Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Analyse the circumstances which led Gandhiji to choose abolition of the salt tax as the most important demand of the Civil Disobedience Movement. 
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi found in salt a powerful symbol that could unite the nation.
(i) Salt was consumed by all classes of people, by the rich and poor alike. It was one of the most essential items of food.
(ii) The tax on salt and the government monopoly over its production, revealed the most oppressive face of British rule.
(iii) Abolition of salt tax could affect the British economically as salt tax and monopoly over its production provided a large revenue to the government.
Q.2. Describe any three features of Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930. 
Evaluate any three features of the peasant movement during Civil Disobedience Movement in India. [2011(T-2)]]
Explain the contribution of the various social groups in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Ans. The three features of the Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930 were :
(i) The first feature was that the Civil Disobedience Movement was different from the Non- Cooperation Movement of 1921-22. People were asked by Gandhiji not only to refuse cooperation but to break colonial laws. Thousands in the country broke the salt law, manufactured salt and demonstrated in front of government salt factories. Peasants refused to pay revenue taxes, village officials resigned and many forest people violated forest laws.
(ii) The second feature was that different social groups joined the movement for different reasons. The peasant communities in the countryside thought it was a fight against high revenues charged by the government. The poorer peasantry joined it in the hope that their unpaid rent would be remitted. The business class joined it as they wanted protection against import of goods and to expand their own industries.
(iii) Another important feature was the large-scale participation of women in the movement.n Thousands of women participated in the protest marches, manufactured salt, and picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops. Many went to jail. Women, moved by Gandhiji’s call, began to see service to the nation as the sacred duty of women.
Q.3. Study the given passage and answer the questions that follow : 
The Independence Day Pledge, 26 January, 1930.
‘We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally and spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or ‘complete Independence.’
(19.1) Why was it the inalienable right of the Indian people to have freedom ?
(19.2) How did British government exploit the Indian masses ? Explain.
(i) It was the right of the Indian people to enjoy the fruits of their own labour and toil. They had the right to all necessities of life and full opportunities of growth. Every Indian had the right to be free, free of domination of the British, free of exploitation, to live in their own country as free citizens as other people did in other countries.
(ii) The British government had exploited the Indian masses by denying them the right to freedom and liberty. They had exploited their economy for their own benefit and left them poor. They had tried to impose their own culture on them through their customs, religion, and language. Politically they had turned them into slaves ruled by a foreign country. In short, they had taken away all their rights, deprived them of freedom and exploited them
in every way—economically, politically, culturally and spiritually.
Q.4. “Some icons and symbols were used for unifying the people and inspiring within them the feeling of nationalism.” Give two evidences in support of the statement. [2009, 2011 (T-2)]
(i) The image of Bharat Mata came to be identified with India, the motherland. She was first painted by Abanindranath Tagore as an ascetic figure-calm, composed, divine and spiritual. Later the image was painted by many other artists and acquired different forms. In one image Bharat Mata is shown with a trishul, standing beside a lion and behind an elephant, both symbols of power.
(ii) The flag became a symbol of nationalism. During the Swadeshi Movement in Bengal a tricolour flag was designed with eight lotus flowers representing eight provinces of the British India and a crescent moon representing Hindus and Muslims. Gandhiji designed the Swaraj Flag.
Q.5. Describe briefly the ‘Salt March’ undertaken by Mahatma Gandhi. (2009)
Ans. Mahatma Gandhi chose ‘Salt’ as powerful symbol that could unite the nation. After warning, the Viceroy in his letter of 31 January, 1930, that the tax on salt was the most oppressive Act of British rule, he launched a Civil Disobedience campaign in March 1930. He srarted his famous ‘Salt March’ accompanied by 78 trusted volunteers. The distance to be covered was 240 miles from Gandhiji’s Ashram in Sabarmati to the Gujarat’s coastal town of Dandi. The volunteers walked about 10 miles a day for 24 days. On 6 April, he reached Dandi and ceremoniously violated the law and manufactured salt by boiling sea water. Thousands came to hear Mahatma Gandhi, wherever he stopped on his way, he urged them to defy the British peacefully for Swaraj. His Civil Disobedience Movement, unlike the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22, asked people not only to refuse cooperation with the British, but also to break colonial laws.
Q.6. Describe briefly any three economic effects of Non-Cooperaton Movement. 
Ans. The effects of Non-Cooperation on economic front were :
(i) foregin goods were boycotted,
(ii) liquor shops were picketed and
(iii) import of foreign cloth was halved as it was burnt in huge bonfires.
Production of Indian textile mills and handlooms went up.
Q.7. Study the given passage carefully and answer the questions that follow. 
“Satyagraha is not physical force. A Satyagrahi does not inflict pain on the adversary; he does not seek his destruction ... In the use of Satyagraha, there is no ill-will whatever. Satyagraha is pure soul-force. Truth is the very substance of the soul. That is why this force is called Satyagraha. The soul is informed with knowledge. In it, burns the flame of love ... Nonviolence is the supreme dharma ... It is certain that India cannot rival Britain or Europe in force of arms. The British worship the war-god and they can all of them become, as they are becoming, bearers of arms. The hundreds of millions in India can never carry arms. They have made the religion of non-violence their own ...”
(23.1) What is the main difference between physical force and soul force ?
(23.2) Why can’t Indians carry arms? Explain.
(i) Physical force inflicts pain on the enemy or adversary, it seeks to destroy the enemy. Soul force is based on love and non-violence. It does not seek to destroy. Truth is the substance on which it is based, not hate.
(ii) Indians believe in non-violence and they cannot match Britain or Europe in force of arms. They do not worship the war-god or carry arms.
Q.8. Mention any three efforts made by Gandhiji to get Harijans their rights. 
Ans. Gandhiji believed that Swaraj would not come for a hundred years if untouchability was not eliminated. He called the untouchables Harijans, as the children of God,
(i) He organised satyagraha to secure their entry into temples, access to public wells, tanks, roads, and schools.
(ii) He himself cleaned the toilets to dignify the work of the sweepers.
(iii) He persuaded upper castes to change their heart and give up the ‘sin of untouchability.’
Q.9. “They behaved as brave men, calm and unruffled in the face of danger. I do not know how they felt but I know what my feelings were. For a moment my blood was up, non-violence was almost forgotten – but for a moment only. The thought of the great leader, who by God’s goodness has been sent to lead us to victory, came to me, and I saw the kisans seated and standing near me, less excited, more peaceful than I was – and the moment of weakness passed. I spoke to them in all humility on non-violence – I needed the lesson more than they – and they heeded me and peacefully dispersed.” 
(1.1) What is the source of the above passage?
(1.2) What were Nehru’s feelings and how did he change them?
(1.1) Sarvapalli Gopal’s Jawaharlal Nehru : A Biography, Vol. I.
(1.2) Nehru was extremely angry at the brutal behaviour of the police. He had forgotten nonviolence totally at that moment and he was very agitated and disturbed. The thought of Mahatma Gandhi, who was an apostle of non-violence and the leader whom he respected, steadied Nehru. He became calm. Another thing that changed him was the behaviour of the kisans, standing near him peacefully in spite of all the provocation. This changed his feelings to humility and all feelings of violence disappeared.
Q.10. Explain the new economic and political situations created during the First World War in India. 
Ans. India was forced to become a partner in the War, which was between England and Germany. There was forced recruitment in rural areas which caused a widespread anger among the people. They turned against the government. They joined the national movement. In the economic field, the war led to huge expenditure on defence, so the British increased the taxes, customs duties and introduced the income-tax. Prices of all articles increased which caused great hardships to the common people. The prices doubled between 1913-1918. In 1918-19, 1920-21 crops failed in many parts of India, leading to an extreme shortage of food. Famine was accompanied with influenza epidemic. It is estimated (according to the Census of 1921) that nearly 12 to 13 million people perished due to famine and disease.
Q.11. Mention three main proposals with reference to Non-Cooperation Movement, as suggested by Mahatma Gandhi. 
What led to the spread of Non-Cooperation movement to the countryside? Explain any three factors.
Ans. Gandhiji proposed that :
(i) The movement should unfold in stages. It should begin with the surrender of titles awarded by the government.
(ii) Then a boycott of civil services, army, police, courts and legislative councils, schools and foreign goods.
(iii) Then, in case the government used repression, a full disobedience campaign would be launched.
Q.12. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain any three reasons. 
(i) This Act had been passed through the Imperial Legislative Council despite the opposition of Indian members.
(ii) It gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities, and allowed imprisonment of leaders without trial for two years.
(iii) Mahatma Gandhi was emboldened with the success in Champaran Satyagraha, Kheda Satyagraha and Ahmedabad Mills Satyagraha. He wanted non-violent civil disobedience against such unjust laws.
Q.13. Study the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:  On 6 January 1921, the police in United Provinces fired at peasants near Rae Bareli. Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to go to the place of firing, but was stopped by the police. Agitated and angry, Nehru addressed the peasants who gathered around him. This is how he later described the meeting : ‘They behaved as brave men, calm and unruffled in the face of danger. I do not know how they felt but I know what my feelings were. For a moment my blood was up, non-violence was almost forgotten – but for a moment only. The thought of the great leader, who by God’s goodness has been sent to lead us to victory, came to me, and I saw the kisans seated and standing near me, less excited, more peaceful than I was – and the moment of weakness passed, I spoke to them in all humility on non-violence – I needed the lesson more than they – and they heeded me and peacefully dispersed.’
(16.1) How did the peasants who gathered around Nehru near Rae Bareli behave when he addressed them?
(16.2) Explain what did Nehru mean when he said, “I needed the lesson more than they.”
(16.1) The peasants behaved as cool, calm and brave men. They were not excited or angry. They heard Nehru’s speech peacefully.
(16.2) Nehru needed the lesson of ‘non-violence’ more than the peasants. Nehru was angry, excited and overcome by violence for a moment. But the peasants were calm and peaceful. They were not angry or violent.
Q.14. Describe the three satyagraha movements organesed by Gandhiji between 1916-18. [2011 (T-2)]
How did Mahatma Gandhi successfully organise satyagrah movements in various places just after arriving in India ? Explain by giving three examples. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Gandhiji successfully organise satyagrah movements in various places just after arriving in India. The movement started in 1916 from Champaran Bihar, where Gandhiji inspire the peasants to struggle against the oppressive plantation system. The second satyagraha movement took place in the very next year of Champaran movement.
In 1917, at khedo district of Gujarat the second satyagraha completed successfully. Here the peasants were not able to pay the revenue, because of crop failure and a plague epidemic and demanding that revenue collection be relaxed.
The third movement was held in 1918. Gandhiji went to Ahmedabad to organise a satyagraha movement amongst cotton mill workers.
Q.15. Explain the features of the boycott and Swadeshi Movement. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The word “Swadeshi” is a Sanskrit word. The literal meaning of the word Swadeshi is : of one’s own country.
Swadeshi movement a part of the Indian Independence movement was a successful strategy to remove the British Empire from power and improve economic condition in India through following principles of Swadeshi or Self-Sufficiency. Strategies of the Swadeshi movement involved boycotting British products and the revival of domestic made products and production technique.
A boycott is a form of consumer activism involving the act of voluntarily abstaining from using, buying or dealing with a person, organisation or country as an expression of protest usually for political reason. During the National Movement it began with the Surrender of titles that the government has awarded and a boycott of civil services, army, police, court and Legislative Council, schools and foreign goods.
Q.16. Why did Gandhiji decide to launch a nationwide satyagraha against the proposed Rowlatt Act 1919? Explain the reasons.
What was Rowlatt Act ? How did the Indians show their disapproval towards this Act. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. During Indian struggle for Independence British government passed a law named after Sidney Rowlatt who was a government official, whose work was to find out who were behind Indian independence support and stop the changes responsible for the Independence were mainly. Three officers in this commission and all were Britishers. Indian freedom fighters called it “Black Law”. This Act gave the government enormous powers to repress political activities and allowed detention of political prisoners without trial for two years. The opposition against this law started with a hartal by Gandhi. Rallies were organised in many cities, workers stopped working, went on strike. Shops and workshops were closed. By this way the reaction of the people came out against this Act.
Q.17. Explain the immediate effects of the Lahore session of Indian National Congress of December 1929. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The Lahore Session of Indian National Congress of December 1929 was held under the presidency of Pt. J.L. Nehru. The session formalised the demand of ‘Purna Swaraj’ or full independence for India. It was decided that the day of 26 January, 1930 would be celebrated as the Day of Independence. But the decision of Lahore Session was unable to attract good attention. By taking the idea from this Purna Swaraj agenda Gandhiji planned ‘Dandi March’ (to break salt the law) as the initial step for Civil Disobidience.
Q18. “Method of reinterpretation of history was followed to encourage feeling of nationalism.” Give any three arguments to support this statement. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. Method of reinterpretation of history was followed to encourage feeling of nationalism was very good. This is a human nature that we love the things on which we feel proud same as we love our nation but when our nation has someting special. At that time to awaken the feeling of nationalism many things practised but the main part was History writing. The Indian started writing glorious events like the stories full fo bravery, courage nad nation love. They started developing writing concern with beautiful art and architecture, great spiratural bases of India. Some personalities were presented as national heres like – Shivaji, Maharana Pratap and others. So it developed a nationalist style of history writing which revived the people’s pride in their past achievements.
Q.19. What was the limitation of the Civil Disobedience Movement ? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. The limitation of the Civil Disobidience was that some different groups were not moved together with this concept.
(i) The ‘untouchables’ or Dalits were not moved by the abstract concept of swaraj. From around the 1930s they had began to call themselves Dalits or oppressed. Many Dalit leaders were keen on a different political solution to the problems of the community. They began organising themselves, damanding reserved seats in educational institution and a separate electorate. They believed only political empowerment would resolve the problem of their social disabilities. Dalit participation in Civil Disobedience Movement was limited particularly in Maharashtra.
(ii) Some of the Muslim political organisations in India were also lukewarm in their response to the Civil Disobedience Movement. A large section of Muslims felt alienated from the congress. From the mid-1920s, the congress had come to be associated with Hindu religious nationalist groups like the Hindu Maha–Sabha. Hindu Muslim riots became frequent. Every riot deepended the distance between the two communities. During the Civil Disobedience Movement, there was an atmosphere of suspicion and distrust between the two communities.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1. Explain the circumstances in which Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in cities. 
Why did the Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slow down in the cities? Give three reasons.
Ans. The Non-Cooperation Movement gradually slowed down in cities because : Khadi cloth was more expensive than the mass produced mill cloth and the poor people could not afford to buy it. Similarly, the British institutions could not be boycotted for long. Indian institutions as alternatives to the British ones were not yet set up and were slow to come up. So students and teachers began going back slowly to government schools and lawyers rejoined work in government courts.
Q.2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow :  “We believe that it is the inalienable right of the Indian people, as of any other people, to have freedom and to enjoy the fruits of their toil and have the necessities of life, so that they may have full opportunities of growth. We believe also that if any government deprives a people of these rights and oppresses them, the people have a further right to alter it or to abolish it. The British Government in India has not only deprived the Indian people of their freedom but has based itself on the exploitation of the masses, and has ruined India economically, politically, culturally, and spiritually. We believe, therefore, that India must sever the British connection and attain Purna Swaraj or Complete Independence.”
(2.1) When was this pledge to be taken?
(2.2) Explain the rights of the Indian people which they should have got.
(2.1) This pledge was taken on Independence Day, 26 January; 1930.
(2.2) The Rights which the Indians should have got are :
(i) Right to freedom, which the British rule denied them, their rights to enjoy the fruits of their labour.
(ii) They were denied to have the basic necessities of life and this obstructed their development.
(iii) The British rule oppressed the Indians and ruined them in every sphere — economic, political, cultural and spiritual.
(iv) The British exploited Indian economy for their own benefit, politically they did not give the Indians the right to rule themselves. They imposed western culture at the cost of Indian culture and crushed their spirituality.
Q.3. “Ideas of nationalism also developed through a movement to revive Indian folklore.” Support the statement with four examples. [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. During late nineteenth century in India, nationalists started the collection of folk lores. They travelled village to village to collect and record folk songs and legends sung by bards. They believed that these tales gave a real picture of true Indian culture, which was being distorted by the Britishers. They said this is our culture and identity and it restore a sense of pride in one’s past. In Bengal, Rabindranath Tagore started collecting ballads, nursery rhymes and myths. In Madras Natesa Shastri published a massive four volume collection of Tamil folk tales “Folklore of Southern India”.