Q. 1. What is meant by “Security”?
What does security imply?
Ans. Security means freedom from extremely dangerous threats.
Q.2. What should be regarded as a matter of interest in discussions of security?
Ans. only those things that threaten ‘core values’ should be regarded as a matter of interest in discussions of security.
Q. 3. How is ‘balance of power’ a component of traditional security?
Ans. Balance of power is a way to neutralise the threat of traditional security.
Q. 4. What was the impact of Cold War on the wars in the post-Second World War period?
Ans. The cold War between the USA and the USSR was responsible for approximately one-third of all wars in the post-second World War period.
Q. 5. Explain the traditional concept of “Security”?
Ans. The traditional concept of ‘Security’ is that the greatest danger to a country is from military threats and danger of violence or the threat of violence inside its borders.
Q. 6 List some forms of cooperation.
Ans. Some forms of cooperation amongst nations are limiting violence, disarmament, arms control and confidence building.
Q. 7. What is meant by alliance building as a component of traditional security policy? What are its advantages ?
Ans. The traditional notion of security primarily focuses on threats of war and armed attacks.
(a) Alliance is a co-ordinated policy of different member states towards an armed attack. These alliances are formed by signing treaties or through an understanding among the states.
(b) These alliances were generally formed on the basis of national interest and they changed as national interests changed. For example, the US had backed the Islamic militants in Afghanistan against the USSR, but waged an attack on them when 9/11 the watershed event occurred.
(c) An alliance protects countries from armed attacks. For example, NATO was an alliance formed by US in 1949 which meant that armed attacks on any one of the 12 members of NATO would be an armed attack on all of them. This prevented other countries from attacking as an attack by 12 nations on 1 attacker would mean devastation.
(d) It increases the strength of nations in relation to other and leads to large-scale build-up and acquisition of arms. For example, the alliance like NATO, WARSAW, SEATO and CENTO were formed by the USA and the USSR for this the superpowers provided allies with large-scale weapons. This made the smaller ally countries stronger.
Q. 8. Distinguish between the internal and external notion of traditional security.
Ans. Internal notion of traditional security
(i) Internal military conflicts
(ii) Separatist movements
(iii) Internal wars
External notions of traditional security
(i) Danger to a country from military threats
(ii) Deterrence, defence and balance of power
(iii) Alliance building as components of traditional security.
Detailed Answer : Internal Notion of Traditional Security
(i) Internal notion of traditional security is concerned with internal military conflicts. Under this concern, countries faced threats not only from outside their borders but also from within. Countries quarreled over borders and territories or control of people and resources or all of these simultaneously.
(ii) Countries also faced threat from separatist movements under internal notion of traditional security. A neighbouring country might help or instigate an internal separatist movement. This can be very devastating for the country.
(iii) Countries also face the situations of internal wars. Internal wars now make up more than 95 per cent of all armed conflicts fought anywhere in the world. Between 1946 and 1991, there was a twelve fold rise in the number of civil wars.
External Notion of Traditional Security
(i) Under external notion of traditional security, the greatest danger is from military threats. The source of this danger is another country, which by threatening military action endangers the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity.
(ii) In responding to the threat of war, a government has three basic choices of deterrence, defence and balance of power. Preventing war is called deterrence, limiting or ending war is called defence and balance of power means to match the military power with the neighbouring countries.
(iii) Alliance building is also a component of external notion of traditional security. An alliance is a coalition of states that coordinate their actions to deter or defend against military attack.
Q. 9. Examine four important components of traditional notion of security.
Ans. Four important components of traditional notion of security are
(i) security policy is concerned with preventing war which is called deterrence.
(ii) If the war has already started, then nations fights against the enemy and defeats them. (iii)Balance of power is a third component of traditional notion of security and the best way of maintaining balance of power is to build up one’s military powers. nations even try to cultivate close friendship with their enemy’s enemy.
(iv) Alliance building is another traditional component of security. For example, the NATO established by Us and the WARSAW Pact created by the USSR.
Q. 10. What are the choices available to a state when its security is threatened according to the traditional security perspective?
Ans. If a state’s security is threatened according to the traditional security perspective, it has the following basic choices. They are:
(i) To surrender
(ii) To prevent the other side from attacking by promising to raise the costs of war to an unacceptable level.
(iii) To defend itself when war actually breaks out so as to deny the attacking country its objectives and to turn or defeat the attacking forces altogether.
(iv) Balance of Power
(v) Alliance building
Q. 11. Is terrorism a traditional or non-traditional threat to security.
Ans. Terrorism is non-traditional threat to security.
(i) non-traditional notions of security go beyond military threats to include a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of the human existence.
(ii) Proponents of non-traditional threat to security say that not just the state but also individuals or communities or indeed all of humankind come under security.
Q. 12. What are the other names given to non-traditional notions of security?
Ans. non-traditional notions of security have been called ‘human security’ or ‘global security’.
Q. 13. Describe terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
Ans. (i) Terrorism refers to political violence done indiscriminately and targets innocent civilians.
(ii) It takes place because some people want to change the political context by violence or threat of violence.
(iii) certain groups, unhappy with the current political context engage in these activities which lead to loss of lives and cause trauma.
(iv) After 9/11, countries have joined together in an initiative to condemn terrorism in all forms and create a terrorist-free world.
(v) Examples of terrorism: Hijacking of planes, bombs in cafes, public places, railway stations, massive killing, etc.
Q. 14. Differentiate between the traditional and nontraditional notions of security.
Ans. Traditional Notions of Security
(i) ln the traditional conception of security the greatest danger to a country is from military threats from outside. This may endanger to the core values of sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity. Military action also endangers the lives of ordinary citizens.
(ii) Traditional security also concerns with internal security. It may be threatened by civil war and internal separatist movement.
Non-traditional Notions of Security
(i) It includes a wide range of threats and dangers affecting the conditions of human existence. Main proponent of non-traditional is not just the state but also individuals or communities or indeed all of human kind. Therefore, it has been called ‘human security’ or ‘global security’.
(ii) In non-traditional notion, threats may be such as terrorism, human rights, global poverty and migration, etc.
Q. 15. Describe terrorism as a new source of threat to security.
Ans. Terrorism as a Threat Terrorism refers to political violence that targets innocent civilians deliberately and indiscriminately.
(i) It involves citizens or territory of more than one country.
(ii) Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like. They do it by force or threat of force.
(iii) civilians targets are usually chosen to terrorise the public and to use the unhappiness of the public as a weapon against national governments or other parties in conflict.
(iv) classic cases of terrorism involve hijacking planes, planting bombs in trains, cafes, markets and crowded places.
Q. 16. Explain the concept of ‘Human Security.’
Ans. Human security means the protection of the people more than the protection of states. The proponents of human security argue that the primary aim of the state is the protection of individuals. According to them, the concept of human security should include hunger, diseases and natural disasters as they kill even more people than war. Thus, human security should protect people from these threats as well as from violence and war. It is broadest formulation, the human security agenda also encompasses economic security and ‘threats to human dignity’.
Q. 17. Explain global poverty and health epidemics as the new sources of threats to security.
Ans. Global poverty and health epidemics as the new sources of threat to security.
(i) Global poverty is a new source of threat to security. Population is expected to triple in the next 50 years. Whereas many rich countries will see population decline in that period. High per capita income and low population growth make rich state get richer and low income and high population growth reinforce each other to make poor states get poorer. (ii) Health epidemics such as HIV-AIDS, bird flu, SARS have rapidly spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations. since the late 1990s, Britain had lost billions of dollars of income during an outbreak of the mad-cow disease.
Q. 18. Identify and explain four new sources of threat to security.
Ans. (i) Terrorism
(ii) Health epidemics like: HIV-AIDS, bird flu and SARs.
(iv) Violation of human rights
(iv) Global poverty
Detailed Answer : Following are the four new sources of threat to security :
(i) Terrorism : It refers to political violence that targets civilians deliberately and indiscriminately. Terrorist groups seek to change a political context or condition that they do not like by force or threat of force.
(ii) Migration : Migration is condition in which people shift from their place to another one to seek a better life, especially better economic opportunities.
(iii) Human Rights : These are in the form of political, economic, social rights and the rights of colonised people or ethnic and indigenous minorities. Example-Iraq’s invasion of Kuwait, Indonesian military’s killing of people in East Timor.
(iv) Health Epidemics : Health epidemics such as HIV-AIDs, bird flu, and severe acute respiratory syndrome have rapidly spread across countries through migration, business, tourism and military operations. other new and poorly understood diseases such as ebola virus, hantavirus and hepatitis c have emerged, while old diseases like tuberculosis, malaria, dengue fever and cholera have mutated into drug resistant forms that are difficult to treat. All these health epidemics are threats to human security.