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Previous Year Questions: The Making of a Global World - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

Very Short Answer Type Questions

Q1. State the names and countries of the two hostile groups that turned against each other in the First World War.   [2023]

The first group was called the Allies, consisting of Britain, France, and Russia. The second group was known as the Central Powers, consisting of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Ottoman Turkey. 

Q2. Differentiate between Fixed and Floating exchange rate.   [2023]

Fixed exchange rates mean that two currencies will always be exchanged at the same price, while floating exchange rates mean that the prices between each currency can change depending on market factors, primarily supply and demand. 

Q3. Why did big European powers meet in Berlin in 1885?    [2018]

They met in Berlin in 1885 to partition Africa among themselves. 

Short Answer Type Questions

Q1. Explain any three effects of population growth in England in the later eighteenth century.     [2020]

  • Due to pressure from industrialists, the government was forced to remove corn laws, leading to the import of food in Britain.
  • The demand for food grains increased as urban centres expanded, putting pressure on the food supply.
  • The government restricted the import of corn by enacting corn laws, due to pressure from landed groups.

Q2. “Food offers many examples of long-distance cultural exchange.” Support your answer with three examples.    [CBSE 2016-17,2018]

  • Travellers and traders introduced new crops to the lands they travelled. For example, noodles travelled west from China to become spaghetti.
  • Arab traders took pasta to fifth century Sicily (Italy). Similar foods were known to the Indians and Japanese people. Thus, there was long-distance cultural contact even in the premodern world.
  • Potatoes, maize, tomatoes, chillies etc., were not known in India until about five centuries ago. These were introduced in Europe and Asia after the discovery of the Americas by Christopher Columbus.

Q3. Describe any three economic hardships faced by Europe in the 1830s.    [2017]

  • A rise in food prices due to a year of bad harvest left the country poorer.
  • The ratio of the rise in population was larger than that of employment generation, leading to overcrowded slums.
  • Peasants suffered under the burden of feudal dues and obligations in some regions of Europe.
  • Unhappy with high food prices, urban dwellers and industrialists forced the abolition of the Corn Laws.

Q4. Elucidate any three factors that led to the Great Depression.    [2017, 2016]

  • Agricultural overproduction remained a problem, which was made worse by falling agricultural prices.
  • As prices slumped and agricultural incomes declined, farmers tried to expand production, leading to a large volume of produce flooding the market and pushing down prices.
  • Many countries financed their investments through loans from the US in the mid-1920s, but the withdrawal of these loans led to a crisis, including the failure of small major banks and the collapse of currencies such as the British Pound Sterling.

Q5. Explain the three impacts of the First World War on the British economy.    [2016]

  • After the war, Britain found it difficult to recapture its earlier position of dominance in the colonial market.
  • The war resulted in huge external debts for Britain as it had borrowed money from the US to finance its war expenditures.
  • The increase in demand, production, and employment during the war was followed by a reduction in bloated war expenditures, leading to job losses. In 1921, one in every five British workers was unemployed.

Q.6. Why do multinational companies (MNCs) choose China as an alternative location for investment? Explain the statement.   [2016]

  • Since the revolution in 1949, China gradually emerged in the field of world economy and attracted foreign MNCs due to its economic structure.
  • Wages in China are relatively low compared to other countries, making it an attractive location for investment.
  • China has the largest population, providing a larger consumer base for multinational companies.

Q7. Why did the industrialists and people living in cities of Britain force the government to abolish Corn Laws in the 18th century? Give two reasons.    [AI 2016]

  • Most industrialists and landlords did not support Corn Laws as they hindered free trade.
  • The population in Britain was growing, leading to increased demand for food grains. The rising food prices caused social unrest and forced the government to abolish the Corn Laws.

Q8. "Trade and cultural exchange always went hand in hand." Explain the statement in the light of silk routes.    [2016]

  • The silk routes are a good example of vibrant premodern trade and cultural links between distant parts of the world.
  • The name 'silk routes' points to the importance of west-bound Chinese silk cargoes along this route, as well as the flow of precious metals from Europe to Asia.
  • Chinese potteries, textiles from China, and spices from India were traded along the silk routes.
  • Various food items also offer very good examples of long-distance cultural exchanges, as Christian missionaries, Muslim preachers, and Buddhist monks traveled through this route.

Long Answer Type Questions

Q1. Explain the impact of the Great Depression on Indian weavers during the early twentieth century.    [2020]

The Great Depression had a significant impact on Indian weavers during the early twentieth century. Some key impacts are:

  • Clashes between the weavers and Gomasthas (agents of British companies) increased during this period. Weavers protested against exploitative practices and demanded better working conditions.
  • Weavers were often punished for delays in supplying goods to the British companies. These punishments, including fines and other penalties, further added to their economic hardships.
  • The weavers lost the space to bargain for prices and sell their products to different buyers. They became increasingly dependent on British companies, which took advantage of their vulnerability to offer low prices for their goods.
  • The weavers received miserably low prices for their products from the British companies, leading to a decline in their income and worsening economic conditions.
  • Many weavers, especially in the regions of Carnatic and Bengal, deserted their villages and migrated to other areas in search of alternative livelihoods.
  • Some weavers, along with village traders, revolted against the British companies and their exploitative practices.
  • As a result of these economic hardships, some weavers had to close down their workshops, leading to a decline in the traditional handloom industry.

Overall, the Great Depression had a devastating impact on Indian weavers, exacerbating their economic struggles and contributing to the decline of the handloom industry.

Q2. Explain the role of Bretton Woods institutions in the post-Second World War settlement.    [2020]

The Bretton Woods institutions, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, played a crucial role in the post-Second World War settlement.
Some key roles of these institutions are:

  • The Bretton Woods conference, held in 1944, aimed to establish a stable international monetary system after the war. The IMF and the World Bank were created as part of this effort.
  • The IMF was tasked with promoting global monetary cooperation, exchange rate stability, and providing financial assistance to member countries facing balance of payment problems.
  • The World Bank, officially known as the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), was established to provide financial and technical assistance for the reconstruction and development of war-torn countries.
  • The IMF and the World Bank provided financial support to war-devastated countries, helping them rebuild their economies and infrastructure.
  • These institutions played a crucial role in facilitating international trade and economic growth by providing financial stability and promoting cooperation among member countries.
  • The IMF, through its surveillance and lending programs, helped stabilize exchange rates and provided financial assistance to member countries facing economic crises.
  • The World Bank provided long-term loans and technical assistance for infrastructure development, agriculture, and industrial projects in developing countries, contributing to their economic development.

Overall, the Bretton Woods institutions played a vital role in post-World War II settlement, supporting economic reconstruction, stability, and development in member countries.

Q3. Indian trade had played a crucial role in the late nineteenth-century world economy.” Analyze the statement.    [2019]

Indian trade indeed played a crucial role in the late nineteenth-century world economy. Some key points to consider are:

  • India was a major exporter of raw materials to Britain, such as cotton, spices, and indigo. This trade helped fuel the British Industrial Revolution and supported the growth of British industries.
  • British companies flooded the Indian markets with their manufactured goods, leading to huge profits for the British. This trade relationship created a trade surplus for Britain while trading with India.
  • The trade surplus was used by Britain to pay for private remittances by British officials and to fund their colonial administration in India.
  • India also had significant trade with China, mainly in opium. This trade contributed to the global economy and played a role in the Opium Wars between Britain and China.
  • Additionally, thousands of Indian laborers migrated as indentured laborers to work on plantations, mines, and construction projects around the world. Their labor contributed to the economic development of various countries.

Overall, Indian trade had a significant impact on the global economy during the late nineteenth century, benefiting Britain and other countries involved in trade with India.

Q4. Describe the impact of ‘Rinderpest’ in Africa in the 1890s.    [AI 2019]

Rinderpest, also known as cattle plague, had a devastating impact on Africa in the 1890s. Some key impacts of Rinderpest in Africa are:

  • Rinderpest arrived in Africa in the late 1880s, carried by infected cattle imported from British Asia to feed Italian soldiers invading East Africa.
  • The disease spread rapidly across Africa, moving from east to west like a forest fire. By 1892, it had reached Africa's Atlantic coast.
  • Rinderpest killed approximately 90% of the cattle it infected. This led to a massive loss of cattle, which was a vital source of livelihood for many Africans.
  • The loss of cattle destroyed African livelihoods, as people who relied on cattle for milk, meat, and transportation were left without these essential resources.
  • As a result of the loss of their cattle-based livelihoods, many Africans were forced to work for wages in order to survive. This had a significant impact on the economy and labor dynamics in Africa.
  • The colonial government took advantage of the situation and forced Africans into the labor market, providing cheap labor for colonial needs.

In summary, Rinderpest had a devastating impact on Africa, leading to the loss of cattle-based livelihoods and the forced entry of Africans into the labor market.

Q5. Describe the condition of indentured labor that migrated from India during the nineteenth century.     [2019]

The condition of indentured laborers who migrated from India during the nineteenth century was characterized by various hardships and exploitative practices. Some key aspects of their conditions are:

  • Indentured laborers were often recruited through deceptive practices. Agents would provide false information about the nature of work, living conditions, final destinations, and modes of travel, tempting poor individuals into migrating.
  • In some cases, less willing workers were forcibly abducted by the agents and taken to the plantations against their will.
  • Once on the plantations, the working conditions were harsh, and the laborers had few legal rights. They were subjected to long working hours, physical labor, and poor living conditions.
  • Punishments, including beatings and imprisonment, were common for laborers who failed to meet the demanding tasks or attempted to escape their jobs.
  • Medical attention provided to the laborers was often nominal, and wages were deducted for absences or failure to fulfill tasks.
  • The laborers faced various forms of exploitation, including low wages, debt bondage, and limited opportunities for social mobility.

Overall, the indentured laborers faced challenging conditions characterized by exploitation, deception, and harsh working and living conditions.

Q6. Describe the contribution of indentured laborers towards the cultural fusion in the emerging global world.   [2017, 2014]

Indentured laborers made significant contributions towards cultural fusion in the emerging global world. Their experiences and interactions with different cultures led to the blending of various cultural forms. Some examples of their contributions are:

  • Indentured laborers lived and worked in harsh conditions, which forced them to seek avenues of comfort and relaxation. This resulted in the blending of different cultural forms, creating new cultural expressions.
  • In Trinidad, for example, the annual Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called 'Hosay,' in which workers of all races and religions participated.
  • The development of "Chutney music" in Trinidad and Guyana is another creative expression of the post-indenture experience, blending Indian musical traditions with Caribbean influences.
  • The protest religion of Rastafarianism is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean, suggesting a fusion of Indian and Afro-Caribbean cultural elements.

These examples highlight how the indentured laborers' experiences and interactions contributed to the fusion of different cultural forms in the emerging global world.

Q7. After the 19th century, how did the indentured laborers discover their own ways of survival? Explain.   [2016]

After the 19th century, indentured laborers discovered their own ways of survival in challenging circumstances. Some ways in which they adapted and found ways to survive are:

  • They developed new forms of individual and collective self-expression, blending old and new cultural forms.
  • In Trinidad, for example, the cultural Muharram procession was transformed into a riotous carnival called 'Hosay,' in which workers of all races and religions participated.
  • The protest religion of Rastafarianism is also said to reflect social and cultural links with Indian migrants to the Caribbean, suggesting a fusion of Indian and Afro-Caribbean cultural elements.
  • Indentured laborers also found ways to adapt to their new environments and economic conditions. They learned new skills, utilized their existing knowledge and experiences, and sought opportunities for economic advancement.
  • Some indentured laborers established businesses or engaged in small-scale entrepreneurship to improve their economic prospects.
  • They formed close-knit communities and networks to provide mutual support and assistance, creating a sense of belonging and shared cultural identity.

These ways of survival allowed indentured laborers to navigate their challenging circumstances and create new opportunities for themselves in the post-indenture period.

Q.8. Describe any five factors that led to the end of the Bretton Woods System and the beginning of globalization.   [2016]

Several factors contributed to the end of the Bretton Woods System and the beginning of globalization. Here are five key factors:

  • Decline in the economic power of the United States: The US dollar, which was central to the Bretton Woods System, lost its value in relation to gold. This decline eroded confidence in the US dollar and the fixed exchange rate system, leading to the collapse of fixed exchange rates and the shift towards floating exchange rates.
  • Change in international finance: The creation of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank under the Bretton Woods System significantly transformed the international financial system. However, by the 1970s, the international financial landscape had changed, and developing countries were increasingly forced to borrow from western commercial banks rather than relying solely on the IMF and World Bank. This shift in international finance had implications for the Bretton Woods System.
  • Unemployment in industrialized countries: Industrialized countries faced a rise in unemployment during the 1970s. This increased unemployment led to social and economic problems and contributed to a loss of confidence in the Bretton Woods System.
  • Shifting production enterprises: Multinational corporations (MNCs) began shifting their production units to Asian countries, attracted by abundant labor and low wages. This shift in production contributed to the decline of industrialized countries' economies and the emergence of new economic centers in Asia.
  • Changes in China: China's economic reforms and opening up to the global market had a profound impact on the global economy. China became an attractive destination for foreign investment, and its economic rise contributed to the transformation of the global economic landscape.

These factors, among others, led to the end of the Bretton Woods System and marked the beginning of globalization, characterized by a shift in economic power, changing financial dynamics, and the emergence of new global economic players.

The document Previous Year Questions: The Making of a Global World | Social Studies (SST) Class 10 is a part of the Class 10 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 10.
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FAQs on Previous Year Questions: The Making of a Global World - Social Studies (SST) Class 10

1. What is the significance of the article "The Making of a Global World" in Class 10?
Ans. The article "The Making of a Global World" is significant in Class 10 as it explores the historical context and processes that led to globalization. It provides insight into the economic, political, and cultural changes that shaped the modern world.
2. What are the key factors that contributed to the making of a global world?
Ans. Several key factors contributed to the making of a global world. These include advancements in technology and transportation, the expansion of European powers through colonization, the emergence of global trade networks, and the spread of ideas and cultural exchange.
3. How did the Industrial Revolution impact the making of a global world?
Ans. The Industrial Revolution played a crucial role in the making of a global world. It led to the mechanization of production, increased efficiency and productivity, and the growth of industries. This resulted in the need for raw materials from colonies, the establishment of global trade networks, and the rise of capitalism.
4. What were the consequences of the making of a global world?
Ans. The making of a global world had both positive and negative consequences. On one hand, it led to economic growth, technological advancements, and cultural exchange. On the other hand, it also resulted in colonization, exploitation of resources and labor, and the widening gap between the rich and the poor.
5. How did the making of a global world shape the modern world?
Ans. The making of a global world shaped the modern world by integrating economies, cultures, and societies. It led to the formation of interdependent relationships between nations, the spread of ideas and knowledge, and the development of global institutions and organizations. It also gave rise to challenges such as inequality, environmental degradation, and cultural homogenization.
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