Q. 1. Highlight any two characteristics of Dravidian movement.
Ans. The main characteristics are:
(i) The movement was the first regional movement of the country.
(ii) The movement became political at state level and influential at the national level.
(iii) The movement led to the formation of Draviar Kazhagam under the leadership of E.V. Ramasami Periyar.
Q. 2. Who were the signatories of Punjab Accord of 1985?
Ans. Rajiv Gandhi, then the Prime Minister of India and and Harchand Singh Longowal, then the President of Akali Dal.
Q. 3. Why was operation Blue Star launched?
Ans. In 1984, Operation Blue Star was launched by army and Government of India to evacuate the holy shrine from the militants. However it also damaged some parts of the holy shrine which hurt the sentiments of the Sikh community.
Q. 4. While the rest of the country was organised on linguistic lines in 1950s, why had Punjab to wait till 1966?
Ans. Akali Dal was leading the Punjabi Suba movement without getting full support of the non-Sikhs and other castes within Sikhs. The movement was not as strong as in other states. So Punjab had to wait.
Q. 5. What was the main outcome of Rajiv GandhiLongowol Accord in July 1985?
Ans. Main outcome of the Rajiv Gandhi-Longowal Accord:
(i) It was agreed that Chandigarh would be transferred to Punjab.
(ii) A separate commission would be appointed to resolve the border dispute between Punjab and Haryana.
(iii) A tribunal would be set up to decide the sharing of Ravi-Beas river water.
(iv) It also provided for compensation to and better treatment of those affected by the militancy in Punjab.
Q. 6. Why did the Anandpur Sahib Resolution become controversial?
Ans. The Anandpur Sahib Resolution became controversial due to:
(i) There was no popular support for Akali Dal and its resolutions.
(ii) The Akali Dal government got dismissed in 1980s.
(iii) The Akali Dal government started a movement for distribution of water of rivers between Punjab and other neighbouring states
(iv) At a later stage the movement was taken over by extremists and insurgents who posed a threat to the security of the country.
Q.7 . Name the three social and political regions of the northernmost state of India.
Ans. The three regions of northern most state of India are Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh.
Q.8 . Name the Chief Ministers of Jammu and Kashmir who belong to the same family but from three different generations.
Ans. Sheikh Abdullah, Farooq Abdullah and Omar Abdullah.
Q. 9. What does the special status given to J&K under Article 370 mean?
Ans. The special status of Kashmir under Article 370 of Constitution of India means that
(i) There is a separate constitution of the state.
(ii) All the provision of Constitution of India do not apply to the state.
(iii) The state of J&K has more autonomy as compared to any other state of India.
Q.10 . Name the parties to which these leaders belong to:
(i) Omar Abdullah
(ii) Mufti Mohammad Sayeed
(iii) Mehbooba Mufti
(iv) Sheikh Abdullah
Ans. (i) National Conference
(ii) Peoples’ Democratic Party
(iii) Peoples’ Democratic Party
(iv) National Conference
Q. 11. Throw some light on the internal dimension of the problem of Jammu and Kashmir.
Explain the internal divisions of the State of Jammu and Kashmir and describe how these led to multiple regional aspirations in that state.
Ans. The internal divisions of Jammu and Kashmir are as under:
(i) Jammu region having Hindu, Sikh and Muslim population speaking different languages.
(ii) Kashmir region having Muslim majority and Hindu minority population speaking Kashmiri.
(iii) Ladakh region having Muslim and Buddhist population.
These divisions led to regional aspirations as:
(a) One section of society wants Kashmir as a separate nation free from India and Pakistan.
(b) One section of society wants Kashmir to be merged with Pakistan.
(c) One section of society wants Kashmir to continue as part of Indian Union with greater autonomy.
Q. 12. What is Kashmir issue? What is the political situation in the state since independence?
Ans. Kashmir Issue: It is an international dispute between India and Pakistan as well as the fight for Kashmiriyat, the identity of Kashmiris.
Since independence, the politics of J&K always remained controversial and conflict ridden both for external and internal reasons. Externally, Pakistan has always claimed that kashmir valley should be part of Pakistan. Even since 1947, Kashmir has remained a major issue of conflict between India and Pakistan. Internally, there is a dispute about the states of Kashmir within the Indian union.
Q. 13. Why were the seven small states created in North-East India?
Ans. These small states were created due to:
(i) Opposition being faced by the outsiders at the hands of natives.
(ii) Regular demands for autonomy.
(iii) Secession Movements in various regions of the North-East.
Q. 14. Which students group led the anti-foreigner movement in Assam?
Ans. That All Assam Students’ Union
Q. 15. The Assam Movement was a combination of cultural pride and economic backwardness. Explain.
Ans. The reasons for this are:
(i) The movement was anti-foreigners on the ground to maintain cultural heritage and integration of the state.
(ii) Even with abundant natural resources like tea, oil and coal, the natives of the state were poor and unemployed.
(iii) The local belief was that these natural resources are being taken out of the state without any corresponding and compensating benefit to the state.
Q. 16. Name the leaders who helped in getting statehood for Mizoram and Nagaland.
Ans. Mizoram - Laldenga Nagaland - Angami Zaphu Phizo
Q. 17. Describe the three major issues in the NorthEastern States of India. A Ans. Major issues in the North-Eastern States of India:
(i) At independence the entire region except Manipur and Tripura comprised the State of Assam. Demands for political autonomy arose when the non-Assamese felt that the Assam government was imposing Assamese language on them.
(ii) Secessionist movements: Demands for autonomy were easier to respond to, for these involved using the various provisions in the Constitution for accommodation of diversities. It was much more difficult when some groups demanded a separate country.
(iii) Movements against outsiders: The large scale migration into the North-East gave rise to a special kind of problem that pitted the ‘local’ communities against people who were seen as ‘outsiders’ or migrants.