Q.1. Fill in the blank: ----------- is well known for effective use of wind energy in Rajasthan. 
Ans. Nagaur and Jaisalmer are well known for the effective use of wind energy in Rajasthan.
Q.2. Suggest any one way to enhance the use of natural gas in India. 
Ans. One way to enhance the use of natural gas in India is by making people aware of the importance of using this clean energy resource because natural gas is considered environmentally friendly.
Q.3. Fill in the blanks: 'Gobar gas plants’ provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of_______and________ 
Ans. 'Gobar gas plants' provide twin benefits to the farmers in the form of energy and manure.
Q.4. Suggest any one way to maximize the use of nuclear energy in the field of medicine. 
Ans. One way to maximize the use of nuclear energy in the field of medicine is by utilizing radio-active substances, mostly for diagnosing cancer as well as cardiac and other diseases.
Q.5. Why are there a wide range of colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre and density found in minerals? [Delhi 2016]
Ans. The varied colours, hardness, crystal forms, lustre, and density found in minerals are due to their chemical composition and the parameters such as temperature, pressure, rate of cooling, etc., present during their formation.
Q.6. How is iron-ore transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru? [Foreign 2016]
Ans. Iron ore is transported from Kudremukh mines to a port near Mangaluru as slurry through pipelines.
Q.7. Why should the use of cattle cake as fuel be discouraged? [Al 2016]
Ans. The use of cattle cake as fuel should be discouraged because it creates pollution and by burning it, a valuable manure resource is destroyed, which could otherwise improve soil fertility.
Q.8. How are 'Gobar Gas Plants' beneficial to the farmers? 
Ans. 'Gobar Gas Plants' are beneficial to the farmers in two ways. Firstly, they provide a clean fuel for domestic cooking and lighting. Secondly, they produce high-quality manure that can be used to enhance soil fertility.
Q.9. Why does aluminium metal have great importance? 
Ans. Aluminium metal has great importance because it combines the properties of great strength, lightness, malleability, and conductivity.
Q.1. Read the given case and answer the questions that follow: 
CONSERVATION OF ENERGY RESOURCES
Energy is a basic requirement for economic development. Every sector of the national economy - agriculture, industry, transport, commercial and domestic - needs inputs of energy. The economic development plans implemented since independence necessarily required increasing amounts of energy to remain operational. As a result, consumption of energy In all forms has been steadily rising all over the country. In this background, there is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development. Promotion of energy conservation and increased use of renewable energy sources are the twin planks of sustainable energy. India is presently one of the least energy efficient countries in the world. We have to adopt a cautious approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources. For example, as concerned citizens we can do our bit by using public transport systems instead of individual vehicles; switching off electricity when not in use, using power-saving devices and using non conventional sources of energy. At last "Energy Saved is energy produced”.
(i) Why is sustainable energy a key to sustainable development?
(ii) Why is consumption of energy rising in all over India?
(iii) Explain 'Energy saved is energy produced.’
Ans. (i) Sustainable energy is a key to sustainable development, as sustainability demands that resource reserves including exhaustible, natural and environmental resources, be maintained.
(ii) After getting independence development of all sectors like agriculture, industry, transport, domestic needs etc. necessarily required to remain in operation, hence consumption of energy in all forms has increased all over India.
(iii) Energy saved is energy produced. We cannot keep on producing non-renewable energy like petrol, diesel and electricity. So the need of the hour is the better utilisation of exisiting resources. We have to adopt cautions approach for the judicious use of our limited energy resources.
Q.2. Classify metallic minerals with an example of each. (2020 C)
Q.3. "Minerals occur in various forms". Support this statement with examples. (2020)
Q.4. "Minerals are an indispensable part of our lives". Support this statement with examples. (2020)
Q.5. Differentiate between anthracite and bituminous coal on the basis of quality. (2020 C)
Q.6. Describe any three characteristics of the Ballari-Chitradurga, Chikkamagaluru-Tumakuru iron-ore belt in India. (Foreign 2017)
Q.7. Describe any three characteristics of the Durg-Bastar-Chandrapur iron-ore belt in India. (AI 2017)
Q.8. Describe any three characteristics of the 'Odisha-Jharkhand belt' of iron ore in India. (Delhi 2017)
Q.9. "India is an important iron and steel producing country in the world. Yet we are not able to perform to our full potential." Suggest and explain any three measures to reach our full potential. (Foreign 2016)
Q.10. 'Consumption of energy in all forms has been rising all over the country. There is an urgent need to develop a sustainable path of energy development and energy saving.' Suggest and explain any three measures to solve this burning problem. (AI 2016)
Q.11. "There is a pressing need to use renewable energy resources." Justify the statement with suitable arguments. (AI 2016)
Q.12. Which minerals are used to obtain nuclear energy? Name all the six nuclear power stations of India. (AI 2016)
Q.13. "Natural gas is considered an environment-friendly fuel." Explain the statement in two points. (AI 2015)
Q.14. How is geothermal energy produced? Explain. (AI 2015)
Q.15. How can biogas solve the energy problem mainly in rural India? Give your suggestions. (AI 2015)
Q.16. Describe any three features of ferrous minerals found in India. (Foreign 2015)
Q.17. How is the mining activity injurious to the health of the miners and the environment? Explain. (Delhi 2015)
Q.1. Why is it necessary to conserve mineral resources? Explain any four ways to conserve mineral resources. (AI2017)
Ans. It is necessary to conserve mineral resources because they are limited in availability and the process of mineral formation is slow. Additionally, minerals are non-renewable and exhaustible.
Four ways to conserve mineral resources are:
1. Using minerals in a planned and sustainable manner.
2. Evolving improved technology to allow the use of low-grade ore at a low cost.
3. Practicing recycling of minerals.
4. Using alternative renewable substitutes.
Q.2. 'Energy saved is energy produced.’ Assess the statement. (2017)
Ans. The statement "Energy saved is energy produced" emphasizes the importance of conserving energy. By reducing energy wastage and using energy-efficient practices, we can save energy and reduce the need for additional energy production. This approach is beneficial for the environment as it reduces the consumption of fossil fuels and decreases greenhouse gas emissions.
Q.3. Why should we use renewable energy resources? Explain with arguments. (Foreign 2017)
Ans. There are several reasons why we should use renewable energy resources:
1. Non-renewable resources are limited and will eventually get exhausted. In contrast, renewable energy resources such as solar power and wind energy are inexhaustible, making them a sustainable choice for long-term energy needs.
2. The depletion of non-renewable resources like coal and petroleum has taken millions of years to occur. By using renewable energy resources, we can avoid further depletion and preserve these non-renewable resources for future generations.
3. Fossil fuels, which are non-renewable resources, contribute to pollution and environmental degradation. Renewable energy sources, on the other hand, are cleaner and emit fewer greenhouse gases, thus mitigating the impact of climate change.
4. The cost of extracting and using non-renewable resources is increasing as these resources become harder to find. In contrast, the cost of renewable energy technologies, such as solar panels and wind turbines, has been decreasing over time. Investing in renewable energy can help reduce energy costs in the long run.
Q.4. Explain the importance of conservation of minerals. Highlight any three measures to conserve them. (AI2016)
Ans. Conservation of minerals is important for the following reasons:
1. Minerals are the backbone of the economy and are essential for various industries.
2. The total volume of workable mineral deposits is very limited, representing only 1% of the Earth's crust.
3. Mineral resources are being consumed at a rapid rate, while the geological processes of mineral formation are slow. This means that the rate of consumption far exceeds the rate of replenishment.
Three measures to conserve minerals are:
1. Using minerals in a sustainable manner by planning their extraction and usage.
2. Developing improved technologies that allow the use of low-grade ore at a lower cost.
3. Promoting recycling and reuse of minerals to reduce the demand for new extraction.
Q.5. Highlight the importance of petroleum. Explain the occurrence of petroleum in India. (Delhi 2016)
Ans. The importance of petroleum can be highlighted as follows:
1. Petroleum is a major source of energy in India, providing fuel for heat, lighting, and transportation.
2. It serves as a lubricant for machinery, ensuring their smooth operation.
3. Petroleum is a crucial raw material for various manufacturing industries.
4. Petroleum refineries play a significant role in supporting industries such as synthetic, textile, fertilizer, and chemical industries.
In India, petroleum occurs in the following ways:
1. Most petroleum reserves in India are associated with anticlines and fault traps.
2. In regions of folding anticlines or domes, petroleum is trapped in the crust of the upfold.
3. Petroleum is also found in fault traps between porous and non-porous rocks.
Q.6. How can solar energy solve the energy problem to some extent in India? Give your opinion. (2015)
Ans. Solar energy can contribute to solving the energy problem in India in the following ways:
1. India receives abundant sunlight throughout the year, especially in rural and remote areas. Harnessing solar energy through solar panels and solar power plants can provide a reliable source of electricity in these areas.
2. Establishing solar plants in rural and remote areas can help minimize the dependence on traditional sources of energy such as firewood and dung cakes. This, in turn, contributes to environmental conservation and reduces indoor air pollution.
3. Solar energy can provide electricity for various applications, including lighting, cooking, and powering electronic devices. By utilizing solar energy, India can reduce its reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions, thereby mitigating climate change.
|1. What are minerals and energy resources?|
|2. What are the different types of minerals?|
|3. How are minerals formed?|
|4. What are the uses of minerals and energy resources?|
|5. What are the challenges associated with the extraction and utilization of minerals and energy resources?|