Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers - Alternative Centres of Power Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

Political Science Class 12

Humanities/Arts : Previous Year: Long Questions with Answers - Alternative Centres of Power Humanities/Arts Notes | EduRev

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Q. 1. ‘The European Union has economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence’. Substantiate the statement.
Ans. 
‘The European Union has economic, political and diplomatic, and military influence.’

(i) The EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP of $ 12 trillion in 2015 currency.
(ii) The Euro can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar.
(iii) Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States, allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China.
(iv) Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa. It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organisations.
(v) Two of its members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats on the UN Security Council.
(vi) The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme.
(vii) Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation.
(viii) Militarily, the EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world. Its total spending on defense is second after the US.
(ix) It is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

Q. 2. Evaluate any three major factors responsible for making the European Union a political force from being an economic force.
Ans. 
(i) The Council of Europe established in 1949 was a step forward in political cooperation.
(ii) European Economic Community in 1957 acquired a political discussion leading to creation of European Parliament.
(iii) Disintegration of Soviet Union put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.
(iv) It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
(v) EU being the world’s biggest economy has its own political influence also.
Detailed Answer: The Council of Europe established in 1949, was a step forward in political co-operation.
(a) The EU has political influence. Two members of the EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.  The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation.
(b) European Economic Community in 1957 acquired a political discussion leading to creation of European Parliament.
(c) It has its own flag, anthem, founding date and currency.
(d) EU being the world’s biggest economy has its own political influence also. Its GDP is slightly larger than that of the United States. Its currency can pose a threat to the dominance of the US dollar. Its share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China. All these factors are responsible for making European Union a political force from being an economic force.

Q. 3. Analyse any three factors responsible for the European Union to be highly influential regional organisation.
Ans. 
Factors responsible for the European Union to be a highly influential regional organization:
(i) Influence of EU in economic fields:
(a) The EU is the world’s biggest economy.
(b) Its currency, the Euro, can pose threat to the dominance of the US dollar also.
(c) Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
(d) Its share of world trade is 3 times larger than that of the US.
(ii) Influence of EU in political fields:
(a) Its two members, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.
(b) It also includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC.
(c) The EU has influenced some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme.
(iii) Influence of EU in military fields:
(a) The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
(b) Its total population spending on defence is second after the US.
(c) Its two members, Britain and France, also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads.

Q. 4. Analyse the economic and political influence of the European Union.
Ans. 
The EU has political influence. Two members of the EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.  The EU includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC. This has enabled the EU to influence some US policies such as the current US position on Iran’s nuclear programme. Its use of diplomacy, economic investments, and negotiations rather than coercion and military force has been effective as in the case of its dialogue with China on human rights and environmental degradation.   Influence of EU in economic fields :
(i) The EU is the world’s biggest economy. Its GDP is slightly larger than that of the United States.
(ii) Its currency, the Euro, can pose threat to the dominance of the US dollar also.
(iii) Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
(iv) Its share of world trade is 3 times larger than that of the US allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China. Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa
(v) It also functions as an important bloc in international economic organisations such as World Trade Organisation (WTO).

Q. 5. Why was the European Union established? Describe its economic, political, diplomatic and military influences.
Ans. 
As the Second World War came to an end, many European leaders grappled with the question of Europe. Europe should be allowed to revert to its old rivalries or be reconstructed on principles and institutions that would contribute to a positive conception of international relations. The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. In 1945, the European states confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of the assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded. The European Union was established with a view to strengthen the economic condition of the Europe.  The foundation was laid for a common foreign and security policy, co-operation on justice and home affairs and the creation of a single currency.
(i) Influence of EU in economic fields:
(a) The EU is the world’s biggest economy.
(b) Its currency, the Euro, can pose threat to the dominance of the US dollar also.
(c) Its economic power gives it influence over its closest neighbours as well as in Asia and Africa.
(d) Its share of world trade is 3 times larger than that of the US.
(ii) Influence of EU in political fields:
(a) Its two members Britain and France hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.(b) It also includes several non-permanent members of the UNSC.
(c) The EU has influenced some US policies such as the current US position in Iran’s nuclear programme.
(iii) Influence of EU in military fields:
(a) The EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
(b) Its total population spending on defence is second after the US.
(c) Its two members, Britain and France, also have nuclear arsenals of approximately 550 nuclear warheads.

Q. 6. How did the European countries resolve their post-Second World War problem? Briefly outline the attempts that led to the formation of the European Union. U (NCERT) Ans. The Second World War shattered many of the assumptions and structures on which the European states had based their relations. In 1945, the European states confronted the ruin of their economies and the destruction of the assumptions and structures on which Europe had been founded. The European countries resolved their postSecond World War structures mainly because of the American help. America extended massive financial help for reviving Europe’s economy under what was called the ‘Marshall Plan’. Under the Marshall Plan, the Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was established. In 1948, to channel aid to the western European states, it became a forum where the western European states began to co-operate on trade and economic issues. The Council of Europe, established in 1949, was another step forward in political cooperation. The US also created a new collective security structure under NATO. This way, the process of economic integration of European capitalist countries proceeded step by step.
Following are the main attempts for the formation of the European Union:
(i) Establishment of the Council of Europe in 1949.
(ii) Formation of European Economic Community in 1957.
(iii)The process acquired a political dimension with the creation of the European Parliament.
(iv) The collapse of the Soviet bloc put Europe on a fast track and resulted in the establishment of the European Union in 1992.

Q. 7. What makes the European Union a highly influential regional organisation?
Ans. 
Following points make the European Union a highly influential regional organisation:
(i) The European Union has economic, political and diplomatic and military influence.
(ii) The EU is the world’s biggest economy with a GDP larger than that of the United States.
(iii) The EU’s share of world trade is three times larger than that of the United States allowing it to be more assertive in trade disputes with the US and China.
(iv) The EU has political and diplomatic influence as two members of the EU, Britain and France, hold permanent seats in the UN Security Council.
(v) Militarily, the EU’s combined armed forces are the second largest in the world.
(vi) The EU’s total spending on defence is second after the US.
(vii) The two EU’s members, France and Britain, also have nuclear arsenals.
(viii) The EU is also the world’s second most important source of space and communications technology.

Q. 8. Name the pillars and the objectives of the ASEAN Community.
Ans. 
Following are the three pillars of the ASEAN:
(i) The ASEAN Security Community
(ii) The ASEAN Economic Community
(iii) The ASEAN Socio-Cultural Community

Following are the objectives of the ASEAN Community:
(i) The objectives of the ASEAN Community was based on the conviction that outstanding territorial disputes should not escalate into armed confrontation.
(ii) The objectives of the ASEAN Community are to create a common market and production base within ASEAN states and to aid social and economic development in the region.
(iii) To encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region.
(iv) To promote regional peace and stability in the region.
(v) It would like to improve the existing ASEAN Dispute Settlement Mechanism to resolve economic disputes.
(vi) The objectives of ASEAN Community are primarily to accelerate economic growth and through that ‘social progress and cultural development.

Q. 9. The peace and prosperity of countries lay in establishment and strengthening of regional economic organisations. Justify this statement.
Ans. 
The statement can be well justified with the formation of the ASEAN. Before and during the Second World War, the south-eastern region of Asia suffered the economic and political consequences of repeated colonialism, both European and Japanese. At the end of the War, the region confronted problems of nation-building, the ravages of poverty and economic backwardness and pressure to align with one great power or another during the Cold War. Craving for peace and prosperity, countries of this region–Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand signed Bangkok Declaration establishing the ASEAN. ASEAN is rapidly growing into a very important regional organisation. Its Vision 2020 has defined an outward-looking role for ASEAN in the international community. This builds on the existing ASEAN policy to encourage negotiation over conflicts in the region. Thus ASEAN has mediated the end of the Cambodian conflict, the East Timor crisis and meets annually to discuss East Asian co-operation.

Q. 10. Assess the three major factors responsible for the rise of the Chinese economy.
Or
How did China rise to be an economic superpower?
Or
In what ways does the present Chinese economy differs from its command economy?
Ans. 
(i) China has been the fastest growing economy.
(ii) Biggest population in the world.
(iii) Land reforms and the resources have also promoted Chinese economy.
(iv) The Soviet model, along with Soviet aid and advise, aimed at creating state owned heavy industries from the capital accumulated from agriculture sector.
(v) China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.
Detailed Answer: After the inception of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, following the communist revolution under the leadership of Mao, its economy was based on the Soviet model.  The economically backward communist China chose to severe its links with the capitalist world. The model was to create a state-owned heavy industries sector from the capital accumulated from agriculture. As it was short of foreign exchange that it needed in order to buy technology and goods on the world market, China decided to substitute imports by domestic goods.
(a) The model allowed China to use its resources to establish the foundations of an industrial economy on a scale that did not exist before.
(b) The Chinese leadership took major policy decisions in the 1970s. China ended its political and economic isolation with establishment of relations with the United States in 1972.
(c) Premier Zhou Enlai proposed the ‘four modernisations’ in the field of agriculture, industry, science and technology and military in 1973.
(d) By 1978, the leader Deng Xiaoping announced the ‘open door’ policy and economic reforms in China. The policy was expected to generate higher productivity by investments of capital and technology from abroad.
(e) China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. The Chinese did not go for ‘shock therapy’ but opened their economy step by step. The privatisation of agriculture was followed by the privatisation of industry in 1998.
(f) Trade barriers were removed only in Special Economic Zones where foreign investors could set up enterprises.
(g) In China, the state played and continues to play a central role in setting up a market economy.
(h) All these factors helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation.
(i) Privatisation in agriculture led to a remarkable rise in agricultural production and rural incomes.
(j) The Chinese economy, including both industry and agriculture, grew at a faster rate.
(k) The new trading laws and the creation of Special Economic Zones led to a phenomenal rise in foreign trade.

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