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Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

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The COVID-19 pandemic and the unmatched mental health challenges have made it more crucial than ever that we continue to make strides towards understanding the concept of menial health stigma and how we might tackle it around the world. Graham Thomicroft, a practising psychiatrist, who is extensively and deeply involved in mental health stigma research at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neurosciences at King's College London has divided stigma into three components-knowledge, attitude and behaviour. The last behaviour emerges from social Isolation, such as what we are experiencing during the pandemic, as well as exclusion from mainstream activities and citizenship. In higher-income countries, stigma rates may be greater than other countries, perhaps because of the pressure to excel. In low-income countries, one can be unwell and still play an active social and productive role somewhere as there are many such roles to play within the family and in society. Enhancing contact with people who have experienced mental health problems is the best way to reduce stigma. To date, most people with mental illness remain silent about their condition, avoiding discussing their problems for fear of losing face, damaging their reputation or jeopardising their family status. Having a space where they may be welcomed and listened to, rather than judged, will go a long way towards enabling them to share their experiences. Ina small part of rural Andhra Pradesh, researchers used posters, pictures, drums, and a short street play, as an intervention technique to reduce mental health stigma. An actor portrayed a person's journey through mental health crises and setbacks before receiving support and showing hope, improvement and recovery. People assembled around the stage, willing to talk about and discuss what they saw, even two to three years after the event.


Q.1. What is the central idea in the passage as conveyed by the author?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Mental health is not an obstacle for people seeking care.
(b) Mental health is a domestic phenomenon,
(c) In low-income countries, mental health does not receive the adequate attention and treatment.
(d) Mental health issues have only arisen after the COVID-19 pandemic globally.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.2. As per the passage, which of the following approaches can be most effective to curb the issue of mental health?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Mental health can only be curbed when people will stop sharing their emotions openly.
(b) To develop a sense of acceptance among people suffering from mental health and let them heal gradually.
(c) Experiences shared and discussed on a larger level is a major hindrance for better mental health conditions globally.
(d) A person should not express about his/her failures which enhances the mental health problems.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.3. Which of the following notions is expressed in the passage to enunciate the significance of issue of mental health?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) The issue of mental health has received the required recognition and deliberation during the COVTD-19 pandemic.
(b) Mental health will be reduced automatically after the COVID-19 pandemic.
(c) Mental health improves when social isolation increases.
(d) Mental health is an illusionary notion developed during COVID-19 pandemic to strengthen the pharmaceutical industries.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Ascending And Descending Order

You are asked to arrange the given facts in a sequence and answer the question. For example:
Q. Ram is younger to Shy am but elder to Ravan. Ravan is elder to Govind. Sunil is elder to Ravan but younger to Ram. Who is the youngest?
(a) Ram
(b) Shyam
(c) Ravan
(d) Govind

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The way to solve this question is
Statement I: Shyam>Ram>Ravan
Statement II: Ravan>Govind
Statement III: Ram>Sunil>Ravan
The final order therefore is:
Shyam>Ram>Sunil>Ravan>Govind
The correct answer is (d) i.e., Govind.

Observation

For Example:
Study the following sequence
8 9 6 7 3 9 3 7 8 3 9 9 5 6 3 9 6 9 3 9 8
Q. How many 9's are preceded by 3 but not followed by 9?
(a)
3
(b) 4
(c) 2
(d) 1

Correct Answer is Option (a)

By mere observation one can see that the correct answer is (a) i.e., 3. 

Diagrammatic Series Completion

Here three diagrams are given to you. You are asked to select a fourth diagram which falls into the pattern. For example:
Q. Which figure will follow the given three figures?
Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT
(a)
Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT
(b)Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT
(c)Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT
(d)Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Correct Answer is Option (c)
The answer is obviously (c) because every succeeding figure has one line added to it.

Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT

Q.4. "In low-income countries, one can be unwell and still play an active social and productive role somewhere as there are many such roles to play within the family and in society".
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statement?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
Stigma rates in lower-income countries are higher as compared to higher income countries.
(b) Stigma rates in higher-income countries may be more due to a pressure of performing and to excel.
(c) Mental stigma is not related to the economic conditions of a country.
(d) Higher-income countries require people to perform multiple roles at their homes.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.5. Which of the following weakens the author's idea of 'having a space where they may be welcomed and listened to, rather than judged'?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) People who tend to share their emotions tend to have mental peace and happiness.
(b) Societal role is massive in embracing people suffering from mental health ailments.
(c) People sharing their ideas and expressions publicly is a practice which needs to be promoted.
(d) It is a human tendency to form judgments about other people and this being a healthy practice should be encouraged at large scale.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


One of the most important challenges for Indian diplomacy in the subcontinent is to persuade its neighbours that India is an opportunity, not a threat. Far from feeling in any way besieged by India, they should be able to see it as offering access to a vast market and to a dynamic, growing economy which would provide their own economies with far greater opportunilies than more distant partners (or even their own domestic markets) could provide. This would 1JJ beyond economic benefits: as David Malone argues, "Economic cooperation represents the easiest 'sell' to various constituencies within the countries of the region. Were this to prove successful, cooperation on more divisive and sensitive issues, such as terrorism, separatism, insurgency, religious fundamentalism, and ethnic strife, could be attempted with greater chances of success." Winds of change are blowing in South Asia. There is a definite consolidation of democracy in all the countries of the region, every one of which has held elections within the last three years. Some of our neighbours have made significant strides in surmounting internal conflict and others are in the process of doing so. If India has to fulfil its potential in the world, we have no choice but to live in peace with our neighbours, in mutual security, harmony and cooperation. Just as Nehru left Robert Frost's immortal lines "Miles to go before I sleep" on his bedside table when he died, Shastri kept some lines of the founder of the Sikh faith, Guru Nanak, on his desk. When translated into English they read: "O Nanak! Be tiny like the grass, for other plants will wither away, but grass will remain ever green." Shastri was seen by many Indians of exalted ambition as a tiny man, but he had the mind and heart of a giant. His vision of peaceful coexistence with our neighbours, through adopting the demeanour, the modesty and the freshness of grass, may well be the best way for India to ensure that its dreams remain evergreen in its own backyard.


Q.6. As per the passage, which of the following is a challenge for India?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
To develop an intimidating surrounding for its neighbours.
(b) To manifest India as a land of opportunities.
(c) To restrict access to economic Activities to its neighbours.
(d) To propagate the practice of threatening neighbours for greater opportunities.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.7. "If India has to fulfil its potential in the world, we have no choice but to live in peace with our neighbours, in mutual security, harmony and cooperation." In the context of the statement, which of the following strengthens the author's opinion?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Peace and prosperity cannot work in consonance.
(b) India should assert its might over its neighbours.
(c) Peaceful coexistence with neighbours is the key to India's stellar growth.
(d) India can offer myriad opportunities for its neighbours by working in seclusion.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.8. Which of the following is the central theme of the above passage?       (CLAT, 2021)  
(a)
The objective of attaining peaceful coexistence and cooperation with the neighbours.
(b) The dominance of India on its neighbouring countries.
(c) Emergence of India as a global power.
(d) Prioritising the economic opportunities for India.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.9. Which of the following is correct expression of the author's opinion as stated in passage?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
India should strive for greater economic integration which should be politically and administratively feasible.
(b) India can see borders as barriers, and border areas as buffer zones but not as gateways of opportunity.
(c) India's stellar economic growth is thwarting her own opportunities.
(d) It is not in India's interest to be generous to neighbouring countries.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.10. Which of the following can be inferred from the above passage?    CLAT, 2021
(a)
There is no nexus between cooperative existence and economic growth of a nation.
(b) Unless India s region becomes more self- centred, India is unlikely to develop in ID more than a regional power.
(c) India can only become a great power if it works in isolation to achieve the desired goals.
(d) India cannot aspire to be a great power without the cooperation of neighbours.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


The critique of school as an institution has developed and grown in the past half a century. Education theorist Everett Reimer wrote School is Dead in the 1960s. Most schools are caged jails, where an alien curriculum designed by some 'experts' is thrust down a child's gullet. Today, many schools are gargantuan corporate enterprises with thousands of children on their rolls, and for all practical purposes they are run like factories, or better still like miniarmies. The website of a private school in Lucknow boasts of 56,000 students, for instance. But progressive thinkers have always envisioned 'free schools' for children. The great Russian novelist, Leo Tolstoy, founded a school for the children of poor peasants at his home, Yasnaya Polyana, without any strict schedule, homework or physical punishment. Maria Montessori was the first Italian woman to become a doctor; she went on to work out the 'stages of development' in children which became the basis for her educational philosophy, which lDo emphasised children's freedom and choice. Tagore's critique of rote learning is articulated in the classic tale 'The Parrot's Training' (Totaakabini). Perhaps, the longest lasting libertarian school in the world is Summerhill. It was founded in 1921,a hundred years ago in England, by A.S. Neill with the belief that school should be made to fit the child rather than the other way round. The 1966 Kothari Education Commission's recommendation for a common school system was never implemented. Today, which school a child goes to depends on her socio economic status. The pandemic has furthered and exacerbated this divide. COVID-19 hit parents economically. The digital divide between the rich and poor has also widened. The poor do not have access to mobiles, laptops and internet connectivity. In such a scenario, one can try and conceive of neighbourhood learning spaces.


Q.11. What has the author conveyed regarding the school system in India?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) The school system in India is an advanced system which focuses on developing the personality of students.
(b) The schools in India are segregated based on socio-economic status.
(c) The schools staunchly promote the interest of every student enrolled to ensure quality education.
(d) The pandemic has aided the students a greater access to the technology and learning spaces.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.12. Which of the following can be deduced from the above passage?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Social segregation must be eliminated for furtherance of education in schools.
(b) The COVID-19 pandemic has lubricated the teaching-learning process in schools.
(c) Schools should be divided on the basis of the financial capabilities only.
(d) Private schools should be encouraged to enroll economically poor students irrespective of their caste or religion.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.13. As per the above passage, which of the following does not correctly represent the author's view regarding imparting of education during the pandemic?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) There has been a disruption of education systems due to the pandemic.
(b) The inclusion of technology has widened the canvas of distance learning education for all, albeit its access is the biggest concern.
(c) The pandemic has unearthed and stimulated innovative approaches to learning.
(d) The crisis is worsened by reduction of opportunities for many children.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.14. Which of the following can be utilised to develop a healthy environment for students  learning in schools?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
Individualised teaching should not be followed for growth of students.
(b) Students should only be permitted to opt for only few subjects as elective courses.
(c) Community learning should be encouraged in schools.
(d) A fixed and robust curriculum is the need of the hour.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.15. In the above passage, which of the following cannot be referred as a characteristic of a 'free school'?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) It is an alternative to mainstream and conventional form of schooling.
(b) Free schools provide a democratic platform to the students to voice their opinions.
(c) The courses offered at free schools are optional for students depending on their interests.
(d) Specific choice of subjects and a fixed schedule are quintessential features of a free school.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Asia is at the front line of climate change. Extreme heat in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, wildfires in Australia, typhoons in Japan, are real and present dangers and likely to become more frequent as climate change intensifies. McKinsey's report on 'Climate risk and response in Asia', finds that, without adaptation and mitigation, Asia is expected to experience more severe socioeconomic impacts of climate change than other parts of the world. Large cities in the Indian Subcontinent could be among the first places in the world to experience heat waves that exceed the survivability threshold. Just as information systems and cyber security have become integrated into corporate and public-sector decision making, climate change will also need to feature as a major factor in decisions. Climate science tells us that some amount of warming over the next decade is already locked in due to past emissions, and temperatures will continue to rise. India anticipates a significant infrastructure build out over the next decades with projects worth $1.77 trillion across 34 sub sectors, according to the National Infrastructure Pipeline. Robust regulations around outdoor work could significantly reduce the economic risk of lost hours as well as the toll on life from heat waves. The good news is that we have stall lid to see some Indian states and cities pursuing such policies. Ahmedabad City Corporation introduced a heat action plan- the first of its kind in India in response to the 20 I O heat wave that killed 300 people in a single day. The city now has a heat-wave early warning system, a citywide programme of roof reflectivity to keep buildings cool, and teams to distribute cool water and rehydration tablets during heat waves. Renewable energy has grown rapidly in India and can contribute 30 per cent of gross electricity generation by 2030, according to the Central Electricity Authority.


Q.16. Which of the following cannot be inferred from, the above passage?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) It is imperative to lessen our vulnerability to harmful effects of climate change.
(b) Increase in mitigation strategies will eventually lead to an increase in pollutants.
(c) Reduction of emissions which are heat- trapping and harmful for environment should be our primary goal.
(d) The infrastructure development plans need to be climate friendly.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.17. Consider the following statements:
I. The impact of increasing heat is more on the ones who are economically poor and engaged in outdoor employment.
II. Risk to environment is directly related to change in climate.
III. A localised understanding of climate risk is essential to mitigate the risk.
As per the above passage, which of these statements is implicit?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
I only.
(b) I and II.
(c) I, II and III.
(d) l and III.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.18. Which of the following strategies is not appropriate to reduce the climate change risk?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
Decreasing energy efficiency.
(b) Carbon Pricing System.
(c) Decarbonising industrial operations and buildings.
(d) Investments in adaptive technologies.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.19. As per the above passage, which of the following is a major challenge to control the climate change?    (CL AT, 2021)
(a) 
Reliance on non-renewable energy is significant for economic growth.
(b) Renewable energy is now utilised in many sectors to curb the increasing risk of climate change.
(c) Remedial actions for climate change are encouraged to lessen the risk of global warming.
(d) Regulated industrialisation keeps a balance between growth and environment.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.20. Consider the following statement- "Just as information systems and cyber security have become integrated into corporate and public- sector decision making, climate change will also need to feature as a major factor in decisions."
Which of the following is the most appropriate explanation for the above statement?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Decision making by organisations should not depend on the climate conditions which may lead to hampering their growth.
(b) Monetary investments in adoption of climate friendly tools is not an urgent need
(c) The understanding of climate risk should not be integrated into decision making
(d) Organisations must incorporate climate risk, build the necessary infrastructural capabilities and tools to diagnose risks.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


COVID-19 infections are once again on the rise with daily infections crossing 60,000 per day last week. This is considerably higher compared to the reported infections during the same period last year when the numbers were less than 500 per day. What is obvious is that the pandemic is far from over despite the availability of vaccines. However, unlike last year, the response this time has been muted with no nationwide lockdown. One of the reasons for the differing responses is the lesson from the unintended consequences on the economy of the strict lockdown last year.
While aggregate estimates on the growth rate of GDP showed a sharp contraction in economic activity (the economy shrunk by 24 per cent in the April-June quarter of 2020) the impact on lives and livelihoods is still unfolding even though the sharp contractionary phase seems behind us. The extent of the loss of lives and livelihoods is becoming clear only now, with detailed data from the Periodic labour Force Surveys (PLFS) - the latest round of which is for the April-June quarter of 2020. This is the first official report on the estimates for the quarter, which witnessed the worst impact with the lockdown in force until the middle of May. Visuals of thousands of migrants walking back to their villages are still fresh in the mind.
While many have returned to urban areas in the absence of jobs in rural areas, many did not. The PLFS, which captures the employment-unemployment situation in urban areas, provides some clues to what happened. The estimates from PLFS are broadly in line with estimates available from other privately conducted surveys, notably the unemployment surveys of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). According to the PLFS April-June 2020 round the urban unemployment rate for the population above the age of 15 was 20.8 per cent, which is close to the monthly average for the same quarter from CMIE at 19.9 per cent.
The CMIE data, however, does suggest a sharp decline in June compared to April and May. Similar to the CMIE data, the PLFS data also shows a sharp rise in the unemployment rate which more than doubled compared to the unemployment rate in the preceding quarter of January-March 2020 at 9.1 per cent and 8.8 per cent in the same quarter (April-June) of 2019. While one in five persons above the age of 15 was unemployed during April-June 2020, the unemployment rate among the 15-29-year-olds was 34.7 per cent every third person in the 15-29 age group was unemployed during the same period.
These are staggering numbers, but not surprising. While the lockdown certainly contributed to the worsening of the employment situation, particularly in urban areas, the fact that the economy was already going through severe distress as far as jobs are concerned is no longer surprising Between 2016-17 and 2019-20, growth decelerated to 4 per cent, less than half the 8.3per cent rate in 2016-17. The fact that the economy has not been creating jobs predates the economic shocks of demonetisation and the hasty roll-out of GST.
The PLFS data from earlier rounds have already shown the extent of the rise in unemployment compared to the employment unemployment surveys of 2011-12. The unemployment rates in urban areas for all categories increased by almost three times between 2011-12 and 2017-18. On an internationally comparable basis, the unemployment rate among the 15-24-year-olds in 2017- 18 was 28.5 per cent, which makes the youth unemployment rate in India amongst the highest in the world, excluding small countries and conflict-ridden countries. Since then, it has only worsened or remained at that level.


Q.21. According to the author, which of the following is a plausible explanation for India's prevalent crisis of unemployment?     (CLAT, 2021)
(a) The previously existing employment crunch is worsened due to the imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.
(b) Imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced economic activity.
(c) Imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic led to migration of workforce from urban to rural areas.
(d) There is a sharp decline in urban unemployment rate for the population above the age of 15.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.22. According to the author, what is current state of Indian economy?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) There is a sharp contraction in economic activity.
(b) The aftermath of a sharp contraction in economic activity is being experienced.
(c) The unemployment rates in urban areas for all categories are increasing by almost three times.
(d) Youth unemployment rate in India is at par with that in small and conflict-ridden countries.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.23. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the given passage?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Loss of lives and livelihoods is attributable to the imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.
(b) Decline in economic growth is attributable to the imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.
(c) Rise in unemployment is attributable to the migration of members of workforce from urban to rural areas.
(d) Rise in unemployment is attributable to the imposition of nationwide lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.24. Which of the following strengthens the author's argument that the decline in economic growth and rise in unemployment precedes the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) While one in five persons above the age of 15 was unemployed during April-June 2020, the unemployment rate among the 15-29- year-olds was 34.7 per cent every third person in the 15-29 age group was unemployed during the same period.
(b) According to the PLFS April-June 2020 round, the urban unemployment rate for the population above the age of 15 was 20.8 per cent, which is close to the monthly average for the same quarter from CMIE at 19.9 per cent.
(c) Between 2016-17 and 2019-20, growth decelerated to 4 per cent, less than half the 8.3 per cent rate in 2016-17.
(d) The estimates from PLFS are broadly in line with estimates available from other privately conducted surveys, notably the unemployment surveys of the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE).

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.25. According to the given passage, which of the following statements is correct?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Unemployment rates in urban areas for all categories increased by almost three times over the preceding decade.
(b) Employment rates in urban areas for all categories increased by almost three times over the preceding decade.
(c) Unemployment rates in urban areas for all categories increased by almost three percent over the preceding decade.
(d) Employment rates in urban areas for all categories increased by almost three percent over the preceding decade.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


On the day of writing this, India had reported 116 deaths from COVID-19. In contrast, the US, with around one-fourth the population of India, reported 1,897 deaths, or 16 times the daily deaths as India. The UK, which has one-twentieth the population of India, reported 592 deaths, or 5 times the daily deaths as India. On other metrics too-new cases, active cases-the Indian curve has flattened. If and when the UK and the US achieve what we have, there will be major celebrations. Such low death rates would be seen as a victory of the government, citizens and science over the dreaded coronavirus. However, because we are India, we don't get as much credit. We are considered poor, third-world and untrustworthy, incapable of achieving something like this on our own. Instead of learning from India's experience, the first instinct is to doubt Indian data. We aren't counting the cases right, we aren't doing enough tests, we don't classify the deaths properly-the list of doubts goes on and on. This, even as the tests have only increased, positivity rate has dropped and almost all Indian hospitals are seeing a drop in COVID-19 admissions and fatalities. To think that the Deep Indian State is capable of fudging data at the level of every district and every state, and sustaining this facade for months is giving it way too much credit. Conspiracies require enormous coordination and effort and it isn't quite how things work in India. Given that you can check corona data at every ward level, it is also impossible to fudge data, not to mention create a downwards curve that is moving in the same direction in virtually every comer of India. In terms of testing, while a case might be made for a lot of Indians not getting tested, it is also true that random testing has increased in the last few months. Domestic flyers into Maharashtra from many states for instance, have lo get a COYTD-19 test done irrespective of symptoms. If there was rampant corona, we would see a spike in cases from just these flyers. It may be hard for people to accept this reality but almost all evidence points to the fact India has flattened the corona curve, while the US, UK and most of Europe still haven't. What is even more remarkable about India's achievement is that it has managed to do this without draconian lockdowns (apart from the two months in April-May 2020). In fact, cases have dropped even as India opened up more.


Q.26. Which of the following strengthens the author's argument that India has tackled the COVID-19 pandemic better than most advanced nations?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
India's positivity rate of COVID-19 cases and admissions in Indian hospitals are reduced.
(b) India's counting of the number of COVID-19 cases is incorrect.
(c) India's testing facilities for COVID-19 cases are inadequate.
(d) India's classification of COVID-19 cases is inaccurate.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.27. Which of the following weakens the author's argument that India has tackled the COVID- 19 pandemic better than most advanced nations?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) India lacks the co-ordination and effort to execute conspiracies.
(b) Many Indians are possibly not getting tested.
(c) Evidence points to the fact India has flattened the corona curve.
(d) India has not imposed draconian lockdowns.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.28. "To think that the Deep Indian State is capable of fudging data at the level of every district and every state, and sustaining this faced for months is giving it way too much cred it "In this statement, the author indicates that    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) There are unauthorised networks of power operating independently of the Indian state's political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals.
(b) There are authorised networks of power operating independently of the Indian stare's political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals.
(c) There may be unauthorised networks of power operating independently of the Indian state's political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals, but their influence is questionable.
(d) There may be unauthorised networks of power operating independently of the Indian state's political leadership in pursuit of their own agenda and goals, and their influence is deep and pervasive.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.29. According to the given passage, which of the following statements is not true?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a) Developed nations are reluctant to learn from India's experience as Indian data is doubtful.
(b) India does not get as much credit for tackling the COVID-19 pandemic.
(c) India is seen as a poor, third-world country.
(d) India is seen as untrustworthy and incapable of tackling the COVID-19 pandemic independently.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.30. According to the given passage, which of the following statements is true?    (CLAT, 2021)
(a)
COVID-19 cases in India have reduced because of reduction in restrictions.
(b) COVID-19 cases in India have increased with reduction in restrictions.
(c) COVID-19 cases in India have reduced with increase in restrictions.
(d) COVID-19 cases in India have reduced despite the reduction in restrictions.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


LOGICAL REASONING

Some readers wondered whether my reading of the crisis in the news media is about journalism or about the news industry. Though the fortunes of the news industry have a bearing on journalism, there is, indeed, a difference between looking at issues that govern journalism and the factors that contribute to the financial stress of the media industry. Over the last few years, I have been discussing the impact of digitalisation on journalism. The pandemic has accelerated the process of digital transformation of the news media.
Therefore, These issues need close scrutiny. One of the defining elements of analog journalism was the way two crucial functions of journalism — bearing witness and making sense — complemented each other and helped people make informed choices. When I talk about the strength of analog, I am neither romanticising the past nor am I a Luddite. Most importantly, I do not believe in nostalgia. Many scholars have established —how rose-coloured glasses always leads to an unfair distortion — looking back on the best of the past while comparing it to the worst of the present.
Hence, when I talk about the digital information news environment, I am talking about how there needs to be a conducive atmosphere for credible information to resonate with the people. Literature on misinformation, disinformation and mal-information reveals a new distinction in the minds of the citizens. Editors and journalists have to contend with a new breed of skeptics. These are the people who trust social media forwards more than evidence-based, data-driven journalism. Their confirmation bias flows from encrypted social media platforms that are full of conspiracy theories.

Q.31. Which of the following conveys the main idea expressed in the passage?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Those who subscribe to newspapers are skeptics.
(b) Those who subscribe to newspapers and news channels often contribute in distortion of the truth.
(c) Social media journalism distorts the truth.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.32. In this line, Hence, when I talk about the digital information news environment, I am talking about how there needs to be a conducive atmosphere for credible information to resonate with the people. The Author assumes that:    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) The Digital news is neither evidence based nor data driven.
(b) The Digital journalism does not help people in making informed choices.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) The impact of Digital journalism has created an informed platform of journalism.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.33. Which of the following strengthens the Author's argument?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Conspiracy theories have become an alternative truth.
(b) The Pandemic is the only reason behind the dependence of people on Social media journalism.
(c) The News industry is witnessing a tremendous change.
(d) None of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.34. What does the Author indicate when he quotes that—Rose coloured glasses always lead to unfair distortion?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Digital Journalism is twisted.
(b) Author means to say that he does not have any disproportionate bias for analog journalism.
(c) A rosy picture of the news cannot be created
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.35. The Author has severely targeted and criticized which one of the following factors of Digital Journalism?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Social Outreach
(b) Credibility of Information
(c) Lack of Information
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (b)


In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev, launched an ill-fated anti-alcohol campaign in the then Soviet Union. The anti-alcohol campaign had some beneficial public health consequences: Crime fell and life expectancy rose. But the campaign was a political and economic disaster. Gorbachev forgot that the addiction of the state to alcohol revenue was even more incurable than the addiction of some citizens to alcohol itself. The budgetary losses created an economic crisis. Historians suspect that more than the loss of the Soviet Empire, it was this campaign that delegitimised Gorbachev. An old Soviet joke went like this: A disaffected and angry citizen, fed up of standing in lines for vodka, decided to go assassinate Gorbachev. He soon came back and ruefully reported that the lines to assassinate Gorbachev were even longer than the lines for Vodka. As the lockdown eased in India, and social distancing went for a toss at alcohol outlets, we were reminded of how difficult an issue alcohol is to rationally discuss in India. The stampede was caused by the ineptness with which the opening was handled in most cities. Alcohol has also migrated from being a question of personal freedom and choice to an issue in broader cultural wars, an odd site on which we measure progressivism in India. It is also a window on how liberalism has been misunderstood. Liberals should, rightly, be suspicious of prohibition on moral and practical grounds. Government grossly exceeds its legitimate power when it interferes with the rights of individuals to lead their lives as they please, and fashion their selves after their own ideals, interests and preferences. And certainly, moralism or puritanism on alcohol cannot be the basis of state policy. That moralism has no basis, and it violates the dignity and freedom of individuals. 


Q.36. In the above passage, the author uses a/an to strengthen his argument.    (CLAT, 2020)
(a)
Metaphor
(b) Analogy
(c) Personification
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.37. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?     (CLAT, 2020)
(a) State must not interfere at all with the individual's right to drink.
(b) Liberalism has always been misunderstood.
(c) It is very difficult to discuss any issue relating to personal freedom of individuals with rationality in India.
(d) None of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.38. Which of the following statements weakens the argument that Moralism on Alcohol cannot be the basis of State Policy?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a)
The State should not interfere with people's right to drink; but there will be a backlash if drinking takes forms that inflict great social harms.
(b) Freedom should not be divorced from Moderation.
(c) The State should not interfere in matters of sexuality or intimacy. But norms of freedom will impose serious costs and will not survive if the expressions of sexuality are consistently degrading or violent, as we have seen in the locker room scandals.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.39. Which of the following is true as per the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Liberals should not be concerned about prohibition on Alcohol at all.
(b) Moralism should be based on justified ideals.
(c) Moralism must not be the basis of any State action.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.40. According to the passage, which of the following could be part of State's policy to regulate Alcohol use in India?    (CLAT, 2020)
I. Ban on Alcohol shops.
II. Education on Intelligent Drinking.
III. Regulating Outlet density of Alcohol shops
IV. Community Intervention Policy
(a) 
I, II and III
(b) II and IV
(c) II, III and IV
(d) I, II, III and IV.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Don't miss the cloud behind the silver lining. The Class XII CBSE pass result has soared to an all-time high of 88.8%. The number of students scoring 95% and above has more than doubled. If only these higher marks were a reflection of students getting more skilled and more competitive. Instead, the odds are they simply mirror an assessment scheme relaxed to compensate students for the many disruptions originating in the pandemic. The goal of reducing student stress levels during this turbulent time is excellent and laudable. But it is a fallacy that high marks can accomplish this by themselves. The real stressor, after all, is shortage of opportunities. When every bout of grade inflation raises cut-offs for higher education even higher, it is no succour. That India's Gross Enrolment Ratio is only 27% compared to Indonesia's 36%, Thailand's 49% and the US's 88% is just one measure of the toll taken by our failure to build adequate colleges and universities. Licence raj continues to suppress autonomy and expansion in this sector. For example, a new national education policy is reportedly mulling at least 20% of students being able to attend private higher educational institutions through freeships and another 30% through scholarships, besides fee caps. On top of the stasis already wreaked by reservations, this would be disastrous. Browbeating the private sector to make up for public sector deficiencies is counterproductive. As the pandemic has underlined the key role of good government services in healthcare, so too is raising the standard of publicly funded schools and universities essential. What the students need is an ecosystem where government institutions deliver quality education and private options are plentiful. It is a better prospect alone that will best alleviate students' stress. Meanwhile, crudely chopping syllabi will only worsen their disorientation and should be reconsidered.


Q.41. What is the "cloud behind the silver lining" in the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) The Pandemic which is impacting the current education system.
(b) That the Governmental educational institutions are not able to deliver quality education.
(c) Scoring Higher marks or percentage in school education does not guarantee skilled and competitive candidature of the student.
(d) License Raj has negatively impacted Higher education.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.42. Which of the following statements weakens the argument that chopping the syllabi in the times of Pandemic will only worsen a student's disorientation and hence should be reconsidered?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) It does not matter even if syllabi is chopped. The students who don't want to study will even not study in the minimal syllabi structure even during the pandemic.
(b) Students don't care about syllabi. They study only for marks and grades.
(c) Reduced syllabi will help in achieving the teaching-learning targets in due time and hence won't put pressure on students.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.43. The number of students scoring 95% and above in XII class board exams has more than doubled. Which of the following statements serves as a plausible explanation for the same?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a)
Students have started studying with sincerity and concentration.
(b) Evaluation of answer scripts has become liberal.
(c) Question papers these days are easier to solve.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.44. For developing a student friendly ecosystem of education, which of the following serve as need of the hour, as per the Author?    (CLAT, 2020)
I. Increasing the Syllabi in School education.
II. Building adequate number of public colleges and universities.
III. Eliminating Reservation in admissions to Higher education system.
IV. Creating a quality based education system
(a)
Only I and II.
(b) Only I, II and IV.
(c) Only III.
(d) Only II and IV.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.45. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Scoring High marks in XII class can help in reducing stress amongst students in the times of Pandemic.
(b) High Cut-off of marks also contribute in reducing opportunities for the students.
(c) Private institutions should not be regulated.
(d) License Raj should be done away with.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


If anything, the novel corona virus disease (COVID- 19) pandemic has taught us to rethink our lifestyles and question our need to travel to work every day. After all, in the age of internet, zoom meetings and webinars can be virtually conducted and physical distancing is possible. A large nature of work in cities is of tertiary nature, a major part of which can be done from home. This can affect the way offices function and reduce the need for all employees to be physically present every day. Information Technology companies are already contemplating a move of making many of its employees work from home and make this a 'new normal'. If more firms follow suit, the need for huge office buildings and central business districts would change. Apartments cannot get bigger at the same rate, and people may not have the space or atmosphere to work from home.
This would mean that more people would opt for co-working spaces close to their homes. This could be a game changer, for it would provide the cities to better distribute their activities throughout the spaces and rid themselves of the idea of zoning. Only a handful of professionals are allowed to function from residential zones, including doctors, lawyers, architects, etc. This needs serious rethinking. Many more professions of similar nature that do not disturb surrounding residence and have no requirements of special services should be added to the list. This new work culture would bring associated demand for food joints, cafes, stationary shops, etc.


Q.46. Which of the following is the main idea behind the passage?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Work from home is the new normal.
(b) Work from home will result in shutting down of big buildings.
(c) Work from home culture will result in systematization of City planning and development.
(d) More professionals should be included in the work from home list. 

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.47. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) The 'work from home' culture is a no-chaos culture.
(b) There is lack of distribution of activities in the "work from home' scenario.
(c) The routine culture as opposed to 'work from home' does not benefit the society in any way.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.48. Which of the following can be associated benefits of the new culture?     (CLAT, 2020)
(a)
It will save commute time.
(b) The city's land can be used more efficiently
(c) Better distribution of activities, would be associated with safer streets and public spaces as they would not go unused and hence have less likelihood of being used for unlawful activities.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)



Q.49. Consider the following statement: “Work from home culture is a sustainable method of business and should be extended to all professions.” Which of the following weakens the Author's argument?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Not every type of profession fits in the ’work from home’ culture as different professions have different requirements and need different environmental and work space settings.
(b) 'Work from home' impacts a person's mental health.
(c) Both (a) and (b)
(d) Neither (a) nor (b)

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.50. Which of the following weakens the author's argument that 'Work from home' culture will enable better city planning?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Development of Co-working spaces will further create chaos in terms of land planning.
(b) City planning is not only about reducing spaces.
(c) Work from home will also reduce the flow of money in the economy.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Following is an array of questions to test your reasoning ability in different situations. Answer each of them according to the question asked in each of them respectively:


Q.51. If highways were restricted to cars and only those trucks with capacity of less than 8 tons, most of the truck traffic would be forced to run outside highways. Such a reduction in the amount of truck traffic would reduce the risk of collisions on highways. The conclusion drawn in the first sentence depends on which of the following assumptions?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) The roads outside highway would be as convenient as highway for most drivers of trucks.
(b) Most of the roads outside highways are not ready to handle truck traffic.
(c) Most trucks that are currently running in highway have a capacity of more than 8 tons.
(d) Cars are at greater risk of being involved in collisions than are trucks.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.52. Read the debate between Harry and Potter and identify the main issue:
Harry: Within democracies, voters are entitled to know the down-side to a candidate and the other side is obviously well placed to voice it. To stifle one's ability to voice negative things about a candidate would be to obstruct democracy and limit free speech.
Potter: Negative advertisements produce the politics of the personal, since an easiest advert is an attack-advert which focuses on the personality or personal qualities of one's opponent. A negative advertisement is one that focuses upon a rival product, in this case, a rival election candidate or party in order to point its flaws and to persuade the public to not vote for it.    (CLAT, 2020)

(a) Whether negative advertisement strengthens democratic governance?
(b) Whether the practice of negative advertisements is good for democracy and politics?
(c) Whether negative advertising needs to be banned?
(d) Whether negative advertising produces the politics of the personal?

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.53. Which alternative applies to the following Statement and Assumption? Statement: Go by Airplane to reach Delhi from Chennai quickly.    (CLAT, 2020)
Assumptions:
I. Chennai and Delhi are connected by Air service.
II. There is no other means to commute from Chennai to Delhi.
III. The Air distance between Delhi and Chennai is less.
(a) Only I is implicit.
(b) Only I and II are implicit.
(c) Only I and III are implicit.
(d) Only II is implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.54. Ananya and Krishna can speak and follow English. Bulbul can write and speak Hindi as Archana does. Archana talks with Ananya also in Bengali. Krishna cannot follow Bengali. Bulbul talks with Ananya in Hindi. Who can speak and follow English, Hindi and Bengali?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Archana
(b) Bulbul
(c) Krishna
(d) Ananya

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.55. If 367 means 'I am happy'; 748 means 'you are sad' and 469 means 'happy and sad' in a given code, then which of the following represents 'and' in the code?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) 3 
(b) 6 
(c) 9 
(d) 4

Correct Answer is Option (c)


One of the biggest casualties of the Covid-19 pandemic and the resultant lockdown has been institutionalised education. Schools have been shut to prevent the spread of the virus and this has given way to online classrooms, a very new concept in India even for the most sophisticated schools. It is commendable how easily some educational institutions have moved to virtual classrooms, all thanks to tools such as Zoom, Google Hangouts and Microsoft Teams. But there are still some struggling to get online. The online class, whatever the enabling technology, is only as good as the teachers and the ability of the students to grasp the new teaching technique. One of the teachers felt students are actually more responsive and active in online classrooms, compared to when they are in physical ones.
This could be because this is a new concept and they are excited to explore it with the teachers. They also don’t get distracted by their classmates, which frequently happen in a regular class l Teachers do find the absence of a blackboard a disadvantage and network connectivity a constant problem.
We miss the clarity that a blackboard gives us, we are kind of making do with the virtual whiteboard on Zoom. Shweta Kawatra, a parent who teaches in a New Delhi school, highlights that many students have not been able to take advantage of the virtual platform because they do not have a suitable device at home or lack a good internet connection. —It has its own- share of disadvantages too. loo much screen time can be perilous for health. Prolonged online sessions can be overwhelming and may lead to problems related to vision, body posture and sleep disorder, Kawatra adds.


Q.56. What is the Central Idea of the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Institutionalised education was much better than the current online education system.
(b) Institutionalized education cannot be replaced by any other system of education.
(c) Virtual Classroom teaching is a sustainable approach to education in modern times.
(d) None of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.57. Which of the following statements cannot be inferred from the passage above?     (CLAT, 2020)
(a) Virtual Classroom teaching is a sustainable approach to education.
(b) Virtual Classroom teaching causes health problems.
(c) Institutionalized education system has its advantages.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.58. Which of the following is an implicit assumption in the observation that students are more active and responsive in online classrooms as compared to that in physical ones?    (CLAT, 2020)
I. Students are not serious while studying in physical classrooms.
II. Online classrooms inculcate more interest in students towards studies than the physical classrooms.
III. Students don't like physical classrooms at all.
IV. Students sleep in physical classrooms.
(a) Only I and II
(b) Only III and IV
(c) I and IV
(d) I, II, III and IV.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.59. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage above?    (CLAT, 2020)
(a) There is a divide in opinions of people on the merits and demerits of online education.
(b) Online education system is going to replace the Institutionalized education system.
(c) The institutionalized education system is not at all perilous for health of students.
(d) All of the above.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.60. Consider this statement: "Virtual education provides for various online seminars, opportunities to interact with learned experts, pro-bono education classes etc., for students across India irrespective of their economic status and background".
Which of the following statements weakens the statement?    (CLAT, 2020)
I. Many students in remote areas do not have access to internet facilities.
II. Many students in rural areas do not have devices to take advantage of the Virtual classrooms.
III. Online Seminars and pro bono classes are not interesting and do not cater to the needs of students across India.
IV. The mobile phone data packages to access such heavy online contents are not enough and participation in such events involves costly data packages which are dependent upon the economic status of those students.

(a) Only I, II, III
(b) Only III and IV
(c) Only I, II and IV
(d) Only I and II

Correct Answer is Option (c)



Read the following passage and answer questions that follow:
A tennis coach is trying to put together a team of four players for the forthcoming tournament. For this, 7 players are available : males A, B and C and females W, X, Y and Z. All players have equal capability and at least 2 males will have to be there in the team. For a team of four, all players must be able to play with each other. But, B cannot play with W, C cannot play with Z and W cannot play with Y.


Q.61. If Y is selected and B is rejected, then the team will consist of which one of the following groups?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) A, C, W and Y
(b) A, C, X and Y
(c) A, C, Y and Z
(d) A, W, Y and Z

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.62. If B is selected and Y is rejected, then the team will consist of which of the following groups?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) A, B, C and W
(b) A, B, C and Y
(c) A, B, C and X
(d) A, W, Y and Z

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.63. If all the three males are selected, then how many combinations of four-member teams are possible?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 1
(b) 2
(c) 3
(d) 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)


In each of the following questions, a statement followed by some assumptions are given. An assumption is something supposed or taken for granted. You have to consider the statement and decide which of the assumptions is implicit in the statement ?

Q.64.Statement: Be humble even after gaining victory.
Assumptions:
1. Many people are humble after gaining victory
2. Generally, people are not humble.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a)
If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.65. Statement: The target of a fiscal deficit of 5% of GDP could not be met, because of a major shortfall in revenue collections.
Assumptions:
1. Shortfall in revenue collections lead to an increase in fiscal deficit.
2. Shortfall in revenue collections lead to a decrease in fiscal deficit.

Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.66. Statement: The Government has decided to run all commercial vehicles only on biofuels in order to save the depleting fossil fuel reserves.
Assumptions:
1. It is possible to switch over from fossil fuel to biofuels for vehicles.
2. Sufficient amount of biofuel can be produced in the country to run all commercial vehicles.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.67. Statement: COVID-19 is a pandemic issue now.
Assumptions:
1. Government should work towards complete eradication of diseases like COVID-19.
2. COVID-19 is not a serious disease and treatment is available.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.68. Statement: Drastic increase in pollution is now a global phenomenon.
Assumptions:
1. All countries have realized it and are working towards control. 
2. Growing population, industries, highways and constructions are beyond control.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.69. Statement: Minute traces of nitrate sometimes present in cattle fodder B may be responsible for the poor health of the cattle. Therefore, use fodder G to ensure that your cattle remain healthy.
Assumptions:
1. Cattle fodder G does not contain nitrate. 
2. Nitrate is toxic to all living beings.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.70. Statement: The impact of economic sanctions on an economy that is already so weak could be devastating.
Assumptions: 
1. Economic sanctions impact only a weak economy. 
2. The impact of economic sanctions varies from economy to economy.
Choose the most appropriate answer    (AILET, 2021)
(a) If only assumption I is implicit.
(b) If only assumption II is implicit.
(c) If neither assumption I nor II is implicit.
(d) If both assumptions I and II are implicit.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.71. Consider the following statements:
I. All machines consume energy.
II. Electricity provides energy.
III. Electric machines are cheap to maintain.
IV. Electric machines do not cause pollution.
Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the above statements?    (AILET, 2021)

(a) All machines are rim by electric energy
(b) There is no form of energy other than electricity
(c) Most machines are operated on electric energy
(d) Electrically operated machines are preferable to use

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.72. India's neighbouring countries have seen a surge in their imports of the metal. This gold is then being carried across into India by smugglers.
Which of the following inferences can best be drawn from the above statements?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) There is a duty differential between India and its neighbouring countries.
(b) The tough restriction on the metal's imports could be eased
(c) India has a high current account deficit
(d) There has been a sharp depreciation of the rupee

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.73. A new apparel store has been opened by a telecom company XYZ, from which customers have very high expectations.
Which of the following statements can be inferred from the above statement?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) Apparel stores were previously operated in telecom industry only
(b) Expansion is the best strategy to have competitive edge in the market
(c) To be successful in an expansion, one needs to be a leader in telecom industry
(d) XYZ has already established brand name in the market through its telecom business

Correct Answer is Option (d)


In the following questions, a statement is given followed by some arguments. Study the statement carefully and mark the correct alternative.

Q.74. Statement: Should the government impose restrictions on access to sensitive information to journalists to avoid media hype?
Arguments:
I. Yes, the media creates hype and publishes distorted information at times.
II. No, journalists should have access to all the information as media is the best source to expose the malfunctions in the society.
III. Yes, at times it leads to harassment of those who are affected and alleged to be involved in the crisis.    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 
Arguments I and II are strong
(b) Arguments II and III are strong
(c) Arguments I, II and III are strong
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.75. Statement: Should the Government introduce a system of obtaining bonds from students for working in India before sanctioning education loans for higher studies?
Arguments:
I. No, this is not a workable solution and will obstruct the development of young talent in the country.
II. Yes, this is the only way to ensure use of the talent of our country for the development of the country and not only an individual.
III. No, this step will be too harsh.    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 
Only argument I is strong
(b) Only argument II is strong
(c) Arguments I and II are strong
(d) None is strong

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.76. Statement: Should people with educational qualification higher than the optimum requirements be debarred from seeking jobs?    (AILET, 2021)
Arguments:
I. No, it will further aggravate the problem of educated unemployment.
II. Yes, it creates insecurities among employees and affects the work adversely.
III. No, this goes against the basic rights of the individuals.
IV. Yes, this will increase productivity.

(a) Argument I is strong
(b) Argument II is strong
(c) Argument III is strong
(d) All arguments are strong

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.77. Statement: Should all the youngsters below the age of 21 years be disallowed from going to a pub?    (AILET, 2021)
Arguments:
I. No, it is not correct to prevent matured youngsters above 18 years of age, who can vote, from having fun.
II. Yes, the entry fee to such pubs should also be hiked.
III. No, there is no such curb in Western countries.
IV. Yes, this will help in preventing youngsters from imbibing unhealthy habits.
(a) 
Only argument I is strong
(b) Arguments I and III are strong
(c) Arguments III and IV are strong
(d) Arguments I and IV are strong

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.78. Statement: Should all the school teachers be debarred from giving private tuitions?    (AILET, 2021)
Arguments:
I. No, the needy students will be deprived of the expertise of these teachers.
II. Yes, this is an injustice to the unemployed educated people, who can earn their living by giving tuitions.
III. Yes, only then the quality of teaching in schools will improve.
IV. Yes, now salary of these teachers is reasonable.

(a) Arguments I and III are strong
(b) Arguments III and IV are strong
(c) Arguments I, II and III are strong
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.79. Statement: In a one-day cricket match, the total runs made by a team were 200. Out of these 160 runs were made by spinners.    (AILET, 2021)
Conclusions:
I. 80% of the team consists of spinners.
II. The opening batsmen were spinners.

(a) Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Either I or II follows
(d) Neither I nor II follows

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.80. Statement: The old order changed yielding place to new.
Conclusions: 
I. Change is the law of nature.
II. Discard old ideas because they are old.    (A1LET, 2021)
(a) Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Either I or II follows
(d) Neither I nor II follows

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.81. Statement: Prime age school-going children in urban India have now become avid as well as more regular viewers of television, even in households without a TV. As a result, there has been an alarming decline in the extent of readership of news-papers.    (AILET, 2021)
Conclusions:
I. Method of increasing the readership of newspapers should be devised.
II. A team of experts should be sent to other countries to study the impact of TV on the readership of newspapers.
(a)
Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Either I or II follows
(d) Neither I nor II follows

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.82. Statement: The standard of education in private schools is much better than Municipal and Zilla Parishad-run schools.    (AILET, 2021)
Conclusions:
I. The Municipal and Zilla Parishad should make serious efforts to improve standard of their schools.
II. All Municipal and Zilla Parishad schools should be closed immediately.
(a) Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Either I or II follows
(d) Neither I nor II follows

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.83. Statement: Domestic demand has been increasing faster than the production of indigenous crude oil.    (AILET, 2021)
Conclusions:
I. Crude oil must be imported.
II. Domestic demand should be reduced.
(a) Only conclusion I follows
(b) Only conclusion II follows
(c) Either I or II follows
(d) Neither I nor II follows

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Directions to Solve Questions Each of the following questions contains a small paragraph followed by a question on it. Read each paragraph carefully and answer the question given below it.

Q.84. The attainment of individual and organisational goals is mutually interdependent and linked by a common denominator - employee work motivation. Organisational members are motivated to satisfy their personal goals, and they contribute their efforts to the attainment of organisational objectives as means of achieving these personal goals.
The passage best supports the statement that motivation:    (AILET, 2021)
(a) encourages an individual to give priority to personal goals over organisational goals.
(b) is crucial for the survival of an individual and organisation.
(c) is the product of an individual's physical and mental energy.
(d) is the external force which induces an individual to contribute his efforts.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.85. Due to enormous profits involved in smuggling, hundreds of persons have been attracted towards this anti-national activity. Some of them became millionaires overnight. India has a vast coastline both on the Eastern and Western Coast. It has been a heaven for smugglers who have been carrying on their activities with great impunity. There is no doubt, that from time to time certain seizures were made by the enforcement authorities, during raids and ambush but even allowing these losses the smugglers made huge profits.
The passage best supports the statement that:    (AILET, 2021)

(a) smuggling hampers the economic development of a nation.
(b) smuggling ought to be curbed.
(c) authorities are taking strict measures to curb smuggling.
(d) smuggling is fast increasing in our country owing to the quick profit it entails.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.86. Exports and imports, a swelling favourable balance of trade, investments and bank-balances, are not an index or a balance sheet of national prosperity. Till the beginning of the Second World War , English exports were noticeably greater than what they are today. And yet England has greater national prosperity today than it ever had. Because the income of average Englishmen, working as field and factory labourers, clerks, policemen, petty shopkeepers and shop assistants, domestic workers and other low-paid workers, has gone up.
The passage best supports the statement that:    (AILET, 2021)
(a) a country's balance of trade is the main criteria of determining its economic prosperity.
(b) a country's economic standard can be best adjudged by per capita income.
(c) a nation's economy strengthens with the increase in exports.
(d) english trade has continually increased since the Second World War.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Understand the relation between the set of words and choose the correct options :

Q.87. FISH: SCHOOL    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 
wolf: pack
(b) cow : farm
(c) herd : peacock
(d) elephant: jungle

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.88. PASTORAL: RURAL    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 
harvest: autumn
(b) sleepy: nocturnal
(c) metropolitan: urban
(d) agrarian: benevolent

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.89. SOUND: CACOPHONY    (AILET, 2021)
(a) speech : oration
(b) touch : massage
(c) smell: stench
(d) taste: style

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Identify the missing letters in the sets of Letter Series given below :
Q.90. QPO, NML, KJI _______ EDC.    (AILET, 2021)
(a) HGF
(b) CAB
(c) JKM
(d) GHD

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.91. ATNHG, DKCMB, CVPJI, GNFPE, EXRLK, JQISH, GZTNM, _______     (AILET, 2021)
(a) QMTH
(b) TLVK
(c) RIJTU
(d) HSKUJ

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.92. Ramesh travelled from a point and straight to Y at a distance of 90 m. He turned right and walked 40 m, then again turned right and walked 70 m. Finally, he turned right and walked 40 m. How far he is from the starting point?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 70 m
(b) 10 m
(c) 20 m
(d) 30 m

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.93. Ram and Sunil start from a fixed point Ram moves 4 km to the South, then turns left and moves 3 km. Sunil moves 3 km towards West, then turns right and moves 4 km further. How far apart are they now?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) 7 km
(b) 13 km
(c) 10 km
(d) 14 km

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.94. Rashmi travels 10 km towards the north, turns left and travels 4 km and then again turns right and covers another 5 km and then turns right and travels another 4 km. How far is she from the starting point?    (AILET, 2021)
(a)
5 km
(b) 10 km
(c) 19 km
(d) 15 km

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.95. Man: Biography :: Nation : ?    (AILET, 2021)
(a) Geography
(b) History
(c) People
(d) Leader

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Direction: Read the following information carefully and answer the questions given below.
Sonu has to deliver seven parcels containing different items- Medicine, Book, Stationery, Grocery, Cosmetics, Clothe and Chocolate - to houses on different floors of a building, one parcel each to a house. The seven floors of the building are numbered consecutively 1 through 7. Delivery of parcels to houses must meet the following conditions:
(i) 
Medicine is delivered on a lower numbered floor than Grocery.
(ii) Clothe is delivered at one level below the floor at which Book is delivered.
(iii) Stationery is delivered at first floor or else seventh floor.
(iv) Chocolate is delivered at fourth floor.


Q.96. There can be at most how many floors between the floor at which Medicine is delivered and the floor at which Grocery is delivered?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Two
(b) Three
(c) Four
(d) Five

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.97. If Clothe is delivered at floor 1, which of the following could be true?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Book is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Grocery is delivered.
(b) Book is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Cosmetics is delivered.
(c) Medicine is delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Stationery is delivered.
(d) Cosmetics are delivered at a floor one below than the floor at which Book is delivered.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.98. Which one of the following is an acceptable assignment of parcels to the floors in the building, in order from floor 1 through 7?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Medicine, Clothe, Cosmetics, Chocolate, Book, Grocery, Stationery
(b) Stationery, Cosmetics, Chocolate, Clothe, Book, Medicine, Grocery
(c) Stationery, Clothe, Book, Chocolate, Grocery, Medicine, Cosmetics
(d) Medicine, Cosmetics, Grocery, Chocolate, Clothe, Book, Stationery

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.99. If Cosmetics is delivered at floor 2, which one of the following must be true?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Medicine is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Chocolate.
(b) Chocolate is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Grocery.
(c) Grocery is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Stationery.
(d) Clothe is delivered at a lower numbered floor than Grocery.

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.100. If Cosmetics is delivered on floor 5, which one of the following is a pair of parcels that could be delivered, not necessarily in the order given, at floors whose numbers are consecutive to each other?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Book, Grocery
(b) Clothe, Chocolate
(c) Stationery, Grocery
(d) Book, Stationery

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.101. If Book is delivered at one floor below the floor at which Medicine is delivered, then which one of the following must be true?     (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Cosmetics are delivered on fifth floor.
(b) Medicine is delivered on third flew.
(c) Stationery is delivered on first floor.
(d) Clothe is delivered on fifth floor.

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.102. It must be true that the lowest numbered floor on which    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Book can be delivered on third floor.
(b) Medicine can be delivered on second floor.
(c) Cosmetics can be delivered on third floor.
(d) Grocery can be delivered on second floor.

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.103. Directions: Read the following information carefully to answer the following questions.    (NLUD, 2020)
I. 'X + Y' means that 'X is the mother of Y'.
II. 'XY' means that 'X is the sister of Y'.
III. ' X x Y' means that 'X is the father of Y'.
IV. 'X ÷ Y' means that 'X is the brother of Y'.

(a) grand-daughter
(b) son
(c) grand-son
(d) daughter

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.104. Which of the following represent 'J is the son of F'?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) J ÷ RT x F
(b) J + R-T x F
(c) J ÷ RN x F
(dnone of these

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.105. Which of the following represent 'R is the niece of M'?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) M ÷ Kx - T - R
(b) Mj + RN
(c) RM x T ÷ W
(d) M + T x K ÷ R

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.106. If it is given 'B x D - M', then which of the following is true?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) B is the brother of M
(b) B is the sister of M
(c) B is the uncle of M
(d) B is the father of M

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Direction: Read the given information carefully and answer the following questions.
Vidya, Umesh and Tanu are sitting around a circular table. Arun, Bina and Chetan are sitting around the same table but two of them are not facing centre (they are facing the direction opposite to centre). Vidya is second to the left of Chetan. Umesh is second to the right of Arun. Bina is third to the left of Tanu. Chetan is second to the right of Tanu. Arun and Chetan are not sitting together.


Q.107. Which of the following is not facing centre?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Bina & Arun
(b) Chetan & Vidya
(c) Bina & Chetan
(d) Arun & Umesh

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.108. Which of the following is the position of Tanu in respect of Bina?     (NLUD, 2020)
(a) third to the right
(b) second to the right
(c) third to the left
(d) third to the left & right, both

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.109. What is the position of Vidya in respect of Chetan?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) second to the right
(b) third to the left
(c) fourth to the right
(d) fourth to the left

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.110. Which of the following statement is correct?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Arun, Bina and Chetan are sitting together
(b) Vidya, Umesh and Tanu are sitting together
(c) Only two people are sitting between Vidya and Tanu  
(d) Those who are not facing centre are sitting together

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.111. What is the position of Arun in respect of Umesh?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) second to the left
(b) second to the right
(c) third to the right
(d) none of these

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Direction: Each of these questions consists of a pair of words bearing a certain relationship. From among the options, find out the one that best illustrates a similar relationship.
Q.112. LOM : NMK : : PKI : ?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) RIG
(b) RIH
(c) SHG
(d) RHG

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.113. ABCD : OFQR :: WXYZ : ?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) EFGH
(b) STUV
(c) KLMN
(d) QRST

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Direction(Q. 49 - Q. 50): Find the one that does not belong to the group.
Q.114. ?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) GMS
(b) FKQ
(c) JOU
(d) LRX

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.115. ?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
RARCOT
(b) NIATCRU
(c) BACGEBA
(d) ILBJARN

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.116. If in a certain code language 'TEMPERATURE' is written as 'BZQDYXVBNXZ', then how will 'RAMP' be written in that language?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
XVQD
(b) XVDQ
(c) XQVD
(d) XDVQ

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.117. In a certain coding system, 'JUNE' is written as 'PQRS' and 'AUGUST' is written as 'WQFQMN'.
How will 'GUEST' be written in that coding language?    (NLUD, 2020)

(a) FQTMN
(b) FPSMN
(c) FQSMN
(d) FQSNM

Correct Answer is Option (c)


Q.118. A clock is set right at 5 am. The clock loses 16 minutes in 24 hours. What will be the right time when the clock indicates 10 pm on the 3rd day?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) 11:15 pm
(b) 11 pm
(c) 12 pm
(d) 12:30 pm

Correct Answer is Option (b)


Q.119. The minute hand of a clock overtakes the hour hand at intervals of 65 minutes of the correct time. How much does a clock gain or lose in a day?    (NLUD 2020)
(a) 10 10/143 minutes (gain)
(b) 10 10/143 minutes (loss)
(c) 910/143 minutes (gain)
(d) 9 10/143 minutes (loss)

Correct Answer is Option (a)



Q.120. If a day before yesterday was Tuesday, then what day of the week will it be on a day after tomorrow?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) Monday
(b) Wednesday
(c) Friday
(d) Saturday

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.121. If 15th August, 2017 was Tuesday, then what day of the week was it on 17th September, 2017?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) 
Sunday
(b) Saturday
(c) Friday
(d) Thursday

Correct Answer is Option (a)


Q.122. Tia and Renu both are walking away from point 'X'. Tia walked 3 m and Renu walked 4 m from it, then Tia walked 4 m North of X and Renu walked 5 m South of Tia. What is the distance between them now?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a) 9.5 m
(b) 9 m
(c) 16 m
(d) 11.40 m

Correct Answer is Option (d)


Q.123. Tanaya travelled 4 km straight towards South. He turned left and travelled 6 km straight, then turned right and travelled 4 km straight. How far is he from the starting point?    (NLUD, 2020)
(a)
8 km
(b) 10 km
(c) 12 km
(d) 18 km

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The document Previous Year Questions: Logical And Analytical Reasoning- 1 - Notes | Study Logical Reasoning for CLAT - CLAT is a part of the CLAT Course Logical Reasoning for CLAT.
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