Q. 1. Mention any two challenges that India faced just after independence.
Ans.(i) Shape a nation that was united yet accommodative of the diversity in our society.
(ii) To establish democracy.
(iii) To ensure development and well-being of the entire society.
Q. 2. Differentiate between a migrant and a refugee.
Ans. A migrant is a person who makes a conscious choice to leave their country to seek a better life elsewhere. Before they decide to leave their country, migrants can seek information about their new home, study the language and explore employment opportunities.
Refugees are forced to leave their country because they are at risk of, or have experienced persecution. The concerns of refugees are human rights and safety, not economic advantage. They leave behind their homes and are forced to flee with no warning.
Q. 3. What is the Two-Nation Theory advanced by the Muslim League?
Ans. India consisted of not one but two ‘people’, Hindus and Muslims. According to the Muslim League, there should be a separate country for Muslims, that is, Pakistan, and India should be made of the Hindus only. This was the “Two- Nation Theory” advanced by the Muslim League.
Q. 4. Which among the following statements about the partition is incorrect?
(i) The partition of India was the outcome of the “Two-Nation theory”.
(ii) Punjab and Bengal were the two provinces divided on the basis of religion.
(iii) East Pakistan and West Pakistan were not contiguous.
(iv) The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
Ans. (iv) The scheme of partition included a plan for transfer of population across the border.
Q. 5. Name the leader who played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states to join the Indian Union.
Ans. Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel
Q. 6. Mention the main recommendation of the States Reorganisation Commission of 1953.
What was the basis of the report of States Reorganisation Commission?
Ans. The States Reorganisation Commission, in its report accepted that boundaries of the states should reflect boundaries of different languages.
Q. 7. How many princely states existed at the time of independence of India?
Ans. 565 princely states.
Q. 8. What is meant by princely states?
Ans. The states which were ruled by Indian Kings and Princes but were under economic and political supremacy of British Crown.
Q. 9. How was the reorganisation of North-East India completed and by when?
Ans. Reorganisation of the North-East was almost completed in 1972. Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972. Manipur and Tripura too emerged as separate states.The states of Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh came into being much later. Nagaland had become a state in 1963.
Q. 10. Name any four princely states that resisted their merger with the Indian Union.
Which four princely states of India initially resisted to join the Indian Union?
Ans. The four princely states of India initially resisted to join the Indian Union are Hyderabad, Travancore, Junagadh, Manipur and Kashmir.
Q. 11. Name the original states from which the following states were carved out.
Ans. Meghalaya was carved out of Assam in 1972. Gujarat was carved out of Bombay in 1960.
Q. 12. Explain the role played by Sardar Patel in the integration of princely states into the Indian Union.
Ans. Sardar Patel played a historic role in negotiating with the rulers of princely states firmly but diplomatically and bringing most of them into Indian Union. He also used skillful persuasion.
Q. 13. ‘In spite of communal partition, India was not declared a ‘Hindu State’. How the leaders of Indian National Congress defended the adoption of “secularism” in India?
Ans. In spite of communal partition, India was not declared a ‘Hindu State’ on the following basis:-
(A) Most of the national movement leaders believed that India must treat persons of all religions equally and that India should not be a country that gives status to adherents of one faith and inferior to those who practiced another religion.
(B) Even after large scale migration of Muslims to the newly created Pakistan, the Muslim population in India accounted for 12 per cent of the total population in 1951.
(C) To provide a sense of security to other religious minorities in India, it became utmost important to declare India a ‘Secular State’.
Q. 14. Bring out two major differences between the challenge of nation building for Eastern and Western regions of the country at the time of independence.
Ans. The major differences between the challenge of nation building for Eastern region of Bengal and Western region of Punjab at the time of independence were:
(i) Both these regions comprised of Muslim majority population. On the basis of Two- Nation theory, both the regions needed to be divided to form West Pakistan and East Pakistan.
(iii) After Partition, there were many minority groups on both Eastern and Western frontiers who were jobless and homeless due to leaving their jobs and homes across the borders.
Q. 15. It is said that the nation is to large extent an “imagined community” held together by common beliefs, history, political aspirations and imaginations. Identify the features that make India a nation.
Ans. The various features that make India a nation are:
(i) Unity in diversity on account of religion, customs, languages, cultures, faiths, etc.
(ii) Granting of Fundamental Rights uniformly to all citizens of India irrespective of their cast, creed, culture, religion, sex, etc.
(iii) Similar democratic setup and election procedure across the country.
Q. 16. What are the reasons being used by Nehru for keeping India secular?Do you think these reasons were only ethical and sentimental? Or were there some prudential reasons as well?
Ans. The reasons given by Jawaharlal Nehru were:
(i) At the time of partition, all the Muslims had not left India. Nehru wanted the Muslims who did not leave India to feel secure and equal to other citizens of the country.
(ii) He was of the opinion that being citizens of India, Muslims must have equal democratic and fundamental opportunities.
The reasons given by Nehru were not only ethical and sentimental but had prudential reasons as well. These prudential reasons were:
(a) Declaring India as a secular state was advocated by the Indian National Congress (INC) during struggle for independence. Nehru wanted to maintain the advocacy of the declaration made by INC earlier.
(b) To make Muslims feel safe, the Fundamental Right of Right to Religion was being proposed by the Constituent Assembly.
Q. 17. Here are two opinions:
Bismay : “The merger with the Indian State was an extension of democracy to the people of the Princely States.”
Inderpreet : “I am not so sure, there was force being used. Democracy comes by creating consensus.”
What is your opinion in the light of accession of Princely States and the responses of the people in these parts?
Ans. Although princely states were given a choice to remain independent, the society of these states wanted to enjoy the benefits of democracy. For the welfare of people and providing a uniform democratic setup to the country, it was more or less made mandatory for the princely states to join either of the two new nation states.
Q. 18. How the formation of linguistic states helped in strengthening the foundation of democracy and the process of national integration in India.
Ans. The formation of linguistic states helped in strengthening the foundation of democracy and the process of national integration in India. One of the most important concerns in the early years was that of unity of the country. It was felt that linguistic states may foster separatism and create pressure on the newly founded nation.
(A) The formation of these states changed the nature of democratic politics and leadership in same basic ways. The path to politics and power was now open to people other than the small English speaking elite.
(B) Linguistic reorganisation also gave some uniform basis to the drawing of state boundaries. It did not lead to disintegration of the country as many had feared earlier. On the contrary, it strengthened national unity.