Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part - 2) - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part - 2) - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

The document Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers (Part - 2) - International Organisations Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev is a part of the Humanities/Arts Course Political Science Class 12.
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Q. 11. ‘Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council’. Do you agree with this statement?  Give arguments for or against this position.
Ans. 
Yes, I agree with the given statement that “Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council”. The UN was founded with the hope that it would act to stop the conflicts between states escalating into war broke out, to limit the extent of hostilities. Reform and improvement are fundamental to any organisation to serve the needs of a changing environment. The UN is no exception. In recent years, there have been demands for reform of the world body. The UN faces two basic kinds of reforms: reform of the organisation’s structures and processes and a review of the issues that fall within the jurisdiction of the organisation. On the reforms of the structures and processes, the biggest discussion has been on the functioning of the Security Council. Related to this has been the demand for an increase in the UN Security Council’s permanent and nonpermanent membership so that the realities of the contemporary world politics are better reflected in the structure of the organisation.
In the Security Council, there are five permanent members and ten non-permanent members. The Charter gave the members a privileged position to bring about stability in the world after the Second World War. The main privileges of the permanent members are permanency and the veto power. The non-permanent members serve for only two years at a time and give way after that period to newly elected members. Most importantly, the non-permanent members do not have the veto power. While there has been a move to abolish or modify the veto system, there is also a realisation that the permanent members are unlikely to agree to such a reform. So, it is true to say that reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council.

Q. 12. Examine the six reforms proposed as criteria for new permanent and non-permanent members of the UN Security Council.
Ans. 
Six reforms proposed by the UN Security Council :
New member nations must be:
• A major military power.
• A major economic power.
• A substantial contributor to the UN budget.
• A big nation in terms of its population.
• A nation that respects democracy and human rights.
• A country that would represent world’s diversity.

Q. 13. Reforming the UN means restructuring of the Security Council. Suggest measures to reform UNSC.
Ans. 
(i) The UN Security Council is the primary organ entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining international peace and security. Its composition is highly undemocratic. It contains fifteen members (five permanent and ten non-permanent members). These five permanent members enjoy veto power.
(ii) Since the inception of UN, the membership has increased from 51 to 193. The number of Third World countries has expanded rapidly but do not have representation in UNSC as permanent members. Therefore, various suggestions have been made to reform UNSC.
(a) There is a need to increase the number of new permanent and nonpermanent members to UNSC.
(b) The new permanent members and non-permanent members should represent Asian, African and South American continents. It should equally cater to the needs and aspirations of Third World countries along with the First World countries.
(c) The new permanent members should also be provided with veto power. Otherwise, the new permanent members will be powerless.
(d) If the existing permanent members are not ready to provide veto power to the new permanent members, then, the veto power itself shall be abolished.

Q. 14. Mention any six steps that should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context as decided by heads of all the member-states in September 2005.
Ans. 
Steps that should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context as decided by heads of all the member states in September, 2005:
(i) Creation of a Peace-building Commission.
(ii) Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community.
(iii) Establishment of a Human Rights Council.
(iv) Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
(iv) Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.
(v) Condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.
(vi) An agreement to wind up the Trusteeship Council.
(vii) Creation of a Democracy Fund.

Q. 15. “India has supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds.” Justify the statement with three suitable arguments.
Ans.
‘India has supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds.’
(i) One of the India’s major concerns has been the composition of Security Council, which has remained largely static while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded.
(ii) India considers that this has harmed the representative character of the Security Council.
(iii) It also argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
(iv) India supports an increase in the number of both permanent and non-permanent members.
(v) It also believes that Security Council should have more developing countries in it.
(vi) India also wants to offer its candidature for the permanent seat along with Brazil, Japan, Germany and South Africa.

Q. 16. Describe India’s view point about the restructuring of the United Nations.
Ans. 
India’s view point :
(i) India has supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds.
(ii) India believes that a strengthened and revitalised UN is desirable in a changing world.(iii) India also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among member states.
(iv) India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security.
Detailed Answer: India has supported the restructuring of the UN on several grounds.(a) India believes that a strengthened and revitalised UN is desirable in a changing world.(b) India also supports an enhanced role for the UN in promoting development and cooperation among states.
(c) India believes that development should be central to the UN’s agenda as it is a vital precondition for the maintenance of international peace and security.
(d) One of India’s major concerns has been the composition of the Security Council, which has remained largely static while the UN General Assembly membership has expanded considerably. India argues that an expanded Council, with more representation, will enjoy greater support in the world community.
(e) India supports an increase in the number of both permanent and non-permanent members.
(f) India says that the success of the Security Council’s actions depends upon the political support of the international community.
(g) India itself also wishes to be a permanent member in the restructured UN.

Q. 17. Give any three suitable arguments to support India’s character for the permanent membership of the UN Security Council.
Ans. 
(i) India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifth of the world’s population.
(ii) India is also the world’s largest democracy and has virtually participated in all of the initiatives of the UN.
(iii) Its role in the UN’s peace-keeping efforts is a long and substantial one.
(iv) India’s economic emergence on the world stage, due to its policies of liberalisation and globalisation, has enhanced its stake for membership.
(v) India has also made regular financial contribution to the UN and never faltered on its payments.

Q. 18. As a citizen of India, how would you support India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council? Justify your proposal.
Ans. 
Following points may be cited for supporting India’s candidature for the permanent membership of the Security Council :
(i) India is the second most populous country in the world comprising almost one-fifth of the world population.
(ii) India is the world’s largest democracy.
(iii) India has participated in virtually all of the initiatives of the UN.
(iv) India’s economic emergence on the world stage is another factor that perhaps justifies India’s claim to a permanent seat in the Security Council.
(v) India has also made regular financial contributions to the UN and never faltered on its payments.
(vi) India’s role in the UN’s peace - keeping efforts is a long and substantial one.  India is aware that permanent membership of the Security Council also has symbolic importance. It signifies a country’s growing importance in world affairs. The greater status is an advantage to a country in the conduct of its foreign policy, the reputation for being powerful makes one more influential.

Q. 19. Assess the importance of international organisations like the United Nations in the contemporary world.
Ans. 
Relevance of International Organisations
(i) In a unipolar world in which the US is dominant, the UN served to bring the US and the rest of the world into discussions on various issues.
(ii) The US also realises that the UN is an organisation as serving a purpose in bringing together over 190 nations in dealing with conflicts and social and economic development.(iii) The UN provides an arena for the rest of the world in which it is possible to modify the US attitudes and policies.
(iv) The UN may be an imperfect body, but without it, the world would be worse off.
(v) Due to growing interdependence, it is hard to imagine a world without an organisation like the UN.

Q. 20. Though the UN has failed in preventing wars and related miseries, nations prefer its constitution. What makes the UN an indispensable organisation?
Ans. 
Among the concerns about the reform and restructuring of the UN has been the hope of some countries that changes could help the UN cope better with a unipolar world. The UN is an imperfect body, but without it the world would be worse off.
(i) An international organisation like the UN can help produce information and ideas about how to co-operate.
(ii) Interdependence and globalisation will not be possible without an international organisation such as the UN.
(iii) To make a worldwide co-operation on poverty, unemployment, environment problems, terrorism, an international organisation like the UN is must.
(iv) To provide financial assistance to the developing and underdeveloped countries, an international organisation like the UN is required.
(v) The UN serves as an international forum to solve any disputes among countries.
(vi) The different agencies of the UN works for the development of different areas in the world. All the above mentioned points make the existence of the UN an indispensable organisation.

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