Q. 1 . W hat was the main objective of ‘Operation Desert Storm’?
Ans. The UN operation in Iraq was called “Operation Desert Storm”. In this operation, a massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq.
Q. 2. Why was the ‘First Gulf War’called a ‘Computer War ’?
Ans. The highly publicised use of so called ‘smart bombs’ by the US led some observers to call the ‘First Gulf War’ as a ‘Computer War’.
Q. 3. Why was the ‘First Gulf War ’called the ‘Video Game War’?
Ans. Widespread television coverage of the ‘First Gulf War’ made it a ‘Video Game War’.
Q. 4. Why the dropping of atom bombs on Japan by US towards the end of Second World War widely criticised?
Ans. (i) The US knew that Japan was about to surrender and dropping of bombs was not necessary.
(ii) The US action was intended to stop Soviet Union from making political gains in Asia and elsewhere, and,
(iii) To show that the US was supreme.
Q. 5. How was Kuwait liberated from Iraq in 1990?
Ans. Kuwait was liberated in the following ways :
(i) An UN operation named ‘Operation Desert Storm’ was launched.
(ii) A massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it in what came to be called as the First Gulf War.
Q. 6. How far is it correct to describe the ‘First Gulf War’ as the first act of US Hegemony in the post cold war period?
Ans. It is correct to describe the ‘First Gulf War’ as the first act of US Hegemony in the post-cold war period. Although ‘Operation Desert Storm’ was organised by the UN, it was overwhelmingly American because of the following reasons- (i) An American General, Norman Schwarzkopf, led the UN coalition. (ii) Nearly 75% of the coalition forces were from the US.
(iii) It revealed vast technological gap that had opened up between US and the rest of the world.
Q. 7. Describe the two incidents which show the readiness of the US to use military power even during the Clinton Years?
Ans. Following are the two incidents which show the readiness of the US military power even during the Clinton years :
(i) In 1999, in response to Yugoslavian actions against the predominantly Albanian population in the province of Kosovo, the US led NATO force bombarded targeting Yugoslavia for well over two months forcing the downfall of the government of Slobodan Milosevic and stationing of a NATO force in Kosovo.
(ii) Another important feature of the Clinton years was the US military action in response to the bombing of the US embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania in 1998.
Q. 8. Describe the events of the ‘First Gulf War ’.
Ans. Events of the First Gulf War:
(i) In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait and occupied it by annexing it.
(ii) After diplomatic attempt failed, UN mandated liberation of Kuwait by force.
(iii) US President George H.W. Bush hailed emergence of New World Order.
(iv) Massive coalition force of 660,000 troops from 34 countries fought against Iraq and defeated it.
(v) Iraqi President Saddam Hussain promised ‘mother of all battles’ but was quickly defeated and forced to withdraw from Kuwait.
Q. 9. How did the US respond to the 9/11 attacks?
Ans. The US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ against all those suspected to be behind the attack of 9/11, particularly Al-Qaeda and the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.
Q. 10. What is meant by 9/11 in the context of USA?
Ans. On 11th September 2001, nineteen hijackers took control of four American commercial aircrafts and flew them into the North and South Towers of the World Trade Centre of the US.
Q. 11. ‘What was ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’?
Ans. ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ was a military operation launched by the US on 19th March 2003.
Q. 12. What was ‘Operation Enduring Freedom?
What was meant by ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’?
Ans. ‘Operation Enduring Freedom’ was launched by the US against all those who were suspected to be behind the attack of 9/11, mainly Al-Qaeda and Taliban.
Q. 13. The UN along with many other countries of the world refused to give their mandate to ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’? Elucidate their stand.
Ans. On 19th March 2003, the US launched its invasion of Iraq under the codename ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’. More than 40 other countries joined in the US coalition of the willing after the UN refused to give its mandate to the invasion. They did not support the invasion.
Q. 14. Describe the sequence of events related to ‘Operation Enduring Freedom.
Ans. Sequence of events related to ‘Operation Enduring Freedom.’
(i) The US response to 9/11 was swift and ferocious.
(ii) Clinton had been succeeded in the US Presidency by George W. Bush of the Republican Party.
(iii) Bush had a much harder view of US interest.
(iv) As a part of its ‘Global War on Terror’, the US launched ‘Operation Enduring Freedom.’
(v) 9/11 was the most severe attack on US soil since the founding of the country in 1776.
Q. 15. What is meant by Hegemony?
Ans. Hegemony means becoming powerful or doing something for power. It is the form of military domination, economic power, political clout and cultural superiority.
Q. 16. Explain hegemony as a soft power.
Ans. Hegemony as a soft power implies class ascendancy in the social, political and particularly ideological spheres. It arises when the dominant class of a country can win the consent of the dominated classes by persuading them to view the world in a favourable manner.
Q. 17. Highlight any one main feature of the US economy.
Ans. The basic feature of the US economy is that it is an open world economy which requires a dominant power to support. The hegemony must possess both the ability and the desire to establish certain norms and order to sustain the global structure.
Q. 18. Describe any two constraints on American Hegemony.
Ans. Two constraints on American Hegemony:
(i) Institutional architecture of the American state itself.
(ii) A system of vision of powers between the three branches of the government places significant brakes upon the unrestrained exercise of America’s military power by executive branch.
(iii) Open nature of American society.
Q. 19. How is ‘bandwagon’ strategy beneficial within the hegemonic system?
Ans. It is suggested by some that instead of engaging in activities opposed to the hegemonic power, it may be advisable to extract benefit by operating within the hegemonic system. That is why the ‘bandwagon’ strategy is beneficial within the hegemonic system.
Q. 20. What is meant by the strategy of ‘hide’?
Ans. The strategy of ‘hide’ implies staying as far aloof from the dominant power as possible.
Q. 21. What is meant by ‘bandwagon’ strategy?
Ans. The policy of extracting benefits by operating within the hegemonic system is called ‘bandwagon’ strategy.
Q. 22. State any one way to overcome hegemony?
Ans. ‘Bandwagon’ strategy is one way to overcome hegemony. The policy of extracting benefits by operating within the hegemonic system is called ‘bandwagon’ strategy.