end of the Cold War? Explain.

OR

“Non-Alignment was a strategy evolved in the Cold War context.” With the disintegration of the USSR, has it lost its relevance? Highlight any two suitable arguments in support of your answer.
Ans. 
Non-alignment, after the Cold War in 1991, both as an international movement and as the core of India’s foreign policy, lost some of its earlier relevance and effectiveness.
(i) However, Non-alignment contained some core values and enduring ideas.
(ii) It was based on the recognition that decolonised states share a historical affiliation and can become a powerful force if they come together.
(iii) It meant that the poor and often very small countries of the world, need not become followers of any of the big powers.
(iv) That they could pursue an independent foreign policy.
(v) It was also based on a resolve to democratise the international system by thinking about an alternative world order to redress existing inequalities.
Detailed Answer: The Non-Aligned Movement asserted its continuous relevance and its determination to uphold the objective to oppose and struggle against injustice, inequality and underdevelopment. NAM is committed to work for the removal of economic inequalities between the developed and the developing countries.
It is necessary:
(i) For securing a place of dignity, honour and equality for the developing countries.
(ii) For the establishment of the New International Economic Order.
(iii) For the democratisation of the international system and its functioning.
(iv) For the progress of disarmament and denuclearisation. Even though the goals of NAM have changed since its formation, it cannot be said to occupy the same position in the international society as it enjoyed earlier. Today it is more focused on economic issues, issues like terrorism, health. Moreover, there is practically nothing innovative or fruitful regarding its meeting and conferences. NAM summits are merely a repetition of the resolutions of the UN and its agencies. Thus, the scheduling of regular summit meetings and increasing membership of NAM cannot be considered any evidence of its relevance.

Q.24. NAM was considered a ‘third option’ by the Third World Countries. How did this option benefit their growth during the peak of the Cold War?
Ans. 
The roots of NAM, went back to the friendship between three leaders—Yugoslavia’s Josep Broz Tito, India’s Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt’s leader Gamel Abdel Nasser, who held a meeting in 1956. Indonesia’s Sukarno and Ghana’s Kwame Nkrumah strongly supported them. These five leaders came to be known as the five founders of the NAM. The Cold War threatened to divide the world into two alliances. Under these circumstances, many of the newly independent countries, after gaining their independence from the colonial powers were worried that they would lose their freedom, as soon as they gained formal independence.
NAM gave them a way of staying out of the alliances. Under the aegis of NAM, the third world countries got control over their natural resources exploited by the developed countries. They were able to obtain access to western markets so that they could sell their products and therefore, make trade more beneficial for the countries of the third world. NAM helped such countries to get the technology at the reduced cost. It also offered them a greater role in international economic institutions. NAM as a third option, became an economic pressure group for the countries of the third world.

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