Q. 1. Why are international organisations like the UN required?
Ans. International organisations like the UN are required as they help in matters of war and peace. They also help countries to co-operate and make better living conditions for all.
Q. 2. Which is the most important international organisation? What is its image in the eyes of the people?
Ans. The United Nations is generally regarded as the most important international organisation in today’s world. In the eyes of the many people all over the world, the UN is indispensable and represents the great hope of humanity for peace and progress.
Q. 3. How many judges are there in the International Court of Justice? What is their tenure?
Ans. There are fifteen judges in the International Court of Justice. They are elected for nine years.
Q. 4. How many permanent members and how many non-permanent members does the UN Security Council have?
Ans. In the Security Council, there are five permanent members and ten non-permanent members.
Q. 5. Mention any one objective of the United Nations.
Ans. To prevent international conflict
(i) To facilitate co-operation among states.
(ii) To stop conflicts or war between states.
(iii) To bring countries together to improve the prospects of social and economic development all over the world.
Q. 6. Which members of the United Nations Security Council have veto power?
Ans. The five permanent members of the Security Council have the Veto Power. The five permanent members are: The US, Russia, United Kingdom, France and China.
Q. 7. Critically evaluate the difficulties involved in implementing the suggested reforms to reconstruct the UN.
Ans. Candidates may keep in mind the reforms as suggested by the General Assembly resolution. However, these reforms could not be implemented because of the various difficulties which are as follows:
(i) As regards the veto power of permanent members, the Security Council no longer represents contemporary political realities.
(ii) Dispute regarding representation on the basis of terms of economic development.
(iii) Permanent members are unlikely to agree to any reform, which reduces their clout of power or interest in the world body.
(iv) It lacks equitable representation.
Q. 8. Highlight any four factors which justify India’s claim to a permanent seat in the UN Security Council.
Ans. Factors which justify India’s claim :
(i) India is the world’s largest democracy.
(ii) India is the second most populous country in the world, comprising almost one-fifth of the world’s population.
(iii) Regular financial contributions of India to the UN and has never faltered on its payments.
(iv) India’s economic emergence on the world stage.
(v) India has participated in virtually all initiatives of the UN, e.g., it’s role in the UN peacekeeping efforts.
Q. 9. Describe any four steps suggested by the member-states of the United Nations in 2005 in order to make it more relevant.
Ans. To commemorate the 60 years of the existence of the UN, the heads of all the member states met in September 2005 to celebrate the anniversary and review the situation. The leaders in the meeting decided that the following steps should be taken to make the UN more relevant in the changing context.
(i) Creation of a Peace-building Commission.
(ii) Acceptance of the responsibility of the international community in case of failures of national governments to protect their own citizens from atrocities.
(iii) Establishment of a Human Rights Council (operational since June 2006)
(iv) Agreements to achieve the Millennium Development Goals
Q.10. What does India support: increase in number of permanent members or increase in number of permanent members?
Ans. India supports increase in number of both - permanent members as well as non-permanent members.
Q. 11. Why do some countries question the issue of India’s inclusion as a permanent member of the UN Security Council? Explain.
Ans. (i) Strained relations with Pakistan.
(ii) Some countries are concerned about India’s nuclear capabilities.
(iii) China is also not in favour of India because of the strategic reasons.
(iv) If India is accommodated, other developing countries will also ask for permanent membership.
(v) Some other feels that Africa and South America must be represented.
Detailed Answer : Some countries are concerned about India’s nuclear weapons capabilities. Others think that its difficulties with Pakistan will make India ineffective as a permanent member. The other view is that if India is included, then other emerging powers will have to be accommodated such as Brazil, Germany, Japan and even South Africa. There are some who feel that Africa and South America must be represented in any expansion of the permanent membership since those are the only continents not to have representation in the present structure. Under these circumstances, it may not be easy for India to become a permanent member of the UN Security Council.
Q. 12. “The UN is an indispensable organisation.” Justify the statement with any two suitable arguments.
Ans. The UN is an imperfect body, but without it the world would be worse off. Following two points justify the significance of the UN :
(i) Countries have conflicts and differences with each other. That does not necessarily mean that they must go to war to deal with their antagonisms. They can instead, discuss contentious issues and peaceful solutions as most conflicts and differences are resolved without going to war. The UN is an important place for such contentious issues.
(ii) There are issues that are so challenging that they can only be dealt with when everyone works together. Disease is an example. Some diseases can only be eradicated if everyone in the world co-operates in inoculating or vaccinating their populations. UN also works in this field. It tries to eradicate many diseases from the world. Many diseases have been eradicated from Africa and India with the help of the UN. The above points show that UN is an indispensable organisation.
Q. 13. Write a note on influence of the US on the UN.
Ans. The US power cannot be easily checked. With the disappearance of the Soviet Union, the US stands as the only superpower and its military and economic power allows it to ignore the UN or any other international organisation. As the single largest contributor to the UN, the US has unmatched financial power. The fact that the UN is physically located within the US territory gives Washington additional sources of influence.