Q1. Why was 'Gulamgiri' book written by Jyotiba Phule in 1871? 
Ans. The book 'Gulamgiri' was written by Jyotiba Phule in 1871 to criticize the caste system and advocate for the rights and upliftment of lower-caste and oppressed individuals in Indian society.
Q2. Name the book published by Raja Ram Mohan Roy. 
Ans. Raja Ram Mohan Roy published the book 'Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin' (A Gift to Monotheists).
Q3. Name the author of 'Amar Jiban'. 
Ans. The author of 'Amar Jiban' is Rassundari Devi.
Q4. Why was the Vernacular Press Act passed in 1878? 
Ans. The Vernacular Press Act was passed in 1878 by the British colonial government in India to control and regulate the vernacular press, which was seen as a threat to their rule and criticized British policies.
Q5. Who invented the Printing Press? 
Ans. Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the Printing Press.
Q6. Who brought the knowledge of woodblock printing technique to Italy during the 13th century? 
Ans. Marco Polo is believed to have brought the knowledge of woodblock printing technique to Italy during the 13th century.
Q7. By 1448, Gutenberg perfected the system of printing. The first book he printed was the ______. 
Ans. The first book printed by Gutenberg was the Bible.
Q8. Wooden or Metal frames in which types are laid and the text composed for printing was known as? 
Ans. The frames in which types are laid and the text composed for printing are known as printing plates or printing blocks.
Q9. Name the first book printed by Gutenberg Press. [2020C, 2017]
Ans. The first book printed by Gutenberg Press was the Gutenberg Bible or the 42-line Bible.
Q10. Fill in the blank. Buddhist missionaries from China introduced hand printing technology into ______ around A.D. 768-770. 
Q11. How was hand-printing technology introduced in Japan? [Delhi 2019]
Ans. The hand printing technology was introduced in Japan by Buddhist missionaries from China around A.D. 768-770.
Q12. Name the oldest Japanese book [2020 C, 2016]
Ans. The oldest Japanese book is the "Buddhist Diamond Sutra."
Q13. Explain the meaning of the term ‘Calligraphy’. [Al 2019,2014]
Ans. Calligraphy is the art of decorative handwriting or lettering.
Q14. Why did Roman Catholic church impose control over publishers and booksellers? 
Ans. The Roman Catholic church imposed control over publishers and booksellers to maintain control over the spread of information and to ensure that religious teachings were not challenged or misrepresented.
Q15. Who was Menocchio? 
Ans. Menocchio was an Italian miller and self-educated philosopher who was put on trial by the Inquisition for his unorthodox beliefs and interpretations of religious texts.
Q.1. "The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing led to the print revolution in Europe." Explain the statement with examples. 
Ans. The shift from hand printing to mechanical printing brought about the print revolution in Europe. This revolution was characterized by the following:
Q.2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: 
'Krishnaji Trimbuck Ranade inhabitant of Poona intends to publish a Newspaper in the Marathi Language with a view of affording useful information on every topic of local interest. It will be open for free discussion on subjects of general utility, scientific investigation and the speculations connected with the antiquities, statistics, curiosities, history and geography of the country and of the Deccan especially...the patronage and support of all interested in the diffusion of knowledge and Welfare of the People is earnestly solicited.’
Bombay Telegraph and Courier, 6 January, 1849
The task of the native newspapers and political associations is identical to the role of the opposition in the House of Commons in Parliament in England. That is of critically examining government policy to suggest improvements, by removing those parts that will not be to the benefit of the people, and also by ensuring speedy implementation. These associations ought to carefully study the particular issues, gather diverse relevant information on the nation as well as on what are the possible and desirable improvements, and this will surely earn it considerable influence.' Native Opinion, 3 April, 1870
(i) Explain the main reason for publishing a newspaper by Krishnaji.
Ans. The main reason for publishing a newspaper by Krishnaji was to provide useful information on every topic of local interest and to encourage free discussion on subjects of general utility, scientific investigation, and speculations related to antiquities, statistics, curiosities, history, and geography of the country, especially the Deccan.
(ii) How was the task of native newspapers and political associations seen identical to the role of opposition?
Ans. The task of native newspapers and political associations was seen identical to the role of opposition in the House of Commons in England. They critically examined government policy to suggest improvements, removed parts that were not beneficial to the people, and ensured speedy implementation. They also carefully studied particular issues, gathered diverse relevant information, and proposed possible and desirable improvements, which earned them considerable influence.
(iii) Analyse the reasons for the popularity of newspapers during the 19th century.
Q.3. Examine the steps taken by the British under the Vernacular Press Act, 1878. (2020 C)
What restrictions were imposed by the Vernacular Press Act on the Indian Press? Explain. (2016)
Q.4. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow: 
From the early nineteenth century, there were intense debates around religious issues. Different groups confronted the changes happening within colonial society in different ways, and offered a variety of new interpretations of the beliefs of different religions. Some criticized existing practices and campaigned for reform, while others countered the arguments of reformers. These debates were carried out in public and in print. Printed tracts and newspapers not only spread the new ideas, but they shaped the nature of the debate. A wider public could now participate in these public discussions and express their views. New ideas emerged through these clashes of opinions. This was a time of intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of arguments. To reach a wider audience, the ideas were printed in the everyday, spoken language of ordinary people.
(i) Analyse any one issue of intense debate around religious issues.
Ans: One issue of intense debate around religious issues was widow immolation.
(ii) Examine the role of print media in these debates.
Q.5. How had the Imperial State in China been the major producer of printed material for a long time? Explain with examples. [Delhi 2019]
Ans. The Imperial State in China had been the major producer of printed material for a long time due to the following reasons:
Q.6. "Printing brought the reading public and hearing public closer." Substantiate the statement with an appropriate argument. [2019 C]
Ans. Printing brought the reading public and hearing public closer by blurring the line that separated them. Before the invention of printing, reading was restricted to the elites, while the common people relied on oral culture. However, with the accessibility and affordability of printed books, a new reading public emerged. This reading public started to engage with written texts individually and silently, similar to the elites. As a result, the hearing public and reading public became intermingled, leading to a shared culture of knowledge and information.
Q.7. "Print Revolution in the sixteenth-century Europe transformed the lives of people." Support the statement with suitable arguments. [AI 2019]
"The Print Revolution had transformed the lives of people, changing their relationship to information and knowledge." Analyze the statement. [2018, AI 2014]
Ans: The Print Revolution in sixteenth-century Europe had a significant impact on the lives of people. The following arguments support this statement:
Q.8. Mention any three reasons for the limited circulation of manuscripts in Europe before Marco Polo introduced the printing technology. 
Ans. The limited circulation of manuscripts in Europe before the introduction of printing technology can be attributed to the following reasons:
Q.9. What are the factors that lead to the reading mania in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe? 
Ans. The reading mania in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe can be attributed to the following factors:
Q.10. What is manuscript? Mention any two limitations of it during the nineteenth century. 
Ans. A manuscript is a handwritten document, typically written on palm leaves or handmade paper. During the nineteenth century, manuscripts had the following limitations:
Q.11. How had the earliest printing technology developed in the world? Explain with an example. 
Ans. The earliest printing technology in the world developed in China, Japan, and Korea. In China, woodblocks were used for hand printing. This technology was initially used exclusively by scholar officials. However, it later became common and widespread. The Buddhist missionaries introduced hand printing technology from China to Japan, and Marco Polo brought the knowledge of woodblock printing from China to Italy.
Q.12. How did a new reading public emerge with the printing press? Explain. 
'With the printing press, a new public emerged in Europe.' Justify the statement. 
Ans. The printing press played a crucial role in the emergence of a new reading public in Europe. The following points explain how this happened:
Q.13. Why did British Government curb the freedom of the Indian press after the revolt of 1857? 
Ans. After the revolt of 1857, the attitude towards freedom of the press changed. Enraged English officials clamped down on the Indian press because of their nationalist activities. In 1887, the Vernacular Press Act was passed, providing the government with extensive rights to censor reports. The government kept regular track of the Vernacular newspapers, and when a report was judged as seditious, the newspaper was warned. If the warning was ignored, the press was liable to be seized and the machinery could be confiscated.
Q.14. Print culture created the conditions within which the French Revolution occurred. Give any three suitable arguments to support the statement. 
Ans: Print culture played a significant role in creating the conditions for the French Revolution. The following arguments support this statement:
Q.1. Read the sources given below and answer the questions that follows: 
Source - (i): Religious Reform and Public Debates
There were intense controversies between social and religious reformers and the Hindu orthodoxy over matters like widow immolation, monotheism, brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. In Bengal, as the debate developed, tracts and newspapers proliferated, circulating a variety of argument.
Source - (ii): New Forms of Publication
New literary forms also entered the world of reading lyrics, short stories, essays about social and political matters. In different ways, they reinforced the new emphasis on human lives and intimate feelings, about the political and social rules that shaped such things.
Source - (iii): Women and Print
Since social reforms and novels had already created a great interest in women’s lives and emotions, there was also an interest in what women would have to say about their own lives.
Source - (i): Religious Reform and Public Debates
(i) Evaluate how did the print shape the nature of the debate in the early nineteenth century in India.
Ans. Print played a significant role in shaping the nature of debate in early 19th century India. Here are some points to consider:
Source - (ii): New Forms of Publication
(ii) To what extent do you agree that print opened up new worlds of experience and gave a vivid sense of diversity of human lives?
Ans. Print indeed opened up new worlds of experience and provided a vivid sense of diversity of human lives. Here's why:
Source - (iii): Women and Print
(iii) To what extent did the print culture reflect a great interest in women's lives and emotions? Explain.
Ans. The print culture did reflect a great interest in women's lives and emotions. Here's why:
Q.2. Printing press played a major role in shaping the Indian society of the 19th century, support with examples. 
Ans. The printing press had a significant impact on shaping Indian society in the 19th century. Here are some examples:
Q.3. Describe the impact of the print revolution in Europe during the 15th and 16th century. [2017, 2016]
Ans. The impact of the print revolution in Europe during the 15th and 16th century was significant. Here are some key points:
Q.4. Explain with example how print culture catered to the requirement of children. 
Ans. Print culture catered to the requirement of children by producing literature specifically for them. Here is an example:
Q.5. Explain briefly the initial efforts made by foreigners to introduce printing press in India. 
Ans. Foreigners made initial efforts to introduce the printing press in India. Here are some key points:
Q.6. "Print not only stimulated the publication of conflicting opinions amongst communities but it also connected communities and people in different parts of India”. Examine the statement. 
Ans. The statement is accurate as print indeed stimulated the publication of conflicting opinions and connected communities and people across different parts of India. Here's an examination of the statement:
In conclusion, the print revolution in India not only provided a platform for conflicting opinions to be published but also connected communities and people across different parts of the country, contributing to the growth of knowledge, awareness, and national consciousness.
|1. What is print culture?|
|2. How did print culture influence the modern world?|
|3. What were some major developments in print technology during the modern world?|
|4. How did print culture impact education and literacy rates?|
|5. What role did print culture play in the spread of ideas and movements?|