SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. The impact of globalisation has not been uniform.” Discuss with the help of examples.
Discuss the impact of globalisation on India. [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (a) Positive impact: (i) It has resulted in more choice for the consumers to get various products of better quality and at lower prices.
(ii) It has improved the standard of living.
(iii) With the investments by the MNCs new jobs have been created in the developing (countries.
(iv) New technology has been introduced.
(v) Large companies have become multi-national companies such as Infosys.
(b) Negative impact: (i) Creation o f special economic zones has disrupted the lives of the people who have been displaced.
(ii) Flexibility in labour laws has worsened the condition of workers who may be appointed on temporary basis.
(iii) Small producers are unable to compete with MNCs. Thus, several units have been shut down rendering many workers jobless.
Q.2. “Foreign trade integrates the markets in different countries.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE 2018]
Ans: (i) It creates an opportunity for producers to reach beyond the domestic market, i.e., markets of their own countries.
(ii) Producers can sell their products in the markets of their own country as well as in Gather countries of all over the world.
(iii) The producers can compete in the markets of other countries.
(iv) The buyers too have a choice between the goods produced in different parts of the world. It enables the consumer to buy according to his requirement.
(v) The competition among the producers bring them closer to each other.
(vi) Sometimes the producers of other countries set up joint ventures as AIG have set up joint venture in insurance sector and are selling their products in India.
(vii) Producers in two countries closely compete against each other even though they are separated by thousands of miles. Thus, foreign trade results in connecting the markets or integration of markets in different countries.
Q.3. How have our markets been transformed in recent years. Explain with examples.
What changes have taken place in the markets during the last twenty years or so ? [CBSE Sample Paper 2018, CBSE 2016-17]
Ans: (i) We have wider choice of goods and services.
(ii) The latest models of digital cameras, mobiles phones, cars by the leading manufacturers of the world are available.
(iii) An explosion of brands can be seen for almost every good i.e., from shirts to televisions.
Q.4. Barriers on foreign trade and investment were removed to a large extent in India since 1991.” Justify the statement. [CBSE 2016]
Why had the Indian government put barriers to foreign trade and foreign investments after independence ? [CBSE 2016]
Ans: (A) (i) The government had put restrictions on import of goods to protect domestic producers from foreign competition.
(ii) The government allowed imports of only essential items such as machinery, fertilisers and petroleum. These restrictions helped to attain technological capability within the country.
(B) (i) Starting around 1991, the government wished to remove the barriers because India had attained technological capability.
(ii) The government decided that the time had come for Indian producers to compete with producers around the globe.
(iii) It felt that competition would improve the performance of producers within the country.
(iv) There would be unrestricted exchange of capital, technology and experience between India and other countries of the world.
Q.5. How are MNCs controlling and spreading their productions across the world? Explain. [CBSE 2015]
Ans: (i) MNCs set up production jointly with local companies.
(ii) MNCs buy up local companies to expand production.
(iii) MNCs in developed countries place orders for production with small producers of developing countries for various products such as garments, footwear etc. The MNCs sell these products under their own brand name. MNCs determine price, quality, delivery and other conditions for these producers.
LONG ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS
Q.1. “Information and communication technology has played a major role in spreading out production of services across countries.” Justify the statement with examples. [CBSE 2016]
Ans: (i) Telecommunication facilities - telegraph, moblie phones, fax - are used to contact one another around the world and to communicate from remote areas.
(ii) This has been facilitated by satellite communication devices.
(iii) Computers have now entered almost every field of activity.
(iv) Internet allows to send instant electronic mail (e-mail) and talk (voice mail) across the world at negligible costs.
(v) IT has played a major role in spreading out production of services across countries. For example, for a magazine published for London readers different work is done as follows:
(a) Designing in Delhi.
(b) Orders how to design from London.
(c) Designing done on computer.
(d) After printing sent to London by air.
(e) Payment through e-banking.