Q.1. “Roadways still have an edge over railways in India.” Support the statement with arguments. [CBSE 2016,2018]
India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to about 2.3 million km at present. On what basis roadways have taken an edge over railways ? Explain. [CBSE2018]
Ans. (i) In India, roadways have preceded railways. They still have an edge over railways in view of the ease with which they can be built and maintained.
(ii) The roads can traverse more dissected and undulating topography.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes.
(iv) It is economical for short distances.
(v) Road transport is used as a feeder to other modes of transport and acts as a link between stations, air and sea ports.
Q.2. Name the southern terminal station of the ‘North-South Corridor.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Q.3. Name the river which is related to ‘National Waterways’ No. 1. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Q.4. Name the river related to National Waterways No. 2. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. The river related to National Waterway No.2 is River ‘Brahmaputra’
Q.5. Name the first sea port developed after independence on the western coast o f India. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Q.6. Write the name of the international airport of Mumbai. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Chhatarpati Shivaji Airport
Q.7. Handling of exports and imports on a large scale is done conveniently from the Kandla port. Why? [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
Ans. Kandla is a tidal port, hence large ship can enter and leave the port easily
Q.8. Name the State related to National Waterways No. 3. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. State related to National Waterways No. 3 is Kerala
Q.9. “Tourism industry in India has grown substantially over the last three decades.” Support the statement. [CBSE (Al) 2017]
Ans. Tourism industry in India has grown substantially over the last three decades
(i) Foreign tourism arrival in the country had seen an increase contributing Rs 21,828 crore of foreign exchange.
(ii) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in tourism industry.
(iii) Over 2-6 million foreign tourists visit India every year.
(iv) Tourism also promotes national integration and provides support to local handicrafts.
Q.10. “The distribution pattern of Indian Railway network is influenced by the physiographic factors.” Examine the statement.
How do physiographic, economic and administrative factors influence the railway network in India? [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Analyse the physiographic and economic factors that have influenced the distribution pattern of the railway network in our country. [CBSE, 2015]
Explain with examples the conditions responsible for uneven distribution pattern of the railway network in India. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Physical and economic factors have influenced the distribution pattern of the Indian Railways Network:
(i) Northern Plains : Level land , high population density and rich agricultural resources provided the development of Railways in these plains. However a large number of rivers requiring construction of bridges across their wide banks posed some obstacles.
(ii) Peninsular region and the Himalayan region : The railway tracts are laid through low hills, gaps or tunnels .The Himalayan mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities.
(iii) Desert of Rajasthan: It was difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plain of western Rajasthan which has hindered the development of railways.
(iv) Swamps of Gujarat, forested tracks of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand are also not suitable for the development of railways.
(v) The contiguous stretch of sahyadri could be crossed only through gaps or passes. Although the development of Konkan railway along the west coast has facilitated the movement of passengers and goods in the most important economic region of India. It has also faced a number of problems such as sinking of track in some stretches and landslides.
(vi) Peninsular plateau rich in minerals promotes industrial development, encourage the railway tracks.
Q.11. Explain any five major problems faced by road transport in India. [CBSE (F) 2017, CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Five major problems faced by road transport in India are:
(i) Keeping in view the volume of traffic and passengers, the road network is inadequate.
(ii) About 50% of the roads are unmetalled.
(iii) This limits their usage during the rainy season.
(iv) The National highways are also inadequate.
(v) Moreover, the roads are highly congested in cities.
(vi) Most of the bridges and culverts are old and narrow
Q.12. “The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development.” Justify the statement. [CBSE (Al) 2017]
Ans. ‘The advancement of international trade of a country is an index of its economic development:
(i) It is considered as the economic barometer of a country.
(ii) As the resources are space bound, no country can survive without in Lei national trade. (iii) A favourable balance of trade of a country indicates economic development.
(iv) International trade helps in exchange of surplus goods with those of deficit countries.
(v) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
Q.13. Why do time movement of goods and services from one place to another require fast and efficient means of transport ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. Requirement of efficient means of transport:
(i) We use different materials and services in our daily life. Some of these are available in our immediate surroundings, while other requirements are met by bringing things from other placers.
(ii) Goods and services do not move from supply locales to demand locales on their own. The movement of these goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transport.
(iii) The products come to the consumers by transportation.
(iv) The pace of development of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space.
Q.14. Evaluate any three features of ‘Golden Quadrilateral’ Super Highways. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. Three features of Golden quadrilateral Super Highways:
(i) It is the government project of major road development linking Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Delhi.
(ii) It is six lane super highways.
(iii) It ha s the objective to reduce the time and distance between the mega cities of India. (iv) It is implemented by the NHAI for quick and comfortable movement of goods and passengers in India.
Q.15. “Airways is the most preferred mode of transport in North-Eastern states of India.” Give three reasons to prove this preference. [CBSE Sample Paper 2017]
Why is air travel more popular in the North-Eastern states of India? Explain. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Air travel is more popular in the north eastern states of India because:
(i) The north-eastern part of the country is marked with the presence of big rivers, dissected relief and dense forests hence, it is difficult to construct roads and railway lines there.
(ii) There are frequent floods and international frontiers, which require immediate and quick alteration from the government authorities. Floods also damage roads and railway lines.
(iii) Air travel has made access to north-eastern part of the country easier and quicker.
Q.16. Examine with example the role of means of transport and communication in making our life prosperous and comfortable. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. Role of means of transport and communication :
Efficient means of transport are pre requisites for fast development.
(i) Today the world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport.
(ii) We can proudly say that India is well linked with the rest of the world despite its large size.
(iii) Railways, Airways, Waterways, Newspapers , Radio , Television , Cinema and Internet etc have been contributing to the socio-economic progress in many ways.
(iv) The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy.
(v) It has enriched our lives and added substantially to growth and comfort.
Q.17. “Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for trade.” Examine the statement. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Dense and efficient network of transport is a prerequisite for trade because:
(i) They provide trade and connectivity facilities.
(ii) Railways, airways, water ways, etc. have been contributing to its socioeconomic progress in many ways.
(iii) The trades from local to international levels have added to the vitality of its economy. (iv) It has enriched our lives.
(v) It has added substantially to growing amenities and facilities for the comforts of life.
(vi) The world has been converted into a large village with the help of efficient and fast moving transport.
Q.18. What is a new arrival on the transportation map of India? [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]
Ans. Pipeline transport network is a new arrival on the transportation map of India to transport liquids as well as solids in slurry form.
Q.19. Compare and contrast the merits and demerits of Roadways with those of Railways. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]
Ans. Roadways v/s Railways
(i) Construction cost of roads is much lower than that of railway lines and construction time is also comparatively less.
(ii) Roads can traverse comparatively more dissected and undulating topography which is a limitation in case of railways.
(iii) Roads can negotiate higher gradients of slopes and as such can traverse mountains like the Himalayas, whereas the mountainous regions are unfavourable for the construction of railway lines due to high relief, sparse population and lack of economic opportunities. Likewise, it is difficult to lay railway lines on the sandy plains in the deserts, swampy or forested tracks.
(iv) Road transport is economical in transportation of few persons and relatively smaller amount of goods over short distances whereas railways are suitable for transportation of large number of people and goods in bulk, especially over long distances.
(v) Roadways provide door-to-door service, thus the cost of loading and unloading is much lower but railways have not reached everywhere, still there are places which are yet to be connected with the railways.
(vi) Road transport is also used as a feeder to other modes of transport such as they provide a link between railway stations, air and sea ports. On the other hand, railways work as a life line for the economic growth of a country as they carry raw materials and produced goods from one part of the nation to another on a large scale.
Q.20. What is trade? Explain the importance of international trade. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Trade: The exchange of goods among people, states and countries is referred to as trade.
(i) International trade of a country is an index to its economic prosperity.
(ii) It is considered the economic barometer for a country.
(iii) As the resources are space bound, no country can survive without international trade. (iv) Countries have trade relations with the major trading blocks.
(v) Exchange of commodities and goods have been superseded by the exchange of information and knowledge.
Q.21. What is pipeline transportation? Write two merits and demerits of the same. [CBSE Sample Paper 2016]
Ans. Pipeline transport network is the new mode of transport these days. In the past, pipelines were used to transport water to cities and industries. Now, these are used for transporting crude oil, petroleum products and natural gas from oil and natural gas fields to refineries, fertilizer factories and big thermal power plants. Solids can also be transported through a pipeline when converted into slurry.
(i) Useful in transporting liquids and solid slurry from far away locations.
(ii) Subsequent running costs after laying down the network are minimal.
(iii) It rules out trans-shipment losses or delays.
(i) Initial cost of laying pipelines is high.
(ii) Pipelines can burst or can have leakage leading to wastage of valuable resource like water, mineral oil, etc.
Q.22. Define the term ‘tourism’. Why is tourism known as a trade? Explain. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. The definition of tourism is “The cultural, recreational and commercial visits to places of interest in a country is known as tourism” Tourism is known as trade.
(i) Foreign tourist arrivals in the country contributing crore of foreign exchange in 2010.
(ii) More than 15 million people are directly engaged in the tourism industry
(iii) Tourism provides support to local handicrafts.
(iv) Foreign tourists visit India for medical tourism and business tourism,
(v) Helps in the growth of national income and integrity.
Q.23. Means of transportation and communication called the lifelines of a nation and its economy. Why?
“Efficient means of transport are pre-requisites for the fast development.” Express your views in favour of this statement. [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. (i) Movement of goods and services from their supply locations to demand locations necessitates the need for transport.
(ii) The pace of a country depends upon the production of goods and services as well as their movement over space.
(iii) Therefore, efficient means of transport and communication are prerequisites for fast development.
Therefore, modern means of transport and communication serve as lifelines of our nation and its modem economy.
Q.24. “Information and Communication technology has played a major role in spreading out production of services across countries.” Justify the statement with examples. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Technology stimulated the globalization process:
(i) Improved transportation technology has made much faster delivery of goods across long distance at lower cost.
(ii) Goods are placed in the containers that can be loaded intact onto ships, railways, planes and trucks.
(iii) Technology in the areas of telecommunication, computers, and internet has been changing rapidly.
(iv) Telecommunication facilities are used to contact one another around the world.