Short Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Which Pastoralist do nomads live in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh? [CBSE 2016]
Ans. The pastoralist nomads who lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh were:
(a) The Gollas.
(b) Kuruman and Kurubas.
Q.2. Why were the British officials suspicious of the nomadic people? Give one reason. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Because they distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who sold their goods in villages and pastoralists who changed their places or residence every season. They were considered as criminals.
Q.3. How did the Gaddis earn their livelihood? [CBSE 2016]
Ans. They sold milk, ghee and other products.
Q.4. Explain any three factors that the pastoral groups have to consider to sustain their life. [CBSE 2010, 2015, 2016]
Ans. The three factors which the pastoral groups have to consider to sustain their life are:
(a) They have to judge how long the herds could stay in one place and know where they could find water and pastures.
(b) They had to calculate the timing of their movement and had to move through different territories.
(c) They had to set up a relationship with the farmers, on the way, so that herds could graze in the harvested fields and manure the soil. They combined a number of activities like cultivation, herding, and trade to sustain themselves.
Q.5. Explain any three different livelihood practices adopted by the pastoralists in the 20th century, as they left their traditional occupations. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Three livelihood practices adopted by the pastoralists in the 20th century were as follows:
(a) Richer pastor lists started buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life.
(b) Some became settled peasants cultivating the land.
(c) Others took to trading.
Q.6. Give one example to explain why the pastoralists have been compelled to change their movement in modern times. [CBSE 2016]
Ans. The pastoralists have been compelled to change their movement in modern times. After 1947, the camel and sheep herding Raikas could no longer move into Sindh and graze their animals on the banks of Indus. The new political boundaries between Indian & Pakistan stopped their movement. In recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana where sheep could graze on agricultural land after harvests are cut.
Q.7. Name the regions of the cyclic movement of Kurumas and Kurubas. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. The Kuruman and Kurubas lived in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. In the dry season, they moved near the coast and left when the rains came.
Long Answer Type Questions
Q.1. Who are pastoral nomads? Describe any four features of them? [CBSE 2016,15]
Ans. Pastoral nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. They depend on livestock rearing, they move with their cattle and other animals. The four features of pastoral nomads are as follows.
(a) Pastoral nomads had to adjust to seasonal changes and make the best use of available pastures in different places. When the pastureland was exhausted they moved to a different place where pastures are available.
(b) Cold and snow are not the only factors which defined their seasonal movement. In the dry season, they moved to coastal areas and left when the rain came.
(c) They set up a relationship with farmers so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil.
(d) They combine a range of different occupations - cultivation, trade and herding to earn their living. For example, the Gollas, Kurumas and Kurubas herded cattle, cultivated small patches of land and also engaged in a variety of petty trades.
Q.2. which two social categories were the Maasai society divided in pre-colonial times? In what way did their roles change because of the colonial policies? [CBSE 2016]
Describe the social organisations of the MassaPs in the pre-colonial times. What changes occurred in MaasaPs society during the colonial rule?
Ans. The Massai society was divided into two social groups in pre-colonial times - elders and warriors. The elders were the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. The warriors consisted of young people, responsible for the protection of the tribe. They defended the community and organised cattle raids. Raiding was an important activity in a society where cattle was wealth. It was the way through which different pastoral groups asserted their superiority.
The British introduced a number of measures which changed the lives of the Maasai. The chiefs of different sub-groups were. appointed to look after the affairs of the tribe. Restrictions were imposed on raiding and warfare. So, the traditional authority of both the elders and warriors changed dramatically. The difference based on age, between elders and warriors, broke down, and a new distinction was developed between the rich and poor pastoralists.
The chiefs appointed by the colonial government became rich overtime. They had regular income with which they purchased land, goods, animals and also get involved in the trade. But the poor pastoralists worked as charcoal, burners or work in road or building construction or did odd jobs.
Q.3. Which parts of the African continent are inhabited by the pastoralists? What are the different types of activities they are involved in? [CBSE 2016]
Ans. Most of the pastoralists in Africa lived in semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rain-fed agriculture is difficult.
The pastoralists are involved in a different type of activities like they rear cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys; and sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool. Some also earn through trade and transport, others combine pastoral activity with agriculture, still, others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism.