Short Answer Questions
Q. 1. “The assertion of social diversities in a democratic country is very normal and can be healthy.’ Justify the statement with argument. [CBSE Delhi 2019]
Ans. Assertion of social diversities in a country need not to be seen as a source of danger because in a democratic country every person and a community has the right to state their views and opinions. This is very normal and healthy in a democracy. This allows the less privileged and marginal groups to express their grievances and concerns and can get the government to attend these. This only leads to the strengthening of democracy.
Q. 2. ‘Social division affect politics’; Examine the statement. [CBSB Delhi 2019]
When does a social difference become a social division?
Ans. In general, we belong to a community because we were born into it. This leads to us being born with social differences that already exist. Social differences are also based on the choices we make due to in our cultural and professional life. Social difference, which may cause one community to be at a disadvantage as compared to another community, thereby leading to a feeling of discrimination. This produces tension among the communities and are pitted against one another. This produces social divisions.
Q.3. What was the aim of the Civil Rights Movement in the USA ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. The Civil Rights movements aimed at abolition of legal racial discrimination against African- Americans.
Q.4. Who were Afro-Americans ? [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. Afro-American, Black-American or Black are the terms used to refer mainly to the descendants of Africans who were brought into America as slaves between the 17th century and early 19th century.
Q.5. Differentiate between overlapping difference and cross-cutting difference.
Give example from Netherlands and Northern Ireland. [CBSE 2016-17]
|Overlapping differences||Cross-cutting differences|
|(i) Overlapping differences lead to social division because some social differences overlaps with other differences|
(ii) Overlapping differences are , difficult to accomodate.
(iii) In Northern Ireland, Christians are divided between Catholics and Protestants. Here class and religion overlap with each other. Catholics are poor and have faced discrimination. This has resulted in conflicts.
|(i) They do not lead to social divisions because it is difficult to pit one group of people against the other|
(ii) Cross-cutting differences are easier to accommodate as in the case of Netherlands.
(iii) In the Netherlands, class and religion tend to cut-across each other. Catholic and Protestants are equally likely to be poor or rich. So they do not have conflicts so th eir differences are easily accommodated.
Long Answer Questions
Q. l. "Every social difference does not lead to social division.” Explain.
Ans. (i) It is true that every social difference does not lead to social division. Social differences divide similar people from one another, but they also unite very different people.
(ii) People belonging to different social groups share differences and similarities cutting across the boundaries of their groups.
(iii) It is also fairly common for people belonging to same religion to feel that they do not belong to the same community due to different castes or sects. Similarly it is possible for people from different religions to have the same caste and feel close to each other.
(iv) Rich and poor persons from the same family do not have close relations with each other. They feel that they are different.
Q.2. Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries. Explain with examples. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. (i) Social divisions of one kind or the other exist in most countries as mentioned below :
(a) In India there are many communities i.e., Hindu, Muslims, Sikh, Christians etc.
(b) Belgium is a small country with many communities- French, Dutch and German speaking.
(c) Germany and Sweden with no significant ethnic differences have influx of people from other parts of the world. Migrants bring their own culture and form a different social community
(ii) There are people of different castes in countries like India. Caste too leads to social divisons.
(iii) Society is divided on the basis of status i.e., rich, poor, literate and illiterate. For example, we find a wide gap between the rich and the poor in india, particularly in rural areas.
(iv) There may be social divisions on the basis of culture too as in India.
Q.3. Give negative effects in which social divisions affect politics. [CBSE 2016-17]
(i) In Northern Ireland 53 per cent Protestants and 44 per cent Catholics were represented by the Unionists and Nationalists respectively.
(ii) Nationalists demanded that Northern Ireland be unified with the Republic of Ireland - a Catholic country.
(iii) The Unionists wanted to remain with the UK, a protestant country.
(iv) This resulted in a conflict between Unionists and Nationalists.
(v) It was only in 1998 that the UK government and the Nationalists reached an agreement leading to suspension of struggle.
(vi) In Yugoslavia, the political competition along the religious and ethnic lines led to the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent states.
Q.4. In a dem ocracy, "every expression of social divisions in politics is not disastrous” . Establish the truth of the statement with the help of on example. [CBSE 2016-17]
"In a democracy, political expression of social divisions is normal and can be healthy.” Support this statement by giving three suitable arguments. [CBSE 2016-17]
Ans. (i) Social divisions exist in most countries of the world. These divisions are reflected in politics.
(ii) The assertion of social diversities in a country need not be seen as a source of danger because in a democracy, political expression of social divisions is very normal and can be healthy. This allows disadvantaged and-marginal social groups to esrpress their grievances and get the government to attend to these.
(iii) In a democracy political parties discuss these divisions and make different promises to communities and make policies to redress the grievances of the disadvantaged communities.
(iv) Expression of various kinds of social divisions in politics (often results in their cancelling one another out and thus reducing their intensity. This leads to strengthening of a democracy.