Q.1. What is meant by Western Alliance?
Ans. West European countries that sided with the USA, after the World War II.
Q.2. What is meant by Cuban Missile Crisis?
Ans. The leaders of the USSR were apprehensive that the USA would attack communist ruled Cuba and overthrow Fidel Castro. Hence, the Soviet Union placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to face any eventuality caused by a possible attack by USA. This led to a situation which is known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Cuba was an ally of the Soviet Union. When USSR placed nuclear missiles in Cuba in 1962, it put the US under fire from close range. Tension and the deployment of forces and equipment from both sides created the situation where clashes became imminent. This is known as Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.3. Explain the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Ans. In the year 1962, the Soviet Union leader Nikita Khrushchev placed nuclear missiles in Cuba. The installation of these missiles brought the USA under the fire from close range for the first time. It almost doubled the number of bases or cities in the American mainland which could be threatened by the USSR. When the USA became aware of it, the American President John F. Kennedy and his advisors were determined to get Khrushchev to remove the nuclear missiles from Cuba. Kennedy ordered American warships to intercept any Soviet ships heading to Cuba as a way of warning the USSR of his seriousness. A clash seemed imminent in what came to be known as the Cuban Missile Crisis.
Q.4. What constrained the Superpowers to go for a full-fledged war in spite of having nuclear weapons?
In spite of possessing nuclear power, why didn’t both the superpowers go for a full-fledged war?
Ans. Both the superpowers knew very well the intensity of destruction that would take place. It was not acceptable to either of them. No political gain could justify the destruction of their societies. That is why they did not go for a full- fledged nuclear war.
Q.5. Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation also called Western Alliance?
Ans. Most countries of Western Europe sided with the US which got formalised into an organisation the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO). Hence it was also called Western Alliance.
Q.6. Why was the Warsaw Pact also called the ‘Eastern Alliance’?
Ans. Most countries of the Eastern Europe had joined the alliance led by USSR-i.e. the Warsaw Pact— hence it is also known as Eastern Alliance.
Q.7. Why did the superpowers decide to collaborate in limiting or eliminating nuclear power?
Ans. Both the superpowers were in possession of nuclear weapons. Both were aware of the destruction caused in case a nuclear war is fought.
But none of them was aware of the stock and kinds of the nuclear weapons about each other. So they thought that a stable balance of weapons could be maintained through arms control. So they decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating nuclear power.
Q.8. What is the full form of ‘SEATO’?
Ans. South East Asian Treaty Organisation.
Q.9. Mention the military alliances formed by the Western Bloc.
Ans. Military alliances formed by the Western Bloc.
(i) The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO)
(ii) The South-East Asian Treaty Organisation (SEATO)
(iii) The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO)
Q.10. Mention any two major military features of the Cold War.
Ans. Following are the three major military features of the Cold War :
(i) There were two rival blocs led by two superpowers.
(ii) Superpowers understood the risk of fighting wars i.e. massive destruction of life and property, etc.
(iii) Cold War triggered arms race between nations.
Q.11. Which two ideologies were involved in a conflict during the Cold War era and why?
Ans. The two ideologies in conflict were
The two ideologies involved in a conflict during the Cold War era were-Socialism and Capitalism. The US bloc was in favour of Capitalism and was against spread of Socialism which was the concept of the economy of the Eastern Alliance i.e. USSR bloc.
Q.12. Mention any two reasons for the emergence of a Cold War situation after the Second World War.
Ans. Following are the two reasons for the emergence of a Cold War situation after the Second World War:
(i) Emergence of US and USSR as two superpower rivals.
(ii) In spite of provocation and rivalry, neither side wanted to risk war as no political gain would justify destruction of their societies. Hence, the result was the emergence of Cold War.
Q.13. What is the attitude of the neutral states towards war?
Ans. Neutral states follow a policy of staying out of war. They are not required to end war. They do not get involved in war and do not take any position on the appropriateness or morality of war.
Q.14. List any four member countries of NATO.
Ans. US, Canada, Denmark, Iceland.
Q.15. Which organisation came into existence in April 1949?
Ans. The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO).
Q.16. Define Cold War.
Ans. The Cold War was an outcome of the emergence of the US and the USSR as two superpowers rival to each other. In fact, it was not a war, but the preparedness of war. In this, both the sides prepared for war and collected huge piles of arms and ammunition.
Q.17. Name the two superpowers responsible for the Cold War. When did the world become unipolar?
(i) The two superpowers responsible for the Cold War were the US and the USSR.
(ii) The world became unipolar in 1991.
Q.18. How were the military alliances beneficial to the smaller nations during the Cold War?
Ans. The smaller states in the alliances used the link to the superpowers for their own purposes. They got the promise of protection, weapons and economic aid against their local rivals, mostly regional neighbours with whom they had rivalries.
Q.19. What was the main difference in the ideology of the Western Alliance and that of the Eastern Alliance?
Ans. The Cold War was accompanied by a real ideological conflict as well, a difference over the best and the most appropriate way of organising political, economic and social life all over the world. The Western Alliance, headed by the US, represented the ideology of liberal democracy and capitalism while the Eastern Alliance, headed by the Soviet Union, was committed to the ideology of socialism and communism.
Q.20. Mention any two characteristics of the Soviet economy during the Cold War days.
(i) Soviet system of economy was based on planned economy.
(ii) Soviet economy was far ahead of the economy of other countries like USA.
Q.21. Why did the superpowers need smaller states as their allies? Explain any four reasons.
State four reasons as to why superpowers should have military alliances with small countries.
Ans. The superpowers wanted to have alliances with smaller states to gain advantage of:
(i) Vital resources such as oil and minerals.
(ii) Territory from where the superpowers could launch their weapons and troops.
(iii) Location from where they could spy on each other.
(iv) Economic support to pay for military expenses.
(v) Ideological reasons, their loyalty suggested that the superpowers were winning the war of ideas also.
Q.22. The Cold War produced an arms race as well as arms control. What were the reasons for both these developments?
Ans. The Cold War was an outcome of the emergence of the US and the USSR as two superpowers rival to each other. It does not mean the actual war. It means war like situation. It involves preparedness for war by collecting huge piles of arms and ammunition. Both the countries, the US and the USSR collected nuclear weapons also. But it was also true that when two rival powers are in possession of nuclear weapons capable of inflicting death and destruction unacceptable to each other, full-fledged war is unlikely. They were also aware of the devastation if the war happens. So to exercise constraints on war, the two sides decided to collaborate in limiting or eliminating kinds so of nuclear and non-nuclear weapons.
These reasons were responsible for an arms race as well as arms control during the Cold War.
Q.23. What was India’s foreign policy towards the US and USSR during the Cold War era? Do you think that this policy helped India’s interests?
Ans. India’s policy was neither negative nor passive. As Nehru reminded the world, non-alignment was not a policy of ‘fleeing away’. On the contrary, India was in favour of actively intervening in world affairs to soften Cold War rivalries. A non-aligned posture also served India’s interests very directly, in at least two ways:
(i) It allowed India to take international decisions and stances that served its own interests rather than the interests of the superpowers and their allies.
(ii) India was often able to balance one superpower against the other. If India felt ignored or unduly pressurised by one superpower, it could tilt towards the other. Neither alliance system could take India for granted nor bully it.
Q.24. Why different arenas of cold war did not convert into a hot war between the two alliances.
Ans. Different arenas of cold war did not convert into a hot war between the two alliances because of the concept of logic of deterrence and logic of restraint exercised by the two superpowers. It implies that
(i) Even if one of the superpower tries to attack and disable the nuclear weapons of its rivals the other would still be left with enough nuclear weapons to inflict unacceptable destruction.
(ii) Both sides have capacity to retaliate against an attack and to cause so much destruction that neither can afford to initiate war.
(iii) Both superpowers were expected to behave more rationally and in a responsible manner in the sense that they understood the risks in fighting wars which may create a massive destruction. So, both the superpowers exhibited restraint on their actions to prevent the cold war from escalating into a full-fledged war.
Q.25. Mention any two of the agreements signed between the two superpowers starting in the 1960s.
Ans. Following are the agreements signed between the two superpowers starting in the 1960s:
(i) Limited Test Ban Treaty.
(ii) Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
(iii) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
Q.26. What is meant by ‘Arenas of Cold War’?
Ans. The arenas of the Cold War refer to the areas where crisis and war occurred or threatened to occur between the alliance systems but did not cross certain limits.
Q.27. Mention any four realities that changed the world politics after the Cold War.
(i) After the end of the Cold War, the world became unipolar. The USSR disintegrated. In 1985, reforms were started in the USSR. These reforms were rapidly accompanied by a rapidly escalating crisis within the USSR that hastened its disintegration.
(ii) The end of the Cold War left the US without any serious rival in the world. The era since then is described as a period of US dominance or a unipolar world.
(iii) After the end of the Cold War, the bipolar structure of world politics came to an end. It became clear that alternative centres of political and economic power could limit America’s dominance.
(iv) The economic rise of China has made a dramatic impact on world politics. China followed its own path in introducing a market economy. China opened their economy step by step. The new economic policies helped the Chinese economy to break from stagnation.
Q.28. Suggest one argument in support of the establishment of NIEO in the world?
Ans. To develop the least developed countries of NAM and lift them out of poverty.
Q.29. Define ‘Bipolarity’.
Ans. Division of the world into two power blocs led by USA and USSR is called bipolarity.
Q.30. In spite of following a policy of Non-alignment, why did India sign the 20 year Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union in 1971?
Ans. Non-alignment means not joining any superpower but it does not ban a country from being prepared for its own defence. Therefore, India signed the treaty with the Soviet Union in order to counter the US-Pakistan-China Axis.
This treaty assured India of Soviet support, if the country faced attack.
Q.31. Is NAM neutral?
Ans. Non-Alignment cannot be referred to as neutrality because neutrality refers to a policy of staying away from war. NAM is a concept opposed to belligerency. It is a concept aiming at an independent foreign and peaceful co-existence.
Q.32. What was the strength of the non-aligned countries as mediators between the superpowers?
Ans. The strength of the non-aligned countries as mediators between the superpowers was based on their unity and their resolve to remain non-aligned despite the attempts by the two superpowers to bring them into alliances.
Q.33. Why did India distance itself from the two camps led by the United States and the Soviet Union? Explain.
Ans. India distanced itself from both the camps led by the US and USSR because of the following reasons:
(i) To serve its national interests rather than the interests of the superpowers.
(ii) To upkeep the sovereignty of the nation and to take independent decisions.
(iii) To follow and advocate the policy of Non Alignment.
Q.34. What is meant by Non-alignment?
Ans. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of newly independent countries of Asia and Africa which did not want to join any of the two power blocs and came together and to form NAM.
Q.35. Name any two foreign leaders, along with countries they belong to, who are recognised as the founders of Non-Aligned Movement.
Ans. G.A. Nasser—Egypt and J.B. Tito–Yugoslavia.
Q.36. What core values keep non-alignment relevant even after the Cold War has ended?
Ans. Non-alignment was based on recognition that decolonised states share a historical affiliation and can become a powerful force if they come together. 1 It was also based on the resolve to democratise the international system by thinking about an alternative world order to redress existing inequalities. 1 These two core values keep non-alignment relevant even after the Cold War has ended.
Q.37. What is India’s policy of Non-alignment?
Ans. India’s policy of non-alignment:
(i) Not to join either of the two camps–the US and the USSR.
(ii) Taking independent stand on various international issues.
The main characteristic of India’s foreign policy is non-alignment. Non-alignment means that India will remain independent by not joining any group. Non-alignment is a policy of peacefulness. Non-alignment does not mean neutrality in international affairs. India’s policy of non-alignment is positive one. India wants to bridge the gap between Eastern and Western ideologies.
Q.38. When did India sign the twenty-years “Treaty of Peace and Friendship” with Soviet Union?
Ans. India signed the twenty–years Treaty of Peace and Friendship with the Soviet Union in August 1971. This treaty assured India of Soviet support if the country faced any attack.
Q.39. Why did India not join either of the two camps during the Cold War?
Ans. During Cold War era, India’s foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment. Therefore, India did not join either of the two superpower camps during the Cold War.
Q.40. Why did India distance herself from the two superpower camps?
Ans. Reasons for Distancing:
(i) To pursue the dream of a peaceful world, India advocated the policy of Non-Alignment.
(ii) Reducing Cold War tensions.
(iii) India wanted to keep away from the military alliances led by the US and the Soviet Union.
(iv) India could get aid and assistance from members of both the blocs.
(v) To pursue an independent foreign policy which was beneficial to India’s international interest.
Q.41. Why is the policy of non-alignment of India criticised? Explain any two reasons.
Ans. India has played a significant role in shaping the Non-Aligned Movement which began as a collective and constructive response of the newly liberated nations of Asia, Africa, Caribbean and Latin America. The movement is responsible for inculcating self-esteem to these newly liberated countries and to a great extent responsible for the creation of more just and equitable world order. India’s policy of non alignment was criticised on a number of counts first India’s non alignment was said to be ‘unprincipled’ in the name of pursuing its national interest, India it was said, often refused to take a firm stand on crucial international issues. Second it is suggested that India was inconsistent and took contradictory postures. India signed the treaty of friendship in august 1971 with USSR for 20 years.
Q.42. Name any two founders of Non-Aligned Movement (NAM). The first NAM Summit was the culmination of which three factors?
Ans. The two founders of Non-Alignment Movement were:
(i) Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru of India
(ii) Josep Broz Tito of Yugoslavia
The first Non-aligned Summit was held in Belgrade in 1961. The first NAM Summit was the culmination of following three factors:
(a) Increasing Cold War tension and its widening areas.
(b) Many new decolonised African countries became the members of NAM.
(c) Co-operation among five countries.