Short Answer Questions
Q.1. Analyse three challenges before the countries which do not have a democratic form of government. 
(i) Bringing down the existing non-democratic regime.
(ii) Keeping military away from controlling government.
(iii)Establishing a sovereign and functional state.
At least one-fourth of the globe is still not under democratic governance. The challenge for democracy in these parts of the world is very stark. These countries face the foundational challenge of making the transition to democracy and then instituting a democratic government.
Long Answer Questions
Q.1. “Different countries face different kinds of challenges.” Support the statement with suitable examples. 
Why do most of the established democracies face the challenge expansion? Give any three reasons. [2011 (T-2)]
Explain various type of challenges being faced by the modern democracies of the world? [2011 (T-2)]
Ans. It is true that different countries face different kinds of challenges —
(i) Non-democratic countries face foundational challenges.
This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling government and establishing a sovereign and functional state.
Example : In Myanmar, military rule should be challenged. Suu Kyi should be freed and should be elected as the representative of the popular government.
(ii) Every democracy faces the challenge of deeping of democracy. This involves applying the basic principle of democractic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions.
Example : In Saudi Arabia, women are not allowed to take part in public activities, and no freedom of religion is there for the minorities.
(iii) Every democracy face the challenge of expansion. This involves strenthening of the institutions and practices of democracy. It requires an attempt to bring down that control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision.
Example : In USA, Black or African-American people have won equal rights, but are still poor, less educated and marginalised.
Q.2. What is a ‘challenge’? Explain the three major challenges before the countries of the world regarding democracy. 
How can the countries facing the foundational challenge of making a transition to democracy set up a democratic government? Suggest any three measures. [2011 (T-2)]
The challenge of deepening of democracy is faced by every democracy in one form or another. Support the statement with three suitable arguments. How can democracy be reformed and deepend? Suggest any three guidelines.
Ans. A ‘challenge’ is a difficulty which carries within it an opportunity for progress. Three major challenge are :
(i) Foundational challenge is about making the transition to democracy and then instituting a democratic government. This involves bringing down the existing non-democratic regime, keeping military away from controlling the government and establishing a sovereign and functional state.
Example : Myanmar, Chile, Nepal
(ii) Challenge of Expansion is faced by most of the established democracies. This involves applying the basic principle of democratic government across all the regions, different social groups and various institutions. Most countries including India and other democracies like the U.S. face this challenge.
(iii)Deepening of democracy : This involves strengthening of the institutions and practices of democracy, specially those that help people’s participation and control. This attempts to bring down the control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decision.
Q.3. Explain four ways to reform democracy in India. 
Explain which four guidelines should be kept in mind while divising ways and means for political reforms in India. 
Suggest any three ways in which political reforms can be made in India? [2011 (T-2)] What is the meaning of democracy reform? Give two examples of democratic reforms in India. [2011 (T-2)]
(i) Carefully devised changes in law can help to discourage wrong political practices and encourage good ones. At the same time, legal-constitutional changes by themselves cannot overcome challenges to democracy. They are to be carried out mainly by political activities, parties movements and politically conscious citizens.
(ii) Legal changes can sometimes be counter-productive. Generally, laws that seek to bansomething are not very successful. Rather laws that give political actors incentives to do good things have more chances of working. For, example, the ‘Right to Information Act’ empowers people to act as watchdogs of democracy.
(iii) The main focus of political reforms should be on ways to strengthen democratic practice. The most important concern should be to increase and improve the quality of political participation by ordinary citizens.
(iv) Any proposal for political reforms should think not only about what is a good solution but also about who will implement it and how measures that rely or democractic movements, citizens’ organisations and the media are likely to succeed.