Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Describe the qualities of four different types of coal found in India. How is coal formed? [2011(T-2)]
(i) Peat is a low carbon and high in moisture
(ii) Lignite is a low grade brown coal, soft and high moisture content.
(iii) Bituminous coal content high carbon and low moisture most popular coal in commercial use.
(iv) Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal. Coal is formed due to the compression of plant material over million years. Most coal is formed during carboniferous periods.
Q.2. What are renewable resources ? Why has it become necessary to use renewable energy resources? [2011(T-2)]
Ans. The resources which can be renewed or reproduced by physical, chemical or mechanical processes are known as renewable resources.
Dependence on fossil fuels i.e. coal, oil and gas and rising prices of oil and gas and their potential shortages have raised uncertainties about security of energy supply in future, which affect the growth of national economy. Besides, the use of fossil fuels also causes serious environmental problems Hence, there is a need for use of renewable energy resources.
Q.3. What is mineral ? Mention two types of formations in which they occur. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Rocks are combinations of homogeneous substances called minerals.
(i) It occurs in cracks, crevices, faults and joints, particularly Igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(ii) It also occurs in beds and layers particularly in sedimentary rocks.
Q.4. In what ways are some manufacturing industries dependent on mineral resources ? Explain. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Some manufacturing industries based on mineral resources transform raw materials into valuable industrial products. Iron and steel, cement, aluminium, petrochemical are mineral based industry. They use raw materials into finished products.
Q.5. Explain why the use of non-conventional sources of energy is becoming necessary in our country? Give three reasons. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. The use of non-conventional sources of energy is becoming necessary in our country for the following reasons.
(i) Rising prices of oil and gas.
(ii) To Save environmental pollution.
(iii) As a renewable source of energy.
Q.6. Describe any three factors which play a very important role in turning a mineral reserve into a mine. [2011(T-2)]
(i) The concentration of mineral in the ore.
(ii) The ease of extraction of minerals.
(iii) Closeness to the market.
Q.7. ‘Energy saved is energy produced’. Justify the statement by giving any six measures to conserve the energy resources. [2011(T-2)]
(i) use public transport systems instead of individual vehicles.
(ii) switching off electricity when it is not in use.
(iii) using power saving devices.
(iv) using non-conventional sources of energy.
(v) use of power saving electrical appliances.
(vi) Minimum use of high power consuming electrical gadgets i.e. Air conditioner, room heaters etc.
Q.8. What is a mineral ? Distinguish between ferrous and non-ferrous minerals. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Mineral is a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure. Ferrous minerals are composed of iron matters i.e. iron, Nickel, Manganese while non-ferrous minerals do not have iron content example gold, copper etc.
Q.9. “India is highly dependent on coal for meeting its commercial energy requirement.” Support the statement with three arguments. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Coal provides a substantial part of nation’s energy needs.
(ii) It is used for power generation.
(iii) It supplies energy to industry as well as for domestic needs.
Q.10. State the importance of petroleum as an energy resource. Mention any four oil fields of India. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Petroleum is the next major energy source in India after coal. Petroleum provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for number of manufacturing industries – synthetic textiles, fertiliser ad numerous chemical industries.
(i) Mumbai High.
(ii) Ankeleshwar, Gujarat.
(iii) Digboi, Assam.
(iv) Bassien, Arabian Sea.
Q.11. Why do we need to conserve energy resources ? Write two ways to conserve energy resources ? [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Energy needs of the country is tremendously increasing with the growth of economy. It is therefore needed to conserve energy resources. The two ways of conserve energy resources are as follows :
(i) promotion of energy conservation
(ii) increased use of renewable energy sources.
Q.12. Explain the importance, occurrence and distribution of petroleum in India. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Petroleum is the next major energy source in India after coal.
(ii) Petroleum occurrence in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the rock formations of the tertiary age.
(iii) About 63 percent of India’s petroleum production is from Mumbai High, 18 percent from Gujarat and 16 percent from Assam. Ankeleshwar is the most important oil field of Gujarat while Assam is the oldest oil producing state in India.
Q.13. Explain three factors that make minerals extraction commercially viable. [2011(T-2)]
(i) The mineral content of the ore must be in sufficient quantity.
(ii) The type of formation or structure determine the relative ease with which minerals ores are extracted.
(iii) The cost of extraction of the minerals.
Q.14. Explain any three measures for the conservation of minerals. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Improved technologies to be adopted to use low grade ores at low costs.
(ii) Recycling of metals using scrap metals.
(iii) Use of other substitutes such as aluminium instead of copper etc.
Q.15. “Mineral resources in India are unevenly distributed.” Support the statement with three suitable examples. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Peninsular rocks contain most of the reserves of coal, metallic minerals mica and many other non-metallic minerals.
(ii) Sedimentary rocks on the western and eastern flanks of the peninsula in Gujarat and Assam have most of the petroleum deposits.
(iii) The vast alluvial plains of North India are almost devoid of minerals. These variations exist largely due to differences in the geological structure processes and time involved in the formation of minerals.
Q.16. Explain any three types of formations in which minerals occur. [2011(T-2)]
(i) In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults or joints.
(ii) In sedimentary rocks a number of minerals occur in beds or layers.
(iii) Another mode of formation involves the decomposition of surface rocks and the removal of soluble constituents, leaving a residual mass of weather material cantaining ore. Example Bauxite ore.
Q.17. Which is the next major source of energy after coal in India ? Mention any four points of its importance. [2010(T-II)]
Ans. Petroleum is the next major energy source in India after coal.
(i) It provides fuel for heat and lighting.
(ii) Lubricants for machinery.
(iii) Raw materials for number of manufacturing industries such as synthetic fibres, plastics, detergents, chemicals etc.
(iv) It can be easily handled and carried through pipelines.
Q.18. How is mica one of the most indispensable minerals ? Explain any three points. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. In electric and electronic industries it is an indispensable minerals.
(i) It has excellent di-electric strength.
(ii) Low power loss factors.
(iii) Insulating properties and resistance to high voltage.
Q.19. State the facts about the coal found in India with reference to the following :
(a) Name its four varieties.
(b) Name the geological ages in which it is found in India.
(c) Mention its two main uses. [2011(T-2)]
(a) Peat, Lignite, Bituminous and Anthracite coal.
(b) Gondwana some 200 million years in age and Tertiary deposits only about 55 million years old.
(c) It is used for power generation and to supply energy to industry as well as for domestic needs.
Q.20. Define minerals. How are minerals formed in igneous and metamorphic rocks ? [2011(T-2)]
Ans. (i) Minerals are a homogeneous naturally occurring substance with a definable internal structure.
(ii) In igneous and metamorphic rocks minerals may occur in the cracks, crevices, faults and Joints. The smaller occurrences are called veins and the larger are called lodes.
Q.21. Name any three major iron ore belts found in India. Write main feature of each. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Orissa – Jharkhand belt with sufficient (25%) deposits of high grade haematite ore.
(ii) Bellary – Chitraduraga – Chikmaglur – Tumkur belt possess 26 percent of the total iron ore of India.
(iii) Durg – Baster – Chandrapur belt lies in Chhatisgarh and Maharashtra, consisting of very high grade haematite ore.
Q.22. “Solar energy has a bright future in India” Support the statements with three facts. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Solar energy will be able to minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood and dung cakes.
(ii) Contribute to environmental conservation.
(iii) Supply adequate manure in agriculture.
Q.23. What are the uses of copper ? Name the two leading copper producing states of India. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Copper is mainly used in electrical cables, electronics and chemical industries.
(i) Madhya Pradesh produces 52 percent of India’s copper.
(ii) Rajasthan produces 42 percent of copper in India.
Q.24. What are the uses of limestone ? Mention any two states which are the major producers of limestone. [2011(T-2)]
(i) Limestone is the basic raw material for the cement industry and essential elements for
smelting iron ore in the blast furnace.
(ii) Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.
Q.25. Identify the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India. Explain any two types with its characteristics. [2011(T-2)]
Ans. Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India.
(i) Lignite is a low grade brown coal which is soft with high moisture content.
(ii) Anthracite is the highest quality hard coal.
Q.26. Explain three phases by which treatment of industrial effluents can be done? [2011(T-2)]
(i) Primary treatment by mechanical means. This involves screening, grinding flocculation and sedimentation.
(ii) Secondary treatment by biological process.
(iii) Tertiary treatment by biological chemical and physical processes. This involves recycling of waste water.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1. Which is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India? What are its three major forms? Write main features of each form. (2008)
Ans. Coal is the most abundantly available fossil fuel in India. It provides a substantial part of the nation’s energy requirement. India has vast and rich reserves of coal, distributed in different regions of India.
The Peninsular Plateau region, especially the Damodar Valley Region of Jharkhand and West Bengal, the Son, Mahanadi, Godavari and Wardha Valleys of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh have rich deposits of Gondwana coal. In the north-eastern states of Meghalaya, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland, tertiary coal is found. In Tamil Nadu, lignite deposits are found.
The three major forms of coal are anthracite, bituminous and lignite.
Anthracite is the highest quality coal with more than 80 percent carbon content and very low moisture content. It is hard, compact and deep-black in colour. It is found in the Jharia coalfields of Jharkhand in small quantities. Bituminous is the most widely used coal. High grade bituminous coal is used in metallurgical industries, especially for melting iron in blast furnaces. So it is also known as metallurgical coal. Bituminous coal contains 60 to 80 percent carbon, low moisture, and has high heating capacity. It is formed when coal has been buried deep and subjected to increased temperatures. It is found in large quantities in Jharia coalfield of Jharkhand and Raniganj coalfields of West Bengal.
Lignite contains about 60 percent carbon and has high moisture content. It is low grade brown coal which is soft and has low heating capacity. It is used in thermal power stations. Principal reserves are found in Neyveli in Tamil Nadu.
Q.2. Explain four points of distinction between conventional and non-conventional sources of energy. 
Ans. Conventional Sources of Energy
(i) This sources of energy is used for quite a long time.
(ii) It’s use is expensive in the long run.
(iii) It is now extensively used.
(iv) Coal, petroleum Natural gas etc, are mostly fund energy sources.
Non-Conventional sources of Energy-
(i) It is recently used as a source of energy.
(ii) It’s use is cheaper in the long run.
(iii) It is used in a limited manner.
(iv) Wind, solar, Tidal, Biogas etc are Flow energy sources.
Q.3. Classify resources into two groups on the basis of exhaustability. Mention three characteristics of each. (2009)
Renewable Resources -
(i) It’s flow is unlimited.
(ii) It is environment friendly.
(iii) It’s initial installation cost is high but economic in the long run.
Non-renewable Resources -
(i) It’s supply is limited.
(ii) It is not environment friendly.causes many environmental problems.
(iii) It’s installation cost is comparatively low but expensive in the long run.