Q. 1. In which way did the policy of Non-Alignment serve India’s interests?
Ans. NAM allowed India to take decisions and stances that served its own interests rather than interest of the superpowers.
It also helped India to balance one superpower against the other. If pressurised by one, could turn to it towards the other.
Q. 2. Highlight the contribution made by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru to the foreign policy of India.
Highlight any two aspects of the Indian foreign policy which were greatly influenced by Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru.
Ans. (i) Non-Aligned Movement
(ii) Use of Nuclear policy for peaceful purposes.
(iii) Opposition to racism, colonialism and support for decolonisation.
(iv) Support for panchsheel
Q. 3. Mention any four Directive Principles of State Policy for the promotion of international peace and security.
Ans. directive principles of State policy for the promotion of international peace and security: The state shall endeavour to :
(i) promote international peace and security.
(ii) Maintain just and honourable relations between nations.
(iii) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another.
(iv) Encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitrations.
Q. 4 . Write ‘True’ or ‘False’ against each of these statements :
(i) Non-alignment allowed India to gain assistance both from USA and USSR.
(ii) India’s relationship with her neighbours has been strained from the beginning.
(iii) The Cold War has affected the relationship between India and Pakistan.
(iv) The Treaty of Peace and Friendship in 1971 was the result of India’s closeness to USA.
Ans. (i) True
Q. 5. Explain the relevance of NAM in the contemporary scenario.
Ans. The relevance of NAM :
(i) Against racial discrimination
(iii) Respect for human rights and dignity
(iv) Opposition to counter neo-colonialism
(v) Maintain environmental balance
(vi) New Economic Order
(vii) To curb terrorism
Q. 6. Assess the main contribution of the NonAligned Movement to the newly independent countries.
Ans. Contribution of the Non-Aligned Movement :
(i) provided a third option of not joining the Cold war politics.
(ii) Newly independent countries were able to take international decisions and stances that served their interests.
(iii) They were able to balance both the Superpowers.
(iv) They were able to preserve their sovereignty and independence.
Q.7. How did the Sino-Indian conflict affect the opposition also?
Ans. As a result of the Sino-Indian conflict, the Communist party of India (CpI) got split. Some of the leaders who supported USSR ideology supported Congress party’s move.
Those who supported the communist ideology of China drifted away from Congress and formed Communist party of India (Marxist), CpI(M). Many leaders of the newly formed party were arrested.
Q.8. Which two differences between India and China led to an army conflict in 1962?
Ans. The two differences were:
(i) India supporting liberation of Tibet and giving political asylum to Tibetan spiritual leader, dalai Lama.
(ii) Border area dispute in the regions of Aksai Chin and NEfA.
Q.9. Identify any two aspects of India’s foreign policy that you would like to retain and two that you would like to change, if you were to become a decision maker. Give reasons to support your position.
Ans. Two aspects of Indian policy worth supporting are :
(i) India has always been a peace loving country and helped in restoration of peace in countries like Korea, China, etc.
(ii) India has never aligned to any of the military blocs of the world and has played a vital role in establishment of NAM.
Two aspects of Indian policy worth changing are:
(i) The wars waged by India against neighbours in spite of having a peaceful image put a question mark on India’s ability to keep neighbours in control.
(ii) The purpose of establishment of SAARC got under water with the regular conflicts with China and a SAARC country like pakistan.
Q.10. How the aim of India to respect the sovereignty of other countries did find an echo in the Directive Principles of the State Policy?
Ans. Aim of India to respect the sovereignty of other countries did find an echo in the directive principles of the State policy : Article 51 of the Indian Constitution lays down some directive principles of State policy on ‘promotion of international peace and security.’ “The state shall endeavour to -
(a) promote international peace and security
(b) Maintain just and honourable relations between nations
(c) foster respect for international law and treaty obligations in the dealings of organised people with one another; and
(d) Encourage settlement of international disputes by arbitration.”
Q.11. Describe any four issues of conflict between India and China.
Ans. The main areas of conflict are:
(i) Removing of historical buffer between India and China by invasion of Tibet by China.
(ii) Suppressing of Tibetan culture by the Chinese.
(iii) Claiming Aksai Chin and NEfA as a part of China.
(iv) Non-acceptance of any discussions and deliberations on the matter by the Chinese leaders.
Q.12. Describe any two major issues of conflict between India and Pakistan leading to war of 1971.
Ans. (i) The support extended to freedom struggle of East pakistan.
(ii) India had to bear the burden of lakhs of refugees.
Q.13. “The conduct of foreign affairs is an outcome of a two-way interaction between domestic compulsions and prevailing international climate. Take one example from India’s external relations in the 1960s to substantiate your answer.
Ans. The statement stands justified in the light of SinoIndian war in 1962. China claimed Aksai Chin (part of Ladakh region) and NEfA (region of Arunachal pradesh) to be a part of Chinese territory. China captured the Aksai Chin region and built road network over there. The matter could not be resolved in a peaceful manner despite discussions and deliberations among the leaders of the two countries and finally led to war in 1962. India had to seek military assistance from USA and UK. USSR remained neutral. with the war of 1962, India got alerted about the similar situation that may arise in the North-East.
Q.14. Does India’s foreign policy reflect her desire to be an important regional power? Argue your case with the Bangladesh War of 1971 as an example.
Ans. Yes, the statement is fully justified. The support of India in Bangladesh war is a substantial proof of the statement. India’s foreign policy of non-alignment to the military camps had made the intention of our leaders clear that they want India to develop as a regional power herself. There was an uprising in East pakistan for a separate independent government. To curb the movement, their leader Sheikh Mujib was arrested by pakistan army and atrocities were levied on the revolutionaries.
India faced the problem of refugees who migrated from East pakistan to the neighbouring regions in India. The revolutionaries demanded for an independent country named Bangladesh and were supported by India in the venture. pakistan lost the war and Bangladesh emerged as an independent nation on March 26, 1971. The tension between India and pakistan increased as it was seen by pakistan as promoting civil war in their country and partition of the country. Both India and pakistan signed a peace agreement, popularly called, The Shimla Agreement on July 3, 1972.
Q.15. Explain India’s Nuclear Policy.
Explain any four important features of India’s Nuclear Policy.
Ans. The important features of India’s nuclear policy are:
(i) Not to initiate the use of nuclear weapons in a war.
(ii) pleaded nuclear disarmament with the world superpowers. (iii) Opposed Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty
(iv) Conducted a peaceful explosion test in 1974 to demonstrate self-sufficiency in nuclear technology.
Q.16. Why was the nuclear test conducted by India criticised?
Ans. The nuclear test by India was criticised in many parts of the country as well as across the world. The main reason within the country was that there was a worldwide inflation on account of Arab – Israel war and performing nuclear test in times of inflation pressurised the Indian economy.