Short Answer Questions
Q. 1. Who are Sectional Interest groups? [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. They seek to promote the interests of a particular section or group of society.
Q. 2. For whose interest do the public welfare interest groups work ? [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Public welfare groups work in favour of-All Sections of society.
Q. 3. Give an example of any ‘pressure group’ of India which functions as a branch of ‘political party.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. Trade unions/Students’ organizations, INTUC, AITUC, ABVP, NSU(I)
Q, 4. Name any one political party of India which grew out of a movement. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
Ans. Political party in India which grew out of a movement is : Asom Gana Parishad
Q. 5. How were the movements of Nepal and Bolivia water war different from each other?
Differentiate between Nepal’s movement and Bolivia’s popular struggle. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Q. 6. How are popular struggles undertaken in a democracy?
Analyse the role of popular struggles in the development of democracy. [CBSE (Al) 2017]
Q. 7. “Popular struggles are integral to the working democracy.” Explain the statement in the light of Bolivia’s struggle against privatisation of water. [CBSE (Comptt) 2017]
Ans. The world bank pressurized the government to give up its control of municipal water supply
The government sold these rights to a Multinational company for the city of cocha bamba. The company immediately increased the price of water by four times. This led to a spontaneous popular protest. The contract with the MNC was cancelled and water supply was restored to the municipality at old rates. This came to be known as Bolivia’s water war. In January 2000 a new alliance of labour, human rights and community leaders joined a four day political strike in the city. The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off. Nothing happened and so they protested again though they were brutally suppressed. Another strike took place in april and the government imposed the martial law. The power of the people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government to concede to all the demands of the protestor
Q. 8. State the main aim of Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Its principal concern is social justice and social equality for the entire society.
Q. 9. Which organisation led the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Q. 10. Distinguish between pressure groups and political parties by stating any one point of distinction. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. Pressure groups do not aim to directly control or share political power but political parties directly control and share political power.
Q. 11. Name any two sectional interest groups. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
Ans. (i) Trade Union (ii) Business Association
Q. 12. Differentiate between ‘Sectional interest groups’ and ‘Public interest groups’. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Sectional interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section.
Public interest groups promote collective rather than selective good.
Q. 13. What are sectional interest groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE Delhi 2016}
Ans. Sectional interest groups: The groups that seek to promote the interests of a particular section or a group of a society is called sectional interest groups.
(i) They perform a meaningful role in countering the undue influence of other groups.
(ii) They create awareness about the needs and concerns of their own society.
(iii) Their principal concern is the betterment and well-being of their members not society in general
Q. 14. What are public interest pressure groups? Describe their functioning. [CBSE (AI) 2016)
Ans. Public interest groups are those that promote collective rather than selective interests.
Their functions is as follows:
(i) It aims to help groups other than their own members.
(ii) They represent some common interests that needs to be defended.
(iii) The members of the organisation may not benefit from the cause that the organisation represents. For example, A group fighting against bonded labour fights not for itself but for those who are suffering under such bondage.
(iv) For example, BAMCEF
Q. 15. Who led the protest against water privatization in Bolivia? Describe the ways of protest adopted by that organization. [CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Protest against water privatization in Bolivia: FEDECOR (comprised local professionals, including engineers and Environmentalists), human rights and community leaders Ways of their Protest:
(i) Organised a successful four-day general strike in the city.
(ii) Influenced the decision through direct participation in competitive politics.
(iii) Created parties and formed governments.
(iv) Formed pressure groups for the protest.
Q. 16. How are issue specific movements different from generic movements? [CBSE Delhi 2016]
Ans. Difference between issue specific and generic movements:
(i) Issue specific movements seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame, while generic movements seek to achieve a broad goal in the long term.
(ii) Issue specific movements tend to have a clear leadership and some organisation. But their active life is usually short.
(iii) Generic movements share a broad objective and have a similar approach. Sometimes, these broad movements have a loose umbrella organisation as well.
Q. 17. What was the main reason of Bolivia’s popular movement? [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Explain the main reason for 'Bolivia Water War.’ [CBSE Delhi 2017 ]
Ans: (i) The government of Bolivia sold the rights of water supply to a multinational company,
(ii) The company increased the price of water by four times.
Long Answer Questions
Q 1 . Which organisation contributed in the protest against water privatisation in Bolivia? [CBSE (F) 2017]
“Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics in different ways.” Support the statement with suitable examples. [CBST Delhi 2016]
Analyse any five ways by which ‘pressure groups’ can exert influence on politics. [CBSE (F) 2017]
How do pressure groups and movements strengthen democracy ? Explain. [CBSE (AI) 2017]
How do the pressure groups and movements influence politics? Explain with examples. [CBSE (Delhi) 2017]
Q. 2. What can we conclude about democracy with reference to popular struggles and movements like Bolivian water war? Explain in detail. [CBSE Sample Question 2016]
Explain with appropriate examples the relevance of ‘popular struggle’ of both Nepal and Bolivia for democracy. [CBSE (F) 2017]
Ans. Democracy evolves through popular struggles. It is possible that some significant decisions may take place through consensus and may not involve any conflict at all. But that would be an exception.
Defining movements of democracy usually involve conflict between those groups who have exercised power and those who aspire for a share in power.
These movements come when the country is going through transition to democracy expansion of democracy or deepening of democracy.
Democratic conflict is resolved through mass mobilisation. Sometimes it is possible that the conflict is resolved by using the existing institutions like the parliament or the judiciary.
These conflicts and mobilisations are based on new political organisations where there is an element of spontaneity in all such historic movements.
But the spontaneous public participation becomes effective with the help of organised politics.
Q. 3. How are ‘movements’ different from interest groups ? Explain with examples. [CBSE Delhi 2017]
Ans. Difference between interest groups and movements:
(i) Interest groups do not have a loose organisation whereas Movements have a loose organisation.
(ii) Decision making of interest groups is formal whereas decision making of movements is informal and flexible.
(iii) They do not depend so much on spontaneous mass participation and formed by people with a common interest and occupation. Movements depend much more on spontaneous mass participation.
(vi) Interest groups seek to promote the interest of a particular section or a group of society such as, trade unions/business association doctor etc. Whereas, the movements groups are issue specific that seek to achieve a single objective within a limited time frame such as the Nepalese movement for democracy/ Narmada Bachao Andolan etc.
(v) Interest groups promote collective rather than selective good such as BAMCEF(Backward and Minority Communities Employees Federation) whereas the movement groups are more general or generic movement that seek to achieve a broad goal in the very long term such as women’s movement.
(vi) Interest groups represent some common or general interest that needs to be defended such as FEDECOR whereas movement group are long term and involve more than one issue such as environmental movement.
Q. 4. Describe the popular struggle of Bolivia. [CBSE (AI) 2016]
What do you know aboutBoIivia’s water war?
Ans. Popular struggle of Bolivia
(i) People’s struggle against privatisation of water in Bolivia power LhaL struggles are integral part of democracy.
(ii) The world Bank pressurised the government to give up its control of municipal water supply. The government sold these rights to a multinational company which increased the price of water by four times. Many people received monthly water bill of ₹ I,000 in a country where average income is around ₹5,000 a month.
(iii) In January 2000, a new alliance of labour human rights and community leaders organised a successful four day strike.
(iv) The government agreed to negotiate and the strike was called off.
(v) The police resorted to brutal regression when the agitations started in February followed in April and the government imposed martial law.
(vi) But the power of people forced the officials of the MNC to flee the city and made the government concede to all the demand of the protestors.
(vii) The contract with MNC was cancelled and the water supply was restored with the municipality at old rates.
This popular struggle came to be known as ‘Bolivia’s Water War.
Q. 5. Examine the role of pressure groups and movements in deepening democracy. [ CBSE (F) 2016]
Ans. Pressure groups and movements have deepened democracy.
(i) It reminds the government of the needs and concerns of ordinary citizens.
(ii) Put pressure on the rulers for the unhealthy activities.
(iii) It performs a useful role of countering undue influence of the rich and powerful people.
(iv) One single group cannot achieve dominance over society.
(v) The government gets to hear about what different sections of the population want.
(vi) This leads to a rough balance of power and accommodation of conflicting interests.
Q.6. Compare the popular struggles of Nepal and Bolivia. [CBSE 2016-17]
|Nepal’s struggle||Bolivia’s struggle|
|(i) It was for the restoration of democracy, It was against Kind Gyanendra.|
(ii) The main reason was the dissolution of Parliament . The King had become powerful.
(iii) In Nepal democracy was restored.
(iv) It was a struggle that got popular support from various organisations including Maoist insurgents.
(v) It was about the foundations of democracy/country’s politics.
|(i) It was against the policy of the elected democratic government;|
(ii) The reason was selling of water supply rights to MNC against the interests of the people,
(iii) In Bolivia water supply was restored at the old rates. (iv) In Bolivia too, the struggle was led by Fedecor and got popular support of labour human rights and community leaders.
(v) It was about one specific polity about water.
Q. 7. In what ways do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics?
How do pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics? Explain with examples. [CBSE 2015]
Ans. Pressure groups and movements exert influence on politics by:
(i) They carry out information campaigns, organise public outreach programmes, file petitions and use mass media to popularize their demands and gain support among masses.
(ii) They often organise protests like strikes, public disruptions, etc. to draw the attention of the government.
(iii) They may participate in official bodies and committees that offer advice to the government.
(iv) They seek to exert influence on political parties through economic donations or by assuring of votes of their supporters in elections. In some cases, they might become affiliated to political parties in form of trade unions, student unions, etc. and install individuals they deem appropriate in decision making bodies of the political parties.
Q.8. “The struggle of the Nepali people is a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.” Support the statement. [CBSE 2015]
(i) In the struggle the aim was at regaining popular control over the government from the king.
(ii) Major parties formed a Seven Party Alliance (SPA).
(iii) Even the Maoist insurgents joined the struggle.
(iv) Curfew was imposed but the security forces were unable to take action against one lakh people who gathered everyday to demand restoration of democracy.
(v) Ultimately the demands of the protestors were accepted. In 2008, monarchy was abolished and Nepal became a federal democratic republic. In 2015, it adopted a new constitution. Thus, the struggle has been a source of inspiration to democrats all over the world.