Q1: Suggest any one way to improve the postal system in India. (2020)
Ans: Use of technology in the postal system, such as digitalization, automation, and online tracking services.
Q2: Which is the oldest artificial sea port of India? (Delhi 2020)
Q3: Name the first major sea port developed soon after Independence on the Western Coast. (2020)
Q4: Name the inland riverine major sea port of India. (2020)
Q5: Which is the deepest, landlocked and well-protected sea port of India? (Delhi 2020)
Q6: Which organization is responsible for constructing and maintaining State Highways in India? (2020)
Ans: Border Roads Organization
Q7: Name the organization that constructs and maintains the District Roads. (2020)
Ans: State Public Works Department (SPWD)
Q8: Suggest any one way to enhance pilgrimage tourism through Indian Railways. (Delhi 2020)
Ans: By providing tourist packages and organizing pilgrim special tourist trains with different boarding and de-boarding stations.
Q9: Name the river related to National Waterways No. 2. (Al 2017)
Ans: The Brahmaputra river between Sadiya and Dhubri (891km)
Q10: Name the river which is related to National Waterways No. 1. (Al 2017)
Ans: The Ganga river between Allahabad and Haldia (1620 km)
Q11: Name the state related to National Waterways No. 3. (Foreign 2017)
Q12: What is a new arrival on the transportation map of India? (2016)
Ans: Pipeline transportation network, which transports gas, liquids, and solids in slurry form.
Q13: What is the major objective to develop superhighways? (2015)
Ans: The major objective behind developing superhighways is to reduce the distance and travel time between large cities in India.
Q14: Why was Jawaharlal Nehru port developed? (2015)
Ans: Jawaharlal Nehru port was developed to decongest the Mumbai port and serve as a hub for the region.
Q15: Why was the Haldia seaport set up? (2015)
Ans: The Haldia seaport was set up as a subsidiary port to reduce the load on the Kolkata port.
Q1: Read the source given below carefully and answer the questions that follow:
Lifelines of National Economy
For a long time, trade and transport were restricted to a limited space. With the development in science and technology, the area of influence of trade and transport expanded far and wide. Today, the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport. Transport has been able to achieve this with the help of equally developed communication system. Therefore, transport, communication and trade are complementary to each other. Today, India is well linked with the rest of the world despite its vast size, diversity and linguistic and socio-cultural plurality. Railways, airways, waterways, newspapers, radio, television, cinema and internet, etc. have been contributing to its socioeconomic progress in many ways. The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy. It has enriched our life and added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
(i) How is science an important factor in the development of transport?
(ii) How has transport integrated socio-cultural plurality? Explain.
(iii) Analyse the significance of communication for a nation. (Term-11,2021-22)
Ans: (i) Today transport is cheaper, carries goods farther and get us to our destination easily. It is an outcome of science that improved and developed the operational characteristics such as speed, affordability, price, etc.
(ii) Transport integrated the socio-cultural plurality by efficiently moving goods and people from one place to another.
(iii) Communication helps in quick transmission of ideas, information and messages from person to person and from one place to another. It has connected all regions of a nation and all nation with the world. Well-developed communication also gives boost to transport system of a nation.
Q2: "Rail transport suffers from certain problems in India." Support the statement with examples. (2020)
Ans: Rail transport in India faces several challenges that hinder its efficiency and effectiveness. Some of these problems include:
1. Insufficient investment: Railways in India receive lower investment compared to other sectors, leading to inadequate infrastructure development and maintenance.
2. Track sinking and landslides: Some stretches of railway tracks experience sinking, causing disruptions in train services. Moreover, landslides in hilly areas can damage tracks and delay train operations.
3. Poor infrastructure: Many railway tracks in India are old and require upgrading. Additionally, the quality of amenities such as food and sanitation on trains needs improvement.
Q3: "Efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for fast development." Express your views in favor of this statement. (2020, Delhi 2016)
Ans: Efficient means of transport play a crucial role in the fast development of a country. Here are some reasons to support this statement:
1. Trade facilitation: Efficient transport systems ensure the smooth movement of goods and services from production centers to consumption areas. This promotes trade and economic growth.
2. Industrial development: Industries heavily rely on efficient transport networks to transport raw materials to factories and distribute finished products to markets. This helps in the expansion and development of industries.
3. Accessibility and mobility: Efficient transport provides better accessibility to remote areas and improves mobility for people. It allows individuals to access job opportunities, education, healthcare, and other essential services, leading to overall development.
4. Regional integration: Efficient transport links different regions of a country, enabling the exchange of goods, services, and cultural interactions. This promotes regional integration and fosters economic cooperation.
Q4: "The pace of change in the communication sector has been rapid in modern times." Support the statement with examples. (2020)
Ans: The communication sector has indeed witnessed rapid change in modern times. Here are some examples to support this statement:
1. Internet revolution: The advent of the internet and its widespread availability has revolutionized communication. It has transformed the way people connect, share information, and conduct business globally. Platforms such as email, social media, video conferencing, and instant messaging have become integral parts of modern communication.
2. Mobile communication: The rise of mobile phones and smartphones has significantly transformed communication. Mobile devices now offer various features beyond voice calls, such as text messaging, internet browsing, mobile apps, and social media integration. This has made communication more accessible, convenient, and efficient.
3. Social media platforms: Social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and YouTube have become powerful communication tools. They enable individuals, businesses, and organizations to share information, engage with audiences, and build online communities. Social media has facilitated the rapid spread of news, ideas, and opinions, leading to significant social and cultural impacts.
4. Digital media and streaming services: The growth of digital media platforms and streaming services has disrupted traditional forms of communication and entertainment. Platforms like Netflix, Amazon Prime, and Spotify have revolutionized how people consume media, offering on-demand access to a wide range of content.
5. E-commerce and online banking: The rise of e-commerce platforms and online banking has transformed the way people shop and carry out financial transactions. Online shopping and digital payment systems provide convenient and secure ways to purchase goods and services, making communication between buyers and sellers easier and more efficient.
Q5: Examine with an example the role of means of transport and communication in making our life prosperous and comfortable. (Al 2017)
Ans: Means of transport and communication play a crucial role in improving our lives and contributing to prosperity and comfort. Here's an example to illustrate this:
Example: Online shopping and doorstep delivery
The advent of e-commerce platforms and efficient means of transportation have revolutionized the way we shop. Online shopping allows us to browse through a wide range of products from the comfort of our homes and make purchases with just a few clicks. The role of transportation in this context is to ensure the timely delivery of these products to our doorsteps.
1. Convenience: Online shopping eliminates the need to visit physical stores, saving time and effort. We can shop at any time, from anywhere, and have the products delivered to our desired location.
2. Wide selection: E-commerce platforms offer a vast range of products, giving us access to items that may not be available locally. This expands our choices and allows us to find specific products that meet our needs and preferences.
3. Competitive pricing: Online shopping often offers competitive prices and discounts compared to traditional retail stores. This enables us to find better deals and save money on our purchases.
4. Comfortable experience: By eliminating the need to travel and navigate crowded stores, online shopping provides a more comfortable and stress-free shopping experience. We can avoid long queues, parking hassles, and the physical strain of carrying heavy shopping bags.
Transportation and communication play a crucial role in the success of online shopping. Efficient transport systems ensure the timely delivery of products, while communication networks enable us to track our orders, receive notifications, and communicate with sellers if needed. This integration of transport and communication enhances the overall shopping experience, making our lives more prosperous and comfortable.
Q6: Elaborate any three advantages of railways in India. (2016)
Ans: Railways in India offer several advantages that contribute to the country's development. Here are three key advantages:
1. Efficient long-distance travel: Railways provide a reliable and efficient mode of transportation for long-distance travel. They offer comfortable and affordable options for individuals to commute between cities and towns.
2. Freight transportation: Railways are instrumental in transporting bulky goods and raw materials across the country. They have a higher carrying capacity compared to other modes of transport, making them ideal for the movement of heavy cargo.
3. Employment generation: The railway sector provides significant employment opportunities. From train operations to maintenance and infrastructure development, railways create jobs for a diverse range of professionals and laborers, contributing to economic growth and livelihoods.
Q7: What is pipeline transportation? Write two merits and demerits of the same. (2016)
Ans: Pipeline transportation is a mode of transport that involves the movement of liquids, gases, or slurry through pipelines. Here are two merits and two demerits of pipeline transportation:
1. Cost-effective: Once the pipeline network is established, the running costs are relatively low compared to other modes of transport. It requires minimal human intervention for operation.
2. Safety and efficiency: Pipelines offer a safe and reliable way to transport liquids and gases, minimizing the risk of accidents and spillage. They also provide a continuous flow of materials without delays or trans-shipment losses.
1. High initial investment: The construction and establishment of pipeline networks require substantial upfront investment. This can be a significant financial barrier, especially for developing countries.
2. Limited versatility: Pipelines are primarily designed for the transportation of specific materials, such as oil, gas, or water. They may not be suitable for transporting a wide variety of goods, limiting their applicability in certain industries or regions.
Q8: Describe the rural roads in India. (2015)
Ans: Rural roads in India are crucial for connecting rural areas and villages with important towns and cities. Here are some key features of rural roads in India:
1. Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY): The government of India launched the PMGSY to improve rural connectivity. Under this scheme, efforts are made to provide all-weather motorable roads to every village, ensuring accessibility throughout the year.
2. Connectivity: Rural roads aim to connect remote and isolated areas with major towns and cities. They promote accessibility to essential services such as healthcare, education, and markets.
3. Infrastructure: Rural roads are often built using cost-effective materials like gravel, crushed stone, or bitumen. They are designed to withstand the local weather conditions and accommodate the transportation needs of rural communities.
Q9: Describe any three features of waterways in India. (AI 2015)
Ans: Waterways in India have unique features that make them an important mode of transport. Here are three key features of waterways in India:
1. Extensive network: India has a vast network of waterways, including rivers, canals, and coastal areas. These waterways cover a significant portion of the country, providing connectivity to various regions.
2. Cost-effective: Waterways are known for their cost-effectiveness, especially for bulk transportation. Compared to other modes of transport, such as road or rail, water transport is relatively cheaper, making it suitable for carrying heavy and bulky goods.
3. Environment-friendly: Water transport has a lower carbon footprint compared to road or air transport. It is considered a more sustainable mode of transportation as it reduces greenhouse gas emissions and minimizes fuel consumption.
Q10: Describe any three factors that accord prominence to airways as a mode of transportation. (2015)
Ans: Airways, or air transport, have several factors that make them prominent in the transportation sector. Here are three key factors:
1. Speed and efficiency: Airways are the fastest mode of transportation, allowing people and goods to reach their destinations quickly. Air travel significantly reduces travel time and enables businesses to operate more efficiently.
2. Accessibility to remote areas: Air transport plays a vital role in connecting remote and inaccessible areas. It allows people living in remote regions to access essential services and facilitates economic development in these areas.
3. Emergency response: Airways play a crucial role in emergency situations like natural disasters or medical emergencies. The ability to quickly transport relief materials, medical supplies, and personnel to affected areas can save lives and provide timely assistance.
Q11: Why are metalled roads better than unmetalled roads? What is the role of border roads and national highways in transportation? (2015)
Ans: Metalled roads, also known as paved roads, offer several advantages over unmetalled roads. Here's why metalled roads are better:
1. Durability: Metalled roads are made with materials like concrete, asphalt, or bitumen, making them more durable and resistant to wear and tear caused by traffic and weather conditions. They have a longer lifespan compared to unmetalled roads.
2. All-weather usability: Metalled roads can be used year-round, regardless of weather conditions. They can withstand heavy rains, floods, and other adverse weather events, providing reliable transportation throughout the year.
Border roads and national highways play vital roles in transportation:
1. Border roads: Border roads connect strategically important and challenging areas along the country's borders. They aid in the movement of defense personnel, supplies, and equipment, ensuring the security and accessibility of border regions.
2. National highways: National highways are primary road networks that connect major cities, towns, and industrial centers across the country. They facilitate the movement of goods, services, and people on a large scale, supporting economic development and regional integration.
Q1: How are waterways an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India? Explain. (2023)
Ans: Waterways are an important mode of transport for both passenger and cargo traffic in India due to the following reasons:
(i) Waterways include rivers, canals, lakes, and coastal areas, providing a vast network for transportation.
(ii) Heavy and bulky goods can be easily transported through waterways, making it suitable for cargo traffic.
(iii) Inland waterways are the only means of transport in dense forests, providing connectivity to remote areas.
(iv) Water transport is fuel-efficient and environment-friendly, making it suitable for long-distance transportation.
(v) Waterways connect to ports, allowing for easy trans-shipment of goods for import and export.
(vi) Developed countries recognize the importance of water transport for domestic and international trade, leading to efforts to enhance navigability through dredging and other measures.
Q2: Explain the important features of Air Transport in India. (2023)
Ans: Air transport in India has several important features:
(i) It is the fastest mode of transport, providing quick connectivity between destinations.
(ii) Air transport can traverse difficult terrains like high mountains, dense forests, and long oceanic stretches.
(iii) It plays a crucial role in providing accessibility to remote regions, such as the North-Eastern states of India.
(iv) Air transport is essential for international travel and trade, facilitating the import and export of goods.
(v) It is used for quick relief measures and rescue operations during natural calamities and disasters.
(vi) Air transport contributes to the growth of the tourism industry by increasing the popularity of tourist destinations.
(vii) It offers comfort and prestige to passengers, making it a preferred mode of travel for many.
Q3: Describe the physical and economic factors that influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian Railways network. (2020, Foreign 2016, 2015)
Ans: The distribution pattern of the Indian Railways network is influenced by both physical and economic factors.
Physical factors include:
(i) The presence of vast level plains in the northern region, which facilitates the construction of railways.
(ii) Hilly terrains of the peninsular region, where railway tracks are laid through gaps, tunnels, or low hills.
(iii) The Himalayan mountainous regions, which are unfavorable for railway construction due to high relief, sparse population, and lack of economic opportunities.
(iv) Sandy plains in western Rajasthan, swamps in Gujarat, and forested tracks in Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Odisha, and Jharkhand, which pose challenges for railway lines.
Economic factors include:
(i) The concentration of population and agricultural resources in the northern plains, making it favorable for railway growth.
(ii) Economic opportunities and industrial development, which determine the demand for railway connectivity.
(iii) Accessibility to ports and trade centers, influencing the expansion of railway lines.
(iv) Development plans and government policies that prioritize the construction of railways in specific regions.
Q4: Describe the growing importance of road transport. (2020)
Ans: Road transport is growing in importance due to several reasons:
(i) Construction cost of roads is lower compared to other modes of transport like railways.
(ii) Roads can traverse challenging terrains, including mountains and hilly regions, providing connectivity to remote areas.
(iii) Road transport is economical for transporting a smaller amount of goods and a few people over short distances.
(iv) It offers door-to-door service, reducing the cost of loading and unloading.
(v) Road transport is flexible and can adapt to changing demands and needs.
(vi) It provides last-mile connectivity, linking rural areas and towns to other modes of transport like railways and seaports.
(vii) The growth of the tourism industry and the rise in vehicle ownership have increased the demand for road transport.
Q5: "Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.” Support the statement with examples. (2020 C, Delhi 2019, AI 2016)
Ans: Roadways have an edge over railways in India due to the following reasons:
(i) Construction and maintenance costs of roads are lower compared to railways, making road transport more accessible and affordable.
(ii) Roads can traverse varied terrains, including mountains, forests, and plains, providing connectivity to remote areas where laying railway tracks is challenging.
(iii) Road transport is more suitable for short distances and transportation of a smaller amount of goods, while railways are more suitable for long-distance travel and bulk transportation.
(iv) Road transport provides door-to-door service, reducing the cost and time involved in trans-shipment.
(v) Roadways play a crucial role in connecting rural areas to railway stations and other modes of transport, serving as feeder routes.
(vi) The flexibility of road transport allows for the transportation of perishable goods and quick delivery of goods to specific locations.
(vii) Road transport is often the preferred mode of travel for passengers due to its convenience and accessibility.
Q6: Highlight the significance of pipelines as a means of transportation, with suitable examples. (2019 C)
Ans: Pipelines have significant importance as a means of transportation due to the following reasons:
(i) Pipelines are used to transport essential commodities like crude oil, petroleum products, and natural gas from production fields to refineries and distribution centers.
(ii) They provide a reliable and efficient mode of transport, eliminating trans-shipment losses and delays
(iii) Pipelines are cost-effective in the long run, despite their high initial construction costs.
(iv) They are environmentally friendly, reducing pollution and carbon emissions compared to other modes of transport.
(v) Pipeline networks like the Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur gas pipeline have played a crucial role in the development of industries and power plants in western and northern India.
(vi) Pipelines enable the transportation of goods over long distances without the need for intermediate handling and storage.
(vii) They have contributed to the growth of the natural gas industry and the adoption of cleaner fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) for vehicles.
Q7: Highlight any five major problems faced by road transport in India. (2019 C)
Ans: Major problems faced by road transport in India include:
(i) Inadequate road infrastructure and poor road conditions, especially in rural areas.
(ii) Congestion and traffic jams in urban areas, leading to delays and inefficiencies.
(iii) Lack of proper maintenance and repair of roads, resulting in potholes and uneven surfaces.
(iv) Insufficient road safety measures, leading to accidents and loss of lives.
(v) Limited capacity and overcrowding in public transport buses, causing inconvenience to passengers
(vi) Inadequate funding and budget allocation for road development and maintenance.
(vii) Lack of proper signage and road markings, leading to confusion and accidents.
(viii) Inefficient transport management and inadequate traffic control measures.
Q8: Why is air travel preferred in North-Eastern States of India? Explain with examples. (2019 C)
Ans: Air travel is preferred in the North-Eastern States of India due to the following reasons:
(i) The North-Eastern region is characterized by difficult terrains, including high mountains, dense forests, and frequent floods. Air travel is the most convenient mode of transport to reach these areas.
(ii) The region shares international borders with countries like Bhutan, China, and Myanmar. Air travel provides easy access and connectivity to these neighboring countries.
(iii) The Siliguri Corridor, also known as the Chicken's Neck, is the only land route connecting the North-Eastern states with the rest of India. In such a scenario, air travel becomes essential for faster and more efficient transportation.
(iv) Air travel plays a crucial role in promoting tourism in the North-Eastern states, as it provides quick and convenient access to popular tourist destinations like Shillong, Guwahati, and Tawang.
(v) During emergencies and natural calamities like floods and landslides, air travel facilitates quick relief measures and rescue operations, ensuring the safety and well-being of the affected population.
Q9: Highlight any five features of the Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur gas pipeline. (2019 C)
Ans: The Hazira-Vijaipur-Jagdishpur gas pipeline has the following features:
(i) It is approximately 1700 km long, making it one of the longest gas pipelines in India.
(ii) The pipeline connects the offshore gas fields of Mumbai High and Bassien with the power, fertilizer, and industrial complexes in western and northern India.
(iii) It has played a significant role in boosting India's gas production and meeting the demand for natural gas in various industries.
(iv) The power and fertilizer industries are the primary users of natural gas transported through this pipeline.
(v) The pipeline has facilitated the use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a cleaner alternative to traditional liquid fuels in vehicles, contributing to environmental sustainability and reducing pollution.
Q10: How do modern means of transport serve as lifelines for our nation? Explain. (2016)
Ans: Modern means of transport serve as lifelines for our nation in the following ways:
(i) Economic development: Transport and communication networks are essential for the economic development of a region or country. They connect areas of production with areas of consumption, facilitate the movement of goods and services, and support industrial growth.
(ii) Accessibility and connectivity: Modern means of transport provide accessibility and connectivity to remote areas, ensuring their integration into the national economy. They link villages with towns, connect agricultural areas with industrial centers, and enable trade and commerce across regions.
(iii) Social integration: Transport networks promote social integration by facilitating the movement of people, goods, and ideas. They enable cultural exchange, tourism, and the sharing of knowledge and experiences.
(iv) Emergency response: Modern means of transport play a crucial role in emergency response and disaster management. They enable the quick transportation of relief materials, rescue operations, and the evacuation of affected populations during natural calamities.
(v) National defense: Transport networks are vital for national defense and security. They ensure the rapid movement of troops, equipment, and supplies during times of war or crisis.
(vi) Employment generation: The transport sector creates employment opportunities in various fields, including logistics, maintenance, and administration. It contributes to both formal and informal sectors, supporting livelihoods and economic growth.
Q11: "Road transport and Rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other." Justify the statement. (Foreign 2015)
Ans: Road transport and rail transport in India are not competitive but complementary to each other due to the following reasons:
(i) Different capacities: Road transport is suitable for smaller amounts of goods and a few passengers over short distances, while rail transport is more efficient for bulk transportation and long-distance travel.
(ii) Accessibility and connectivity: Road transport provides last-mile connectivity, linking rural areas and towns to railway stations and other modes of transport. It acts as a feeder route for rail transport, ensuring accessibility to remote areas.
(iii) Flexibility: Road transport offers flexibility in terms of routes and schedules, allowing for quick and customized transportation. Rail transport, on the other hand, provides a fixed and reliable schedule for mass transportation.
(iv) Perishable goods: Road transport is ideal for the transportation of perishable goods over short distances, ensuring their freshness and quality. Rail transport is more suitable for non-perishable goods and bulk commodities.
(v) Cost-effectiveness: Road transport has lower construction and maintenance costs compared to rail transport. It is more economical for transportation over shorter distances and smaller quantities of goods.
(vi) Urban congestion: Road transport helps alleviate urban congestion by providing local transportation within cities and towns. It reduces the burden on rail transport in heavily populated areas.
(vii) Intermodal connectivity: Both road transport and rail transport are essential for intermodal connectivity, facilitating the seamless movement of goods and passengers between different modes of transport, such as ports, airports, and railway stations.
|1. What are the lifelines of national economy?|
|2. How does agriculture contribute to the national economy?|
|3. Explain the role of industries in the national economy.|
|4. What is the significance of trade in the national economy?|
|5. How does tourism contribute to the national economy?|