Q. 1. Mention any two incidents of violence against minority community which are a threat to democracy.
Ans. (i) 1984 – Anti-Sikh riots
(ii) 1992 – Aftermath of Ayodhya dispute
(iii) 2002 – Anti-Muslim riots
Q. 2. Who was the chairperson of Mandal Commission? State any one recommendation made by him / her?
Ans. The chairperson of Mandal Commission was Bindeshwari Prasad Mandal. The main recommendation of this Commission was a reservation of 27% in education and government employment opportunities to OBCs.
Q. 3. Highlight any two recommendations of the Mandal Commission.
Ans. Recommendations of the Mandal Commission:
(i) Land reform for the upliftment of the OBC.
(ii) Reservation for OBCs in the government jobs and educational institutions.
Q. 4. Describe any four major developments in the Indian politics since 1989.
Analyse any four major developments in Indian politics after 1989.
Ans. Political Developments since 1989:
(i) Defeat of the Congress party in the elections held in 1989.
(ii) Rise of Reservation issue in national politics as the National Front Government decided to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission.
(iii) The economic policy of India went under drastic changes and economic reforms were introduced.
(iv) Demolition of the disputed structure of Babri Masjid.
Q. 5. State the main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989. What different configurations of political parties these differences led to?
Ans. The main issues in Indian politics in the period after 1989 were as follows:
(i) Rise of other Backward Class as a political force.
(ii) Decision of the National Front government to implement the recommendations of the Mandal Commission and subsequent stir.
(iii) Rise of Politics based on religious identity and debate about secularism and democracy.
(iv) Demolation of Babri Masjid.
(v) Anti-Muslim riots in Gujarat.
(vi) End of Congress dominance and beginning of era of coalition politics.
These issues led to difference configurations of political parties as mentioned below: Political parties accepted the political and social claims of the backward castes. All political parties began to support reservation of seats for the backward classes in education and employment.
This gave rise to an era of coalition politics. Colition governments were formed i.e., National Front in 1989, the United Front in 1996 and 1997, NDA in 1997, 1998 and 1999, and the UPA in 2004 and 2009.
Q. 6. Explain the concept of a ‘Coalition Government’.
Ans. Coalition Government: Coming together/ joining of two or more political parties to form government.
Q.7 . Name two alliances / fronts that formed the government at the centre in 1989 and 1996 respectively.
Ans. 1989 – National Front 1996 – United Front
Q.8. What was change in electoral performance of Congress party and BJP from 1984 – 2004?
Ans. (i) Decline of Congress and rise of BJP.
(ii) Congress from 415 seats to 145 seats.
(iii) BJP from 2 to 138 seats.
Q. 9. When and why did a long phase of coalition politics begin in India?
Ans. (i) Since 1989.
(ii) No party was able to get a clear majority in spite of Congress being the largest party in Lok Sabha.
(iii) Janata Dal and some regional parties received support from BJP and Left Front.
(iv) National Front formed coalition government.
(v) BJP and the Left front did not join the government, and supported from outside.
(vi) Coalition governments were not static and changed from time to time.
Q. 10. “In the new era of coalition politics, political parties are not aligning or realigning on the basis of ideology.” What arguments would you put forward to support or oppose this statement?
Ans. The statement is justified because in the new era of coalition politics, the emphasis on pragmatic considerations rather than ideological positions and political alliance without ideological agreement:
(i) Coalition politics has shifted the focus from ideological differences to power sharing arrangements.
(ii) Most parties of NDA did not agree with the ‘Hindutva’ ideology of BJP, still they came together to form government and remained in power also for full term.
Q. 11. Trace the emergence of BJP as a significant force in post-emergency politics.
Ans. The major trends in the electoral performance of BJP since 1989 can be traced as:
(i) In the elections of 1989, the National Front under V. P. Singh, came to power, supported by Left Front and BJP from outside because they wanted to keep the Congress out of power. The Mandal Commission Report and implementation of its recommendations forced BJP to reconsider its support, and finally withdrew it. The rule of National Front ended in November 1990.
(ii) In 1996, BJP minority government was formed for a short period. In June 1996, BJP failed to get majority support in the vote of confidence and thus collapsed.
(iii) From March 1998 to October 1999, BJP and others formed National Democratic Alliance (NDA) under the leadership of Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The regional parties demanded more share in the government to extend their support.
(iv) The political competition during the nineties and divided between the coalition led by BJP and coalition led by Congress.
Q. 12. In spite of the decline of Congress dominance, the Congress party continues to influence politics in the country. Do you agree? Give reasons.
Ans. In the late 1960s, the dominance of the Congress party was challenged, but the Congress under the leadership of Indira Gandhi, managed to re-establish its predominant position in politics. The defeat of Congress party in 1989, marked an end of Congress dominance over Indian party system. But the Congress continued to influence politics in the country.
(i) The 1990s, saw yet another challenge to the predominant position of the Congress. It improved performance and came back to power after general elections in 1991.
(ii) It also supported the United Front Government.
(iii) In 1996, the Left Front continued to support the Non-Congress government but this time Congress supported it as both Congress and Left wanted to keep BJP out of power.
(iv) Thus, Congress remained an important party and ruled country more than any other party even during the period since 1989. But, it lost the kind of centrality it earlier enjoyed in the party system.