Principles of Modals (Part - 2) - Modals Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

Class 8: Principles of Modals (Part - 2) - Modals Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8

The document Principles of Modals (Part - 2) - Modals Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8

Uses of ‘SHOULD’ (Past form of ‘SHALL’)

Should is used

1. to express duty or obligation; e.g.,
 (i) Students should study well.
 (ii) You should respect other's opinion.
 (iii) We should help the poor students.
 (iv) Niti and her friend should follow their teacher's suggestions.

2. to express advice, suggestion or inference; e.g.,
 (i) She should work sincerely.
 (ii) You should walk in fresh air every morning.
 (iii) We should obey our parents.
 (iv) The patient should take medicine on time.

3. after lest to express negative purpose; e.g.,
 (i) Walk slow lest you should fall.
 (ii) Study hard lest you should fail.

4. to express supposition; e.g.,
 (i) Should you meet my father, tell him to send me one thousand rupees.
 (ii) Should you come with me, tell me everything.

5. to express assumption; e.g.,
 (i) Shreya should be here by now.
 (ii) He should have attended the meeting.

Uses of ‘MAY’ and ‘MIGHT’ (‘MIGHT’ is the past form of ‘MAY’)

May is used to denote 

1. permission; e.g.,
 (i) May I come in? Yes, you may. No, you may not.
 (ii) May I take your dictionary? Yes, you may. No, you may not. 

2. possibility; e.g.,
 (i) He may be late for the office.    
 (ii) Bad weather may cause illness.
 (iii) My friend might help me.
 (iv) He might come tomorrow.

3. doubt, uncertainty; e.g.,
 (i) The little boy may not run fast.
 (ii) The letter may reach on time.
 (iii) The plane might be late.
 (iv) Children might commit mischiefs. 

4. a wish; e.g., 
 (i) May God bless you!
 (ii) May you live long!

5. a purpose; e.g.,
 (i) We work hard so that we may get good marks.
 (ii) Ratna wakes up early so that she may prepare her breakfast.
 (iii) The soldiers fought bravely so that they might get honour.
 (iv) Mahatma Gandhi struggled hard so that his country might be free. 

6. the negative and interrogative; e.g., 
 (i) The guests may not come today.
 (ii) What may be the result of this enmity?
 (iii) They might not go to Shimla.
 (iv) He might not work hard.

Uses of ‘MUST’

Must is used to express 

1. necessity; e.g., 
 (i) We must work hard to get success in life.
 (ii) You must serve your nation.

2. duty or obligation; e.g., 
 (i) I must be punctual.
 (ii) Students must listen to the teacher. 

3. determination; e.g., 
 (i) I must learn this chapter till evening.
 (ii) They must run fast to win the trophy. 

4. certainty; e.g., 
 (i) My grandmother must be eighty now.
 (ii) Mr Mathur must be a gentle man. 

5. prohibition; e.g., 
 (i) Students must not complain all the time.
 (ii) One must not catch the moving train.

Uses of ‘OUGHT’

Ought (to) is used to express 

1. moral obligation or desirability; e.g., 
 (i) The wealthy ought to help the poor.
 (ii) We ought to do our duty well.
 (iii) You ought to pay attention to your teacher.
 (iv) Parents ought to take good care of their children. 

2. probability; e.g., 
 (i) This book ought to be path-showing.
 (ii) He ought to be here within an hour.

3. The meaning of ought to and should is almost the same. Hence, we can use ought in place of should and should in place of ought. e.g.,
 (i) He oug ht to come soon.
 (ii) He should come soon.

Uses of ‘NEED’

Need is used to express 

1. necessity in interrogative and negative sentences; e.g.,
 (i) Need she come tomorrow?
 (ii) Need you speak so fast?
 (iii) You need not come here?
 (iv) He need not go. 

2. double and prohibition; as,
 (i) Need he apply again?
 (ii) No, he needn’t.

Uses of ‘DARE’

Dare means ‘to venture’. It is used in negative and interrogative sentences; e.g.,
 (i) The boy dare not come in front of his father.
 (ii) How dare you come to me?
 (iii) He dare not express his opinion.
 (iv) Dare you catch a lion by its tail?

Uses of ‘USED TO’

Used to is used to express 

1. a past habitual action; e.g.,
 (i) My grandfather used to ride a bicycle when he was a boy.
 (ii) Before marriage, he used to smoke. 

2. a habit in the present; e.g.,
 (i) I am used to non-spicy food.
 (ii) The baby is not used to loud horns.
 (iii) My mother is used to a life of struggles.
 (iv) Rohit is not used to do hard work.

The document Principles of Modals (Part - 2) - Modals Notes | Study English Class 8 - Class 8 is a part of the Class 8 Course English Class 8.
All you need of Class 8 at this link: Class 8
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