Previous Year Questions (PYQs): Modern History UPSC Notes | EduRev

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UPSC Prelims 2020: History

Previous Year Questions (PYQs): Modern History UPSC Notes | EduRev

Q.1.  In the Indian history, The Rakhmabai case of 1884 revolved around
1. Women’s rights to gain education
2. Age of consent
3. Restitution of conjugal rights Select the correct answer using the given code below-
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. 
(b)
Solution: Rakhmabai made her mark in history due to the legal case she was involved in, which contributed to the enactment of the Age of Consent Act, 1891. In 1885, after 12 years of marriage, Bhikaji sought “restitution of conjugal rights”, where the hearing and judgement was presided by Justice Robert Hill Pinhey. Rukhmabai had refused to live with the man she was married to as a child, as she had no say in the marriage. It was a case that got a lot of attention in Britain too, where women’s magazines covered it. The ripples that the case created led to the influence on the passage of the Age of Consent Act, 1891, which made child marriages illegal across the British Empire. Education wasn’t an issue in this case, so 3 is wrong.

Q.2.  Indigo cultivation in India declined by the beginning of the 20th century because of
(a) Peasants resistance to the oppressive conduct of planters
(b) Its unprofitable in the world market because of new inventions
(c) National leaders’ opposition to the cultivation of Indigo
(d) Government control over the planters
 
Ans. (b)
Solution: Faced by high prices charged by the British traders for indigo dye, German chemists had already started their search for making synthetic indigo and Adolf Baeyer succeeded in synthesizing it in 1882. This was followed by research by other German chemists, namely, Johannes Pfleger and Karl Heumann in the first decade of 20th century. The synthetic dye was much cheaper and blew the final blow to the natural plant produced indigo dye and indigo crop became a part of history. Now most of the indigo dye used world-over is made synthetically.

Q.3. Wellesley established the Fort William college at Calcutta because:
(a) He was asked by the board of directors at London to do so
(b) He wanted to revive interest in oriental learning in India
(c) He wanted to provide William Carey and his associates with employment
(d) He wanted to train British civilians for administrative purpose in India.
Ans.
(d)
Solution: The purpose of establishing this college was to be to teach British officers of Indian Languages. For the purpose of education, here has been established a library and put the many historical books. The court of directors of the British East India Company was never in support of a training college in Kolkata (Calcutta). Then a separate College, East Indian Company College was established in 1807 at England but the Fort William College was the center for teach different languages.

Q.4.  With reference to the history of India, ‘ulgulan’ or the great tumult is the description of the which of the following?
(a) The revolt of 1857
(b) The Mappila rebellion of 1921
(c) The Indigo revolt of 1859-1860
(d) Birsa Munda’s revolt of 1899-1900
Ans.
(d)
Solution: During the last decade of the nineteenth century, the Mundas rose under Birsa Munda in a religious movement or rebellion (“ulgulan”) with an agrarian and political content. They aimed to establish a Munda rule in the land by killing thikadars, jagirdars, rajas and halcims.

Q.5. Which of the following statements correctly explains the impact of the Industrial revolution on India during the first half of the nineteenth century?
(a) Indian handicrafts were ruined
(b) Machines were introduced in the Indian textile industry in large numbers
(c) Railway lines were laid in many parts of the country
(d) Heavy duties were imposed on the imports of british manufacturers
Ans. 
(a)
Solution: Straightforward question.

Q.6. With reference to the book ‘desher Katha’ written by Sakharam Ganesh Deuskar during the freedom struggle, consider the following statements
1. It warned against the colonial states’ hypnotic conquest of the mind
2. It inspired the performance of swadeshi street plays and folk songs
3. The use of ‘desh’ by Deuskar was in the specific context of the region of Bengal.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3 only
Ans.
(a) or (d)
Solution: S1 and S2: Among the most popular and influential swadeshi texts was Sakharam Ganesh Deuskar’s (1869-1912) work, Desher Katha (Story of the Nation), written in 1904. It summarized the work of M. G. Ranade and D. Naoroji in a popular idiom and warned in its concluding chapter against the colonial state’s “hypnotic conquest of the mind.” The colonial state proscribed the text in 1910, but by then it had sold over 15,000 copies, informed swadeshi street plays and folk songs, and had assumed the status of mandatory reading for an entire generation of swadeshi activists
S3: This was clearly national in context. He was compatriot of Sri Aurobindo and was against overall colonial hegemony – clearly in the national context. However as there is no specific reference available to know for sure – one might go by literal interpretation of the word to mean Desh in the context of Bengal too. But we would like to go with A – as in the larger context Desh refers to nation at large.

Q.7. The Gandhi-Irwin pact included which of the following?
1. Invitation to Congress to participate in the round table conference
2. Withdrawal of ordinances promulgated in connection with the Civil Disobedience Movement
3. Acceptance of Gandhiji’s suggestion for enquiry into police excesses
4. Release of those prisoners who were not charged with violence Select the correct answer using the code given below
(a) 1 only
(b) 1,2 and 4 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 2, 3 and 4 only
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Straightforward factual question.

Q.8. The Vital Vidhvansak, the first monthly journal to have the untouchable people as its target audience was published by
(a) Gopal Babu Walangkar
(b) Jyotiba Phule
(c) Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi
(d) Bhimarao Ramji Ambedkar
Ans.
(a)
Solution: In 1888, Walangkar began publishing the monthly journal titled Vital-Vidhvansak (Destroyer of Brahmanical or Ceremonial Pollution), which was the first to have the untouchable people as its target audience. He also wrote articles for Marathi-language newspapers such as Sudharak and Deenbandhu, as well as composing couplets in Marathi that were intended to inspire the people.


UPSC Prelims 2019: History

Q.1. With reference to land reforms in independent India, which one of the following statements is correct?
(a) The ceiling “laws were aimed at family holdings and not individual holdings.
(b) The major aim of land reforms was providing agricultural land to all the landless.
(c) It resulted in cultivation of cash crops as a predominant form of cultivation.
(d) Land reforms permitted no exemptions to the ceiling limits.
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Straightforward question
Option A: They were applicable to both.
Option C: This was due to commercialization of agriculture, not land reforms.

Q.2. Consider the following statements about ‘the Charter Act of 1813’:
1. It ended the trade monopoly of the East India Company in India except for trade in tea and trade with China.
2. It asserted the sovereignty of the British Crown over the Indian territories held by the Company.
3. The revenues of India were now controlled by the British Parliament. Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(a)
Solution: The Company’s commercial monopoly was ended, as a result of the act, except for the tea and opium trade and the trade with China, this reflecting the growth of British power in India
1. The Act expressly asserted the Crown’s sovereignty over British India.
2. It allotted Rs 100,000 to promote education in Indian masses and allowed them to open anywhere anytime.
3. This act permitted Christian missionaries to propagate English and preach their religion.

Q.3. With reference to Swadeshi Movement, consider the following statements: 
1. It contributed to the revival of the indigenous artisan crafts and industries. 
2. The National Council of Education was established as a part of Swadeshi Movement. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans.
(c)
Solution: S1 is easy.
S2: The National Council of Education (or NCE) was an organisation founded by Indian nationalists in Bengal in 1906 to promote science and technology as part of a swadeshi industrialisation movement. It established the Bengal National College and Bengal Institute which would later merge to form Jadavpur University.

Q.4.Consider the following pairs:
Previous Year Questions (PYQs): Modern History UPSC Notes | EduRev
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
D
Solution: S1: Harijan Sevak Sangh is a non-profit organisation founded by Mahatma Gandhi in 1932 to eradicate untouchability in India, working for Harijan or Dalit people and upliftment of scheduled castes of India.
S2: All India Kisan Sabha (All India Peasants Union, also known as the Akhil Bharatiya Kisan Sabha), was the name of the peasants front of the undivided Communist Party of India, an important peasant movement formed by Sahajanand Saraswati in 1936.
S3: It was founded in 1925 by S. Ramanathan who invited E. V. Ramasamy (also called as Periyar by his devoted followers) to head the movement in Tamil Nadu, India against Brahminism.

Q. 5. With reference to the British colonial rule in India, consider the following statements:
1. Mahatma Gandhi was instrumental in the abolition of the system of ‘indentured labour’.
2. In Lord Chelmsford’s ‘War Conference’, Mahatma Gandhi did not support the resolution on recruiting Indians for World War.
3. Consequent upon the breaking of Salt Law by Indian people, the Indian National Congress was declared illegal by the colonial rulers. Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(b)
Solution: S1: During the early 1900s, Gandhi was instrumental in getting the indentured labour system abolished in the British Empire.
S2: He supported it. Pasting this section from B.R. Nanda’s book:
S3: This is quite well known.

Q.6. With reference to Indian National Movement, consider the following pairs:
Previous Year Questions (PYQs): Modern History UPSC Notes | EduRev
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. 
(d)
Solution: All are correct.


UPSC Prelims 2018: History

Q.1. The staple commodities of export by the English East India Company from Bengal in the middle of the 18th century were
(a) Raw cotton, oil-seeds and opium
(b) Sugar, salt, zinc and lead
(c) Copper, silver, gold, spices and tea
(d) Cotton, silk, saltpetre and opium
Ans.
(d)
Solution: The East India Company was originally formed in Britain for pursuing trade with the East Indies in Southeast Asia. In fact, it ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and China, where the main items of trade were cotton, silk, tea, opium, and saltpetre (potassium nitrate).

Q.2. Which one of the following is a very significant aspect of the Champaran Satyagraha?
(a) Active all-India participation of lawyers, students and women in the National Movement
(b) Active involvement of Dalit and Tribal communities of India in the National Movement
(c) Joining of peasant unrest to India’s National Movement
(d) Drastic decrease in the cultivation of plantation crops and commercial crops
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Known as India’s first civil disobedience movement, it was launched by Mahatma Gandhi to protest against the injustice meted out to tenant farmers in Champaran district of Bihar. It is widely regarded as the place where Gandhi made his first experiments in satyagraha and then replicated them elsewhere.

Q.3. Who among the following were the founders of the “Hind Mazdoor Sabha” established in 1948
(a) Krislum Pillai, E.M.S. Namboodiripad and K.C. George
(b) Jayaprakash Narayan, Deen Dayal Upadhyay and M.N. Roy
(c) P. Ramaswamylyer, K. Kamaraj and VeeresalingamPantulu
(d) Ashok Mehta, T.S. Ramanulam and G.G. Mehta
Ans. 
D
Solution: The HMS was founded in Howrah in 1948 by socialists Forward Bloc followers and independent unionists which included Basawon Singh (Sinha), Ashok Mehta, R.S. Ruikar, Maniben Kara, Shibnath Banerjee, R.A. Khedgikar, T.S. Ramanujam, V.S. Mathur, G.G. Mehta. R.S. Ruikar was elected president and Ashok Mehta general secretary. HMS absorbed the Royist Indian Federation of Labour and the Hind Mazdoor Panchayat, which was formed in 1948 by socialists leaving the increasingly communist dominated AITUC.

Q.4. Which one of the following foreign travellers elaborately discussed about diamonds and diamond mines of India?
(a) Francois Bernier
(b) Jean Baptiste Tavernier
(c) Jean de Thevenot
(d) Abbe Barthel Carre
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveller Tavernier, a private individual and merchant traveling at his own expense, covered, by his own account, 60,000 leagues (120,000 miles in making six voyages to Persia and India between the years 1630 and 1668. Tavernier is best known for his discovery or purchase of the 116-carat Tavernier Blue diamond, in 1666. The diamond was certainly Indian in origin and likely sourced by Tavernier in 1666[4] at the Kollur mine in Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh. Tavernier sold it to Louis XIV of France.

Q.5. Which one of the following statements does not apply to the system of Subsidiary Alliance introduced by Lord Wellesley?
(a) To maintain a large standing army at other’s expense
(b) To keep India safe from Napoleonic danger
(c) To secure a fixed income for the Company
(d) To establish British paramountcy over the Indian States
Ans.
C
Solution: The French assistance to Tipu Sultan in 1798 was the last instance of active intervention of any other European power in India. To counter the intrigues of Napoleon and any further development in French Power in India, Wellesley, who was extremely influenced with the imperial thoughts, came up with the scheme of eliminating the French Power from India for ever. He placed the British on the head of the great Indian confederacy. The Fourth Anglo Mysore war had placed England on the Military supremacy in India and now Wellesley used the Subsidiary Alliance System aggressively.
1. It was a Treaty, between the company and the Indian native rulers. In return for a payment or subsidy, the company would place garrison troops in that ruler’s territory to fight against their rivals.
2. An Indian ruler entering into a subsidiary alliance with the British would accept British forces within his territory and to pay for their maintenance.

Q.6. He wrote biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi, Shivaji and Shri Krishna; stayed in America for some time; and was also elected to the Central Assembly. He was
(a) Aurobindo Ghosh
(b) Bipin Chandra Pal
(c) Lala Lajpat Rai
(d) Motilal Nehru
Ans.
C
Solution: Lajpat Rai adopted Mazzini as his own guru after reading Surendranath’s Speeches. In 1896, he wrote a series of books in Urdu, which he named the ‘Great Men of the World’. The first great man he chose was his Italian guru Giuseppe Mazzini, and then Garibaldi, along with Sivaji, Dayananda and Sri Krishna. His purpose in selecting Mazzini and Garibladi was to infuse patriotic sentiment in the youth of Punjab, who had no access to books in English.

Q.7. After the Santhal Uprising subsided, what was/were the measure/measures taken by the colonial government?
1. The territories called ‘Santhal Paraganas’ were created.
2. It became illegal for a Santhal to transfer land to a non-Santhal.
Select the correct answer using the codes below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans.
(c)
Solution: S1: Due to the immense force of the uprising, the British government became more cautious about the needs of the tribals the Santhal inhabited areas were constituted into a separate administrative unit, called the Santhal Parganas, which recognised the distinctiveness of their tribal culture and identity.
S2: Also, it led the British government to enact laws so that the land of tribals could not be taken by outsiders (dikus).

Q.8. Economically, one of the results of the Britith rule in India in the 19th century was the
(a) increase in the export of Indian handicrafts
(b) growth in the number of Indian owned factories
(c) commercialization of Indian agriculture
(d) rapid increase in the urban population
Ans.
C
Solution: Option C: A major impact of British rule was the dictated growth of commercial crops like tea and indigo to fulfil the needs of European markets.
Option D: Colonial rule negatively affected Indian industries and handicrafts, hence Indian owned factories and handicrafts were on decline. Consequently there were new cities coming up called the presidency towns along with de-urbanization phenomenon (machalipatnam lost its importance). There was no rapid increase in urban population.

Q.9.  Which of the following led to the introduction of English Education in India? 
1. Charter Act of 1813
2. General Committee of Public Instruction
3. Orientalist and Anglicist Controversy
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(d)
Solution: S1: The Charter Act of 1813 is regarded as the foundation stone of English Education System in India. When the East India Company came to India they did not allow the missionaries for the propagation of the religious education to the common people in India. Because they felt that the education from the missionaries would encourage the religious sentiments among the people in India that could affected the business policy and the diplomatic role of the East India Company. Therefore, from 1793 to 1813 the company did not permit the missionaries to work for the Indian people. But, the Charter Act of 1813 permitted Christian missionaries to propagate English and preach their religion. It was also a landmark in that it was 1st official move on education in India by British where a dedicated grant for education was provided. The Act also created a controversy between the anglicist and classicist on the medium of instruction.
S2 and S3: In 1823, the Governor-General-in Council appointed a “General Committee of Public Instruction”, which had the responsibility to grant the one lakh of rupees for education. That committee consisted of 10 European members of which Lord Macaulay was the president. The committee decided to spend major portions from the grant for the improvement of oriental literature. Even, the General Committee of Public Instruction also was not able to decide the medium of instruction by vote; because out of ten members, five were supporters of English language or Anglicist as the medium of instruction and the rest were supporters of oriental or classic language or Classicists as a medium of instruction. This is the famous Anglicist and Classicists controversy. As a president of General Committee of Public Instruction, Lord Macaulay wrote a minute on 2nd February 1835, where he made the conclusion regarding the controversy. Lord Macaulay stressed the implementation of the English language as a medium of instruction through his minute. According to him, English was the best medium of instruction.

Q.10.  In 1920, which of the following changed its name to “Swarajya Sabha”?
(a) All India Home Rule League
(b) Hindu Mahasabha
(c) South Indian Liberal Federation
(d) The Servants of Indian Society
Ans. 
(a)

Q.11. Which among the following events happened earliest?
(a) Swami Dayanand established Arya Samaj
(b) Dinabandhu Mitra wrote Neeldarpan
(c) Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote Anandmath
(d) Satyendranath Tagore became the first Indian to succeed in the Indian Civil Services Examination
Ans. 
(b)
Solution: 
1. Swami Dayanand established Arya Samaj = 1875
2. Dinabandhu Mitra wrote Neeldarpan = 1858-1859
3. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay wrote Anandmath = 1882
4. Satyendranath Tagore became the first Indian to succeed in the Indian Civil Services Examination = 1863

Q.12.  With the reference to educational institutions during rule in India, consider the following pairs:
Previous Year Questions (PYQs): Modern History UPSC Notes | EduRev
Which of the pairs given below is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2
(b) 2 only
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 3 only
Ans.
  (b)
Solution: Warren Hastings, himself an intellectual, set up the Calcutta Madrasa in 1781 for the study and learning of Persian and Arabic. In 1791 the efforts of Jonathan Duncan, the British Resident at Benares, bore fruit and a Sanskrit College was opened at Benares. Lord Richard Colley Wellesley (NOT ARTHUR WELLESLEY) took the first step for training of Civil Servants when he founded the fort William College, in Calcutta in November 1800 where the Civil Servants of the Company were to receive training in the literature, science and languages of India.

Q.13. Regarding Wood’s Dispatch, which of the following statements are true?
1. Grants-in-Aid system was introduced.
2. Establishment of universities was recommended.
3. English as a medium of instruction at all levels of education was recommended.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. 
(a)
Solution: Wood’s Despatch is called Magnacarta of English Education in India. As per this despatch:
1. An education department was to be set in every province.
2. Universities on the model of the London University be established in big cities such as Bombay, Calcutta and Madras.
3. At least one government school be opened in every district.
4. Affiliated private schools should be given grant in aid.
5. The Indian natives should be given training in their mother tongue also.
6. In accordance with Wood’s despatch, Education Departments were established in every province and universities were opened at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857 on the model of the London University.
7. Later more universities were opened in Punjab in 1882 and at Allahabad 1887.

Q.14. In the Federation established by The Government of India Act of 1935, residuary powers were given to the
(a) Federal Legislature
(b) Governor General
(c) Provincial Legislature
(d) Provincial Governors
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Residuary legislative powers were vested in the Governor-General under the Government of India Act of 1935.


UPSC Prelims 2017: History

Q.1. Who among the following was/were associated with the introduction of Ryotwari Settlement in India during the British rule?
1. Lord Cornwallis
2. Alexander Read
3. Thomas Munro
Select the correct answer using the code given below:
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Statement 1 and 3: The Ryotwari system was devised by Capt. Alexander Read and Thomas Munro at the end of the 18th century. It was later introduced by Thomas Munro when he was governor (1820–27) of Madras. Statement 2: He is associated with the Cornwallis Code 1793 and could not have been the answer since his tenure preceded the ryotwari settlement regime. The principle behind Roytwari was the direct collection of the land revenue from each individual cultivator by government agents.

Q.2. Consider the following statements:
1. The Factories Act, 1881 was passed with a view to fix the wages of industrial workers and to allow the workers to form trade unions.
2. N.M. Lokhande was a pioneer in organizing the labour movement in British India. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Statement 1: It is wrong. The 1881 Act aimed to improve working condtions of labour. It prohibited the employment of children under the age of seven, limited the number of working hours for children below the age of twelve and required that dangerous machinery should be fenced properly.
Statement 2: Lokhande was a pioneer of the labour movement in India. He is remembered not only for ameliorating the working conditions of textile mill-hands in the 19th century but also for his courageous initiatives on caste and communal issues.

Q.3. The object of the Butler Committee of 1927 was to?
(a) Define the jurisdiction of the Central and Provincial Governments.
(b) Define the powers of the Secretary of State for India.
(c) Impose censorship on national press.
(d) Improve the relationship between the Government of India and the Indian States.
Ans.
D
Solution: It was also known as the Indian states committee. Relations between the Indian Princes and the crown were not well defined because the extent of sovereignty of the Paramount power was not settled properly. The Indian states committee (under the Chairmanship of Harcourt Butler) in 1927 was appointed to investigate and clarify the relationship between the paramount power and the Princes.

Q.4. Consider the following pairs:
1. Radhakanta Deb — First President of the British Indian Association
2. Gazulu Lakshminarasu Chetty —Founder of the Madras Mahajana Sabha
3. Surendranath Banerjee — Founder of the Indian Association
Which of the above pairs is/are correctly matched?
(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Statement 1:  The first committee of the association was composed of: Raja Radhakanta Deb – President, Raja Kalikrishna Deb – Vice-President, Debendranath Tagore – secretary, etc.
Statement 2:  In 1884, M. Veeraraghavachariar, G. Subramania Iyer and P. Anandacharlu established the Madras Mahajana Sabha.
Statement 3: I was the first a vowed nationalist organization founded in British India by Surendranath Banerjee and Ananda Mohan Bose in 1876.

Q.5. In the context of Indian history, the principle of `Dyarchy (diarchy)’ refers to 
(a) Division of the central legislature into two houses.
(b) Introduction of double government i.e., Central and State governments.
(c) Having two sets of rulers; one in London and another in Delhi.
(d) Division of the subjects delegated to the provinces into two categories.
Ans. (d)

Q.6. With reference to Indian freedom struggle, consider the following events :
1. Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy
2. Quit India Movement launched
3. Second Round Table Conference
What is the correct chronological sequence of the above events ?
(a) 1-2-3
(b) 2-1-3
(c) 3-2-1
(d) 3-1-2
Ans.
(c)
Solution: Second Round Conference happened in 1931, Quit India Movement in 1942 and Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy in 1946.


UPSC Prelims 2016: History

Q.1. The `Swadeshi’ and ‘Boycott’ were adopted as methods of struggle for the first time during the
(a) Agitation against the Partition of Bengal
(b) Home Rule Movement
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) Visit of the Simon Commission to India
Ans.
A
Solution: Straightforward answer.

Q.2.  Satya Shodhak Samaj organized 
(a) a movement for upliftment of tribals in Bihar
(b) a temple-entry movement in Gujarat
(c) an anti-caste movement in Maharashtra
(d) a peasant movement in Punjab
Ans. (c)

Q.3. The Montague-Chelmsford Proposals were related to
(a) social reforms
(b) educational reforms
(c) reforms in police administration
(d) constitutional reforms
Ans.
(d)
Solution: They introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India. They formed the basis of the Government of India Act 1919.

Q. 4. Consider the following :
1. Calcutta Unitarian Committee
2. Tabernacle of New Dispensation
3. Indian Reform Association
Keshab Chandra Sen is associated with the establishment of which of the above?
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans.
(b)
Solution: Calcutta Unitarian Committee was established in 1823 by Rammohun Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore, and William Adam. So, 1 is wrong. In 1868, Keshub laid the foundation stone of his new church, the Tabernacle of New Dispensation. So, 2 is correct. Indian reform association was founded in 1870 with Keshub Chunder Sen as president. It represented the secular side of the Brahmo Samaj and included many who did not belong to the Brahmo Samaj. So, 3 is correct.

Q.5. What was the main reason for the split in the Indian National Congress at Surat in 1907?
(a) Introduction of communalism into Indian politics by Lord Minto
(b) Extremists’ lack of faith in the capacity of the moderates to negotiate with the British Government
(c) Foundation of Muslim League
(d) Aurobindo Ghosh’s inability to be elected as the President of the Indian National Congress
Ans. (b)

Q.6. The plan of Sir Stafford Cripps envisaged that after the Second World War 
(a) India should be granted complete independence
(b) India should be partitioned into two before granting independence
(c) India should be made a republic with the condition that she will join the Commonwealth
(d) India should be given Dominion status
Ans. (d)


UPSC Prelims 2015: History

Q.1. With reference to cabinet mission, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. It recommended a federal government.
2. It enlarged the powers of the Indian courts.
3. It provided for more Indians in the ICS
Select the correct answer using the code given below.
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) None
Ans.
(a)
Solution: The cabinet mission plan of 1946 proposed that there shall be a Union of India which was to be empowered to deal with the defense, foreign affairs and communications.

  • The Union Government and its legislature were to have limited powers, dealing with Finance, Foreign Affairs and Communications. The union would have powers necessary to raise the finances to manage the subjects.
  • All subjects other than the Union Subjects and all the residuary powers would be vested in the provinces.
  • Thus, the Cabinet Mission plan proposed a weak Centre with Provincial autonomy – essentially proposing a federal structure of government. 

Q.2. Which one of the following movements has contributed to a split in the Indian National Congress resulting in emergence of ‘moderates’ and ‘extremists’?
(a) Swadeshi Movement
(b) Quit India Movement
(c) Non-Cooperation Movement
(d) Civil Disobedient Movement
Ans. 
(a)
Solution: Surat split was due to disagreements between Moderates and extremists regarding the methods for protest against the partition of Bengal (in the Swadeshi Movement). Answer cannot be B, C or D, because moderates and extremists re-united in the Lucknow session, 1916 which was before Non-cooperation/Quit India/Civil Disobedience Movements.

Q.3. With reference to Rowlatt Satyagraha, which of the following statements is/are correct?
1. The Rowlatt Act was based on the recommendations of the ‘Sedition Committee’
2. In Rowlatt Satyagraha Gandhiji tried to use the Home Rule League
3. Demonstrations against the Simon Commission coincided with the Rowlatt Satyagraha
Select the correct answer using the code given below. 

(a) 1 only
(b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b)

Q.4. With reference to Congress Socialist Party, consider the following statements:
1. It advocated the boycott of British goods and evasion of taxes.
2. It wanted to establish the dictatorship of proletariat.
3. It advocated separate electorate for minorities and oppressed classes.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3
(d) None
Ans.
(d)
Solution: The CSP advocated decentralized socialism in which co-operatives, trade unions, independent farmers, and local authorities would hold a substantial share of the economic power. As secularists, they hoped to transcend communal divisions through class solidarity. Some, such as Narendra Deva or Basawon Singh (Sinha), advocated a democratic socialism distinct from both Marxism and reformist social democracy.

Q.5. The Government of India Act of 1919 clearly defined
(a) the separation of power between the judiciary and the legislature
(b) the jurisdiction of the central and provincial governments
(c) the powers of the Secretary of State for India and the Viceroy
(d) None of the above
Ans.
(b)
Solution: It relaxed the central control over the provinces by demarcating and separating the central and provincial subjects. The central and provincial legislatures were authorised to make laws on their respective list of subjects. However, the structure of government continued to be centralised and unitary. It further divided the provincial subjects into two parts—transferred and reserved which is what we know as diarchy.

Q.6. Who of the following organized a march on the Tanjore coast to break the Salt Law in April 1930?
(a) V.O Chidambaram Pillai
(b) C. Rajagopalachari
(c) K. Kamaraj
(d) Annie Besant
Ans. 
(b)
Solution: He was arrested in April 1930 for leading a salt march from Trichinopoly to Vedaranniyam on the Tanjore coast.

Q.7. Consider the following statements :
1. The first woman President of the Indian National Congress was Sarojini Naidu.
2. The first Muslim President of the Indian National Congress was Badruddin Tyabji
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. 
(b)
Solution: First woman President of INC was Annie Besant. First male President was W.C. Banerjee. First Muslim male President was Badruddin Tyabji.


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