Q. 1. The political leadership of a nation affects its foreign policy. Explain it with the help of examples from Indian Foreign Policy.
Ans. (i) The first pM, Jawaharlal Nehru, played a crucial role in setting the national agenda. He was his own foreign minister. He exercised profound influence in the formulation and implementation of India’s foreign policy from 1946 to 1964. The three major objectives of Nehru’s foreign policy was to preserve the hard earned sovereignty, protect territorial integrity and promote rapid economic development Nehru wished to achieve these objectives through the strategy of non – alignment.
(ii) Lal Bahadur Shastri equally emphasised the need to follow genuine non-alignment. He gave a slogan of Jai Jawan – Jai Kisan during 1965 war with pakistan and during the problem of severe food shortage in India.
(iii) with the changing national interest, Indira Gandhi brought a revolutionary change in Indian foreign policy. She signed a Treaty of peace & friendship in 1971 with Soviet Union. It was signed in the backdrop of crisis in East pakistan and the threat that India faced from the then emerging nexus between US-China – pakistan. Since then, the tilt towards Soviet Union in Indian foreign policy was quite evident. In spite of this, India technically remained nonaligned throughout the Cold war period.
(iv) The Janta party government that came to power in 1977 announced that it would follow genuine non-alignment. Since then, all governments (Congress and non-Congress) have taken initiatives for restoring better relations with China and entering into close lies with US.
(v) In the period after 1990, Russia, though it continues to be an important friend of India, has lost its global pre-eminence. Therefore, India’s foreign policy has shifted to a more pro-US strategy. At the same time, Indo-pakistan relations have witnessed many more developments during this period. while Kashmir continues to be the main issue between the countries, there have been many efforts to restore normal relations.
(vi) presently, under the leadership of Sh. Narendra Modi, India has initiated various steps to improve and strengthen India’s national ties with other countries. India is trying to balance its relations with both Russia and US. India has become more assertive with China. India has now followed “Act East policy” in case of Southeast Asian nations than “Look East policy” pursued by UpA government.
Q.2. Read the passage given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Two developments strained this relationship. China annexed Tibet in 1950 and thus, removed a historical buffer between the two countries. Initially, the Government of India did not oppose this openly. But as more information came in about the suppression of Tibetan culture, the Indian Government grew uneasy. The Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, sought and obtained political asylum in India in 1959. China alleged that the Government of India was allowing anti-China activities to take place from within India.
(i) What is meant by “historical buffer”?
(ii) Why didn’t the government of India oppose the annexation of Tibet by China?
(iii) How far was it justified on the part of India to grant political asylum to the Dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees?
Ans. (i) It refers to a shield between two opponents.
(ii) due to panchsheel Agreement in place, with one of the clauses as respecting sovereignty of each other, India did not oppose annexation of Tibet by China.
(iii) The conditions in their home state were terrifying. There was massive bloodshed. In such a life threatening scenario, granting political asylum to dalai Lama and thousands of Tibetan refugees stands fully justified.
Q.3. Why did India and China both view themselves as rising powers in the global politics in spite of tensions between them? Substantiate your answer by giving any four areas that have brought cordiality in their relationship.
Ans. India and China :
(i) Both had signed panchsheel Agreement, since the late 1960s.
(ii) Both countries have successfully attempted to reignite diplomatic and economicties.
(iii) China emerged as India’s largest trading partner.
(iv) The two countries have also attempted to extend their strategic and military relations.
(v) Both the countries have co-operated on regional issues like regional economic integration, the Afghanistan issue and crackdown on terrorism.
(vi) China is India’s largest trading partner, and their economic collaboration will inject vigorous impetus to the Indian economy.
Q.4. India’s foreign policy was built around the principles of peace and co-operation. But India fought three wars in a space of 10 years between 1962 and 1971. Would you say that this was a failure of the foreign policy?Or would you say that this was a result of international situation? Give reasons to support your answer.
Ans. This was not a failure of foreign policy. It was more a result of international situation.
India and China : China claimed Aksai Chin (part of Ladakh region) and NEfA (region of Arunachal pradesh) to be a part of Chinese territory. China captured the Aksai Chin region and built road network over there. The matter could not be resolved in a peaceful manner despite discussions and deliberations among the leaders of the two countries and finally led to war in 1962. India had to seek military assistance from USA and UK. USSR remained neutral. with the war of 1962, India got alerted about the similar situation that may arise in the North-East.
India and Pakistan : The War of 1965 - The first open war between the two countries broke in 1965 over Kashmir. Both the countries claimed the occupancy of Kashmir as a part of their territory. The war came to an end with an intervention of the United Nations. Both the countries were made to sign the Tashkent Agreement in 1966. However, the war worsened the economic situation of India.
War of 1971 - India’s foreign policy of nonalignment to the military camps had made the intention of our leaders clear that they want India to develop as a regional power herself. There was an uprising in East pakistan for a separate independent government. To curb the movement, their leader Sheikh Mujib was arrested by pakistan army and atrocities were levied on the revolutionaries. India faced the problem of refugees who migrated from East pakistan to the neighbouring regions in India. The revolutionaries demanded for an independent country named Bangladesh and were supported by India in the venture. pakistan lost the war and Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation on March 26, 1971. The tension between India and pakistan increased as it was seen by pakistan as promoting civil war in their country and partition of the country. Both India and pakistan signed a peace agreement, popularly called, The Shimla Agreement on July 3, 1972.
Q.5. Read the following passage and answer the followig questions :
India wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament. However, the nuclear arsenal kept rising. When communist China conducted nuclear tests in October 1964, the five nuclear weapon powers, the USSR, USA, UK, France and China (Taiwan represented China) imposed the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968 on the rest of the world. India always considered the NPT as discriminatory and had refused to sign it. When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India argued that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.
(i) What was the plea of Nehru with regard to nuclear energy?
(ii) When did India conduct its first nuclear test and why?
(iii) Why India always considered the NPT as discriminatory and had refused to sign it?
Ans. (i) plea of Nehru with regard to nuclear energy-wanted to generate atomic energy for peaceful purposes. Nehru was against nuclear weapons. So he pleaded with the superpowers for comprehensive nuclear disarmament.
(ii) first nuclear test undertaken by India in May 1974. Nehru had always put his faith in science and technology for rapidly building a modern India.
(iii) India always considered the NpT as discriminatory and had refused to sign it. India has opposed the international treaties aimed at non-proliferation since they were selectively applicable to the non-nuclear powers and legitimised the monopoly of the five nuclear weapons powers. Thus, India opposed the indefinite extension of the NpT in 1995 and also refused to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
Q.6. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:
When India conducted its first nuclear test, it was termed as peaceful explosion. India agreed that it was committed to the policy of using nuclear power only for peaceful purposes.
The period when the nuclear test was conducted was a difficult period in domestic politics. Following the Arab-Israel War of 1973, the entire world was affected by the Oil Shock due to the massive hike in the oil price by the Arab nations. It led to economic turmoil in India resulting in high inflation.
(i) When did India conduct its first nuclear test and why?
(ii) Why does the period, when the nuclear test was conducted in India, considered to be a difficult period in domestic politics?
(iii) Which international event of 1970s was responsible for high inflation in India?
Ans. (i) In May 1974. – To use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.
(ii) prices were rising due to Arab – Israel war. There was a hike in oil prices, so, India was facing difficulties on the economic front.
(iii) The Arab – Israel war of 1973.