Q. 1. Mention the two main demands of Bharatiya Kisan Union in 1980s.
Ans. The two main demands of the Union were.
(i) Higher floor prices for sugarcane and wheat.
(ii) Guaranteed and subsidised supply of electricity.
Q. 2. Name the popular movement which demanded that no forest exploiting contract should be given to any outsider.
Ans. The popular movement which demanded that no forest exploiting contract should be given to any outsider was – ‘Chipko Movement’.
Q. 3. What was the most noble aspect of Chipko movement?
Ans. It was the first movement in which women played an active role.
Q. 4. What was Anti-Arrack Movement?
Ans. Anti-Arrack Movement was a movement by rural women against alcoholism, against liquor mafia and the government.
Q. 5. Which of these statements are incorrect: The Chipko Movement
(i) Was an environmental movement to prevent cutting down of trees.
(ii) Raised questions of ecological and economic exploitation.
(iii) Was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
(iv) Demanded that local communities should have control over their natural resources.
Ans. (iii) Was a movement against alcoholism started by the women.
Q. 6. Which popular movement led to the empowerment of women?
Ans. Anti-Arrack Movement
Q. 7. What was the main demand of the Chipko Movement?
Ans. To prevent trees from being cut and fell.
Q. 8. Highlight any two main demands of AntiArrack Movement?
Ans. The main demands of the movement were to ban sale of liquor in Andhra Pradesh and a fight against the liquor mafias.
Q. 9. How does party based movement differ from non-party movement?
Ans. Party based movements are those movements supported by political parties i.e. Trade Union Movements in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur etc., whereas non-party movements have lost faith in existing democratic institutions and electoral politics to be merged of students and young political activists in mass mobilisation.
Q. 10. Which two features were addressed by Dalit Panthers?
Ans. (i) Assertion of Dalits’ rights.
(ii) Protest against caste based inequalities and material injustices.
(iii) Effective implementation of reservation policy and policies of social justice.
(iv) Or any other relevant point.
Q. 11. Mention any two party-based movements.
Ans. Two party-based movements are:
(i) Trade Union Movement in Mumbai, Kolkata and Kanpur.
(ii) Naxalite movements in eastern and northeastern India.
Q. 12. Some of the statements below are incorrect. Identify the correct statements and rewrite those with necessary correction.
(i) Social movements are hampering the functioning of India’s democracy.
(ii) The main strength of the social movements lies in their mass base across social sections.
(iii) Social movements in India emerged because there were many issues that political parties did not address.
Ans. (i) Social movements involve a gradual process of coming together of people with similar problems.
(ii) Social movements in India emerged to reduce the possibility of deep social conflict and dissatisfaction of groups from democracy.
Q. 13. What issues did Dalit Panthers address?
Ans. Their objectives were to fight against caste based inequalities, implementation of reservation policy, implementation of policies of social justice, etc.
Q. 14. Assess any two positive aspects of the Chipko Movement.
Ans. The Chipko Movement:
(i) United the villagers across the region of Uttar Pradesh (now Uttarakhand) for the common cause. It made the villagers understand that with united efforts, it is possible to be heard by any level of the government. The movement has become a world famous movement having a united effort by the masses.
(ii) Helped in protection and restoration of green cover in the Himalayan belt as well as putting a curb on the reckless felling of trees in the region. It also put a check on the activities of the forest mafias.
Q. 15. Where and when was the organisation ‘Dalit Panthers’ formed? Describe any three of its activities.
Ans. Dalit Panthers, a militant organisation was formed in Maharashtra in 1972.
Activities of Dalit Panthers:
(i) Fighting against the perpetual caste based inequalities and material injustices.
(ii) Demand for effective implementation of reservations.
(iii) Mass action for assertion of Dalit Rights.
Q. 16. Identify the reasons which led to the Chipko Movement in UP in early 1970s. What was the impact of this movement?
Ans. The movement started in up (now Uttarakhand) when the forest department did not give permission to local villagers to cut trees to make agricultural tools but later allotted the same piece of land to a sports goods manufacturing company to cut trees and make sports equipment. The villagers protested against the department by hugging trees and making it impossible for the sports goods manufacturer to cut trees without hurting or killing the villagers. It became a world famous environmental movement of India.