Pronoun.....!!!!!!!! Notes - Class 8

Class 8: Pronoun.....!!!!!!!! Notes - Class 8

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01
 
DEFINITION
Definition of Pronouns
A word that is used instead of a noun is called a pronoun.
Eg: Brett is here because he wants to talk about the issue.
02
 
DEFINITION
Different Types of Pronouns
There are different types of pronouns. They include:
1. Personal Pronouns
2. Impersonal Pronouns
3. Demonstrative Pronouns
4. Indefinite Pronouns
5. Distributive Pronouns
6. Relative Pronouns
7. Interrogative Pronouns
03
 
DEFINITION
Objective Form when the Verb Complement is 'To Be'
The objective form should be used when the complement of the verb is 'to be'.
Eg: It is me.
      It was him.
04
 
DEFINITION
Objective Form When a Pronoun is the Object
Use the objective form when a pronoun is the object of a verb or a preposition.
Eg: Between you and me, she did not tell us the truth.
      Please permit Holly and me to attend the concert.
05
 
DEFINITION
Objective Case When a Pronoun Follows 'Than' or 'As'
Use the objective case when a pronoun follows 'than' or 'as'.
Eg: She is more graceful than me.
      I play the piano as well as him.
06
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case Following 'Than' or 'As' When a Verb Follows
Use the nominative case for a pronoun following 'than' or 'as' if a verb follows the pronoun.
Eg: He swims better than I swim.
07
 
DEFINITION
Agreement with the Antecedent
Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in person, number and gender.
Eg: All viewers must use their discretion for the film.
      Every man must work his hardest for the project.
08
 
DEFINITION
Appropriate Gender According to Context in Case of Words Like 'Anybody' and 'Everyone'
When using 'anybody', 'everybody', 'everyone', 'anyone', 'each' etc, the pronoun of the masculine or feminine gender may be used according to the context.

Eg:
Anybody can arrive in time if he drives fast enough.
09
 
DEFINITION
Use 'One' Throughout If Used At All
The indefinite pronoun 'one' should be used throughout if used at all.
Eg: One cannot be too careful about what one (not he) does.
     One must have patience or one will not see the fruit of one's efforts.
10
 
DEFINITION
Construe 'None' in the Singular or Plural
'None' may be construed in the singular or plural as the sense requires.
Eg: Did you see any cheetahs on the safari? There were none in the area.
      Did you buy me a box? There was none in the shop.
11
 
DEFINITION
Use 'Anyone' When More than Two are Spoken of
Use 'anyone' when more than two persons or things are spoken of.
Eg: Anyone of the class could have written this essay.
      She was prettier than anyone of her five sisters.
12
 
DEFINITION
Follow 'Each', 'Either' and 'Neither' by Singular Verbs
Follow 'each', 'either' and 'neither' by verbs in the singular.
Eg: Each of the boys has chosen to play football over cricket.
      Neither of the men was a resident of the city.
      Either of the women is a good mother.
13
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'Who' and 'Whom'
Use 'who' in the nominative form and 'whom' in the objective form. Use the nominative form when the pronoun is followed by a verb.
Eg: There are some who (not whom) I think should be elected to the committee.
      I prefer those players who (not whom) are humble.
     Whom would you like to speak to?
14
 
DEFINITION
Agreement of the Verb with the Antecedent in the Case of Relative Pronouns
When the subject of a verb is a relative pronoun, the verb must agree in number and person with the antecedent of the relative pronoun.
Eg: This is one of the best meals I have (not has) tasted.
      One of the greatest statesmen that have (not has) lived delivered that speech.
15
 
DEFINITION
Noun/Pronouns in Possessive Case Should Not be Used as Antecedants to the Relative Pronoun
A noun or a pronoun in the possessive case should not be used as the antecedent to a relative pronoun.
Eg: We owe much to his patience who led the project. - Incorrect
      We owe much to the patience of him who led the project. - Correct
16
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'As' or 'That' when the Antecedent is the Same
When the antecedent is the same, the consequent should be 'as' or 'that'.
Eg:That is the same teacher that taught me.
      I worked on the same computer that (or as) you did.
17
 
DEFINITION
Third Person Plural Pronouns Should Not be Used as Antecedents to 'Who' and 'That'
Pronouns of the third person plural should not be used as antecedents to 'who' and 'that'.
Eg: They that like company should have many friends. - Incorrect
18
 
DEFINITION
Do Not Use 'Same' as a Substitutte for a Personal Pronoun
Avoid the use of 'same' as a substitute for the personal pronoun.
Eg: After you write the essay, please submit it (not 'the same') to the teacher.
19
 
DEFINITION
Pronouns and Missing Antecedents
Pronouns must always have an antecedent. Pronouns with missing antecedents should be corrected to provide an antecedent.
Eg: After reading the author's latest thriller, the reader contacted her with a comment.
      A better sentence construction is -
      After reading the latest thriller by the author, the reader contacted her with a comment.

Eg: They say that you must eat vegetables of different colours.
      The sentence can be corrected to -
      Nutritionists say that you must eat vegetables of different colours.
20
 
DEFINITION
Pronouns and Unclear Antecedents
Pronouns must have a clear antecedent. Pronouns with an unclear antecedent should be corrected to clarify the antecedent.
Eg: London is more expensive than Brussels, but it also has better paying jobs.
      Sentence should be corrected to -
      London is more expensive than Brussels, but London also has better paying jobs.
21
 
DEFINITION
Agreement between Pronouns and Antecedents
There should be agreement between pronouns and their antecedents.
Eg: The new task involves building several school houses, but their cost is likely to be high.
      The antecedent of the above sentence is 'task' and not 'school houses'. Therefore the pronoun should not be plural ('their') but singular (its).
      The corrected sentence will be -
      The new task involves building several school houses, but its cost will be high.
22
 
DEFINITION
Pronoun Case Agreement
Pronouns should be in the correct case according to whether they are subject of the verb, object of the verb, or show possession or ownership.
Eg: Jill and me walked into the basement. - Incorrect
      Jill and I walked into the basement. - Correct
23
 
DEFINITION
Order of Multiple Pronouns
When there are several pronouns of different persons, the order of pronouns is second, third, first. If a fault is confessed, it is first, second, third.
Eg: You, she and I will be attending the match today.
     I, you and he must apologize for the wrong we have done.
24
 
DEFINITION
Number of Pronouns Standing for Collective Nouns
A pronoun standing for a collective noun must be singular and neuter if the collective noun is viewed as a whole. It must be plural and of the appropriate gender if the collective noun is viewed as separate individuals.
Eg: The class of students is in the room. It is waiting for a teacher to arrive.
      The committee will vote for a president. They will be meeting next Tuesday for this.
25
 
DEFINITION
Follow second and third person pronoun subjects with the second person pronoun
When pronouns of second and third persons are used as subjects, the pronoun following will be in second person.
Eg: James and you are going to the reception, but you must be back before midnight.
26
 
DEFINITION
Follow second and first person pronoun subjects with First Person Plural Pronouns
When pronouns of second and first person are together used as subjects, the pronoun following must be in first person plural.
Eg: You and I are going to the cinema but we must stop to pick up my sister.
27
 
DEFINITION
'That' Used After Superlatives
The relative pronoun 'that' is used in preference to 'who' or 'which' after adjectives in the superlative degree.
Eg: He is the tallest man that (not who) I ever encountered.
28
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'That' After 'Who' or 'What'
The relative pronoun 'that' is used after 'who' or 'what'.
Eg: What is it that you want with me?
      Who is it that knocked on our door?
29
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'Which' for Animals and Objects
When there are two antecedents, a man and an animal or object, or two objects, the relative pronoun that should be used is 'that' and not 'which'.
Eg: The man and the dog that (not 'which') you saw yesterday were from the other town.
30
 
DEFINITION
Pronoun following a form of 'to be' should be in the nominative case
When we have a form of 'to be' verb (is, was, might have been, etc.), the pronoun that follows it should be in the nominative case. 
For example:
It was them who first spoke. - incorrect
It was they who first spoke. - correct. Here 'they' is in the nominative case. 
31
 
EXAMPLE
Possessive Adjectives
Read the following sentences:
This is our house.
Tim did not like his new school.
In the first sentence, "our" is a possessive adjective that modifies the noun "house." In the second sentence "his" is a possessive adjective that modifies the noun "school."
32
 
DEFINITION
Possessive Adjectives
Possessive adjectives are adjectives that modify a noun to show possession. The different possessive adjectives are my, your, our, his, her, its, and their.
33
 
DEFINITION
Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns stand for persons. Personal pronouns include: I, we, you, he, she and they.
Eg: My aunt and uncle visited yesterday. They were happy to see me.
      I met you on Saturday evening and we had a good time.
34
 
DEFINITION
Different Forms of Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns take different forms.
Pronouns can take their form from their 'Person' i.e. the person speaking, being spoken to or spoken of.
Pronouns can take their form from their 'Case' i.e. whether they are the subject or object of the verb, or show possession.
Pronouns can take their form from their 'Gender' i.e. whether they are masculine or feminine.
35
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case for First Person Pronoun
The first person refers to those who are speaking.
The nominative case refers to pronouns which are the subject of the verb.
Therefore, first person pronouns in the nominative case include: I and we.
Eg: I went to school today.
     We are going to watch the match at the stadium tomorrow.
36
 
DEFINITION
Possessive Case for First Person Pronoun
The first person refers to the persons speaking.
The possessive case shows possession or ownership.
Therefore, first person pronouns in the possessive case include: my, mine, our and ours.
Eg: This watch is mine.
     My family will be traveling to Greece next summer.
     Our father spends much money on our education.
     This house is ours.
37
 
DEFINITION
Accusative Case of the First Person Pronoun
The first person refers to the people speaking.
The accusative case refers to pronouns which are the object of the verb.
Therefore, first person pronouns in accusative case include: me and us.
Eg: They told us the good news.
       She slapped me on the cheek.
38
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case for Second Person Pronouns
The second person refers to the people being spoken to.
The nominative case refers to pronouns which are the subject of the verb.
Therefore, second person pronouns in the nominative case include: you.
Eg: You will teach us in school tomorrow.
      Will you be home when we visit this afternoon?
39
 
DEFINITION
Possessive Case for Second Person Pronouns
The second person refers to those who are being spoken to.
The possessive case shows possession or ownership.
Therefore, second person pronouns in the possessive case include: your and yours.
Eg: Your house is on fire.
      These pens are yours.
40
 
DEFINITION
Accusative Case for the Second Person Pronoun
The second person refers to the people being spoken to.
The accusative case refers to pronouns which are objects of the verb.
Therefore, second person pronouns in the accusative case include: you.
Eg: I showed you around the new house.
      They congratulated you on your award.
41
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case for Third Person Pronouns
The third person refers to the people or objects who are being spoken about.
The nominative case refers to pronouns which are the subject of the verb.
Therefore, third person pronouns in the nominative case include: he (singular, masculine), she (singular, feminine), it (singular, neuter) and they (plural, all genders).
Eg: He threw the ball into the basket.
     She washed all her clothes.
     It was a bright day.
     They waited for their brother at the airport.
42
 
DEFINITION
Possessive Case for Third Person Pronouns
The third person refers to the people or objects being spoken about.
The possessive case shows ownership or possession.
Therefore, third person pronouns in the possessive case include: his (singular, masculine), her, hers (singular, feminine), its (singular, neuter) and their, theirs (plural, all genders).
Eg: Jim gave Harry his watch.
      Liz watched her cat sleep.
      The cat was hers.
      The box is on the table. Its sides are black in colour.
      Their windows are open.
43
 
DEFINITION
Accusative Case for Third Person Pronouns
Third person refers to the people being spoken of.
The accusative case refers to pronouns which are the object of the verb.
Therefore, third person pronouns in the accusative case include: him (singular, masculine), her (singular, feminine), it (singular, neuter) and them (plural, all genders).
Eg: Tess hurt him while playing football.
       Jim gave her a gift for her birthday.
       Harry placed it on the table.
       Liz congratulated them on their victory in the match.
44
 
LAW
Pronomial Adjectives or Possessive Adjectives
The possessive cases of most personal pronouns have two forms. Eg: your and yours. Of the two forms, the form that is used alongside nouns are called Possessive Adjectives.
These are: my, our, your, her, their.
They are also called Pronomial Adjectives.
Eg: This is her desk. (Possessive Adjective)
      This desk is hers. (Possessive Pronoun)
45
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' With Impersonal Verbs
'It' is used as an indefinite nominative of an impersonal verb.
Eg: It rains (meaning, the rain rains).
      It thunders.
      It snows.
46
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' to Give Emphasis to the Following Pronoun or Noun
'It' may be used to give emphasis to the following noun or pronoun.
Eg: It was you who stole the car.
      It was in Germany that the war was fought.
47
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' as a Provisional Subject
'It' is used as a provisional and temporary subject before the verb 'to be' when the real subject follows.
Eg: It is certain that he will attend the meeting.
      It is difficult to trace the source of the email.
48
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' for a Previous Statement
'It' may also refer to some statement that goes before it.
Eg: He has told us a historical fact. It is true.
49
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' for a Young Child
'It' is used for a young child unless we specifically wish to speak of its gender.
Eg: There is a young child in the playground. Its leg is hurt.
50
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' for Animals
'It' is used for animals unless we clearly wish to speak of their gender.
Eg: There is a dog. It is playing in the garden.
      The horse is tall and its mane is glossy.
51
 
DEFINITION
Impersonal Pronoun
The impersonal pronoun is 'it'. 'It' is used for things of the neuter gender.
Eg: There is a tree outside. It is tall.
52
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' for Things Without Life
'It' is used for things without life.
Eg: Your book is here. It is on the table.
53
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'It' for the Weather or Time
'It' may also be used when speaking of the weather or the time.
Eg: It is winter.
      It is one o'clock.
54
 
DEFINITION
Emphatic Pronouns
Emphatic pronouns are compound personal pronouns such as 'himself', 'myself' and 'yourself' used for emphasis. 
Eg: I will build the house myself.
      We will watch the show ourselves.
      You yourself can tell us about the situation.
      We saw the President himself.
      She herself told us the news.
      The city itself does not receive much rainfall.
      They themselves prefer to stay at home.
55
 
DEFINITION
Reflexive Pronouns
Pronouns are called reflexive pronouns when the action of the verb turns back on the subject.
Reflexive pronouns are usually objects of the verb.
Eg: I fed myself the grapes.
      You accidentally cut yourself last Thursday.
      We blame ourselves for the accident.
      Jonah helped himself to the food.
      Lisa read to herself in the afternoon.
      They bought themselves new shoes.
56
 
DEFINITION
Emphatic Pronoun
When reflexive pronouns are used to emphasize the noun, they are called emphatic pronouns.
For example: 
She herself informed me. 
They themselves saw it. 
57
 
DEFINITION
Relation between Reflexive and Emphatic Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns show that the action of the subject reflects upon the doer. However, an emphatic pronoun simply emphasizes the action of the subject. 
Example:
She cut herself. - herself is a reflexive pronoun since the subject's (the girl's) action (cutting) refers back to the doer (the girl). 
She herself cut the cake. - herself is an emphatic pronoun because it is emphasizing the subject (the girl). 
58
 
DEFINITION
Demonstrative Adjectives
When words like 'this', 'that' and 'those' (which are used as demonstrative pronouns) are used alongside nouns, they are called demonstrative adjectives.
Eg: These fruit are ripe.
      All such people ought to pay tax.
59
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'This' and 'That' for Sequence
When two things which have already been mentioned are referred to, 'this' refers to the thing last mentioned and 'that' refers to the thing first mentioned.
Eg: Wealth and wisdom may both come to you; this leads to happiness more than that.
60
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'That' and 'Those' to Avoid Repetition
'That' and its plural 'those' are used to avoid the repetition of the preceding noun.
Eg: The climate of London is very different from that of Edinburgh.
      The mountains of Asia are higher than those of Europe.
61
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'This' and 'That'
'This' refers to what is close at hand, and 'that' refers to what is farther away.
Eg: This dog is smaller than that dog.
62
 
DEFINITION
Demonstrative Pronouns
Demonstrative pronouns are pronouns that are used to point to something.
Eg: This is the necklace my mother gave me.
      Those are the apples we bought this morning.
      I may have caused much trouble but such was not my intention.
      He was a diplomat from another country and as such they welcomed him.
63
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'Anybody', 'Everybody' etc with Gendered Pronouns
When using 'anybody', 'everybody', 'everyone', 'anyone', 'each' etc, the pronoun he or she can be used according to the context.
Eg: Everyone of the men did his best.
      Each of the girls ran her fastest in the race.
64
 
DEFINITION
Indefinite Pronouns
Pronouns which refer to things in a general way but do not refer to person or thing in particular are called indefinite pronouns.
Eg: One knows exactly what to do.
      None of his books have been published.
     They say he has lost all his wealth.
     All survived the plane crash.
     Some say he moved to the city recently.
     Somebody has eaten my lunch.
      Be polite to others.
      Has anybody arrived?
65
 
DEFINITION
The Position of 'Each'
There are three positions of 'each'. It may be used before the subject, after the verb, or after the object.
Eg: Each of the men wore his uniform.
      The winners received each a medal.
      I bought these mangoes for fifty rupees each.
66
 
DEFINITION
Distributive Pronouns
Pronouns that refer to several persons or things one at a time are distributive pronouns. Since they refer to things one at a time, they are usually followed by verbs in the singular.
Eg: Either we must leave today or we must leave tomorrow.
      Neither the president nor the secretary were present.
      Each of the boys received a badge for participation.
67
 
DEFINITION
Distributive Pronouns as Adjectives
Distributive pronouns may also be used with nouns. In this case they function as adjectives, not as pronouns. 
Eg: Each woman was given flowers.
      Armies were ranged on either side.
68
 
DEFINITION
Reciprocal Pronouns
Reciprocal pronouns are compound pronouns rarely separated from each other.
They include phrases like 'each other' and 'one another'.
Eg: They fought each other.
      They helped one another.
69
 
DEFINITION
Antecedent of the Relative Pronoun
The noun going before the relative pronoun is called its antecedent.
Eg: This is the pen that my father gave me.
Relative pronoun - "that"; Antecedent - "pen"
70
 
DEFINITION
Relative Pronouns
Pronouns which connect two statements and relate or refer to some noun going before them are called relative pronouns. 
Eg: I have found the pen which my father gave me.
      This is the book that our teach told us to study.
      This is the man who visited us yesterday.
71
 
DEFINITION
Different Forms of Relative Pronoun
The relative pronoun can be considered in terms of the Nominative, Accusative and Genitive cases.
72
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case of the Relative Pronoun
Relative pronouns in the nominative case are subjects of the verb.
These include: who, which, that, what.
Eg: This is the man who stole your car.
      This is the pen that was on the table.
73
 
DEFINITION
Accusative Case for the Relative Pronoun
Relative pronouns in the accusative case are objects of the verb.
The accusative case of  'who' is 'whom'.
'Which', 'that' and 'what' has the same form in the nominative and accusative case.
Eg: The woman boy whom you taught is now a doctor.
      The house which my father built is on the next street.
      Take any of the films that you enjoy.
74
 
DEFINITION
Genitive Case for the Relative Pronoun
Relative pronouns in the genitive case show possession or ownership.
The genitive case of 'who' is 'whose'.
'Which' has no genitive case but 'whose' is often used.
'That' has no genitive case.
'What' has no genitive case.
Eg: The woman whose car you stole is here to meet you.
      The book whose cover is red is mine.
75
 
DEFINITION
Omission of the Relative Pronouns
The relative pronoun is omitted when it would be in the accusative case.
Eg: Short and simple were the words (that) he spoke.
76
 
DEFINITION
Omission of the Antecedent of the Relative Pronoun
In older English, the antecedent of a relative pronoun was sometimes left out.
Eg: (He) Who works longest, works best.
      (Those) Whom are loved by all, die soonest.
77
 
DEFINITION
Agreement of the Relative Pronoun and its Antecedent
The relative pronoun must agree with the antecedent it refers to in number and person.
Eg: The boy who was hard-working won the prize.
      The women who were in hospital were given flowers.
78
 
DEFINITION
Position of the Relative Pronoun
To prevent ambiguity, the relative pronoun should be placed as near as possible to its antecedent.
Eg: The boy who sold us the tickets is the son of my neighbour.
79
 
DEFINITION
Compound Relative Pronouns
Pronouns formed by adding 'ever', 'so' or 'soever' to 'who', 'which' and 'what' are called Compound Relative Pronouns. They include: whoever, whoso, whosoever, whichever, whatever, whatsoever.
These relative pronouns may have no antecedent expressed.
Eg: Whoso has pride will fall.
     Whatsoever is necessary to this life will be provided.
      Take whichever car you like.
     Whoever wins the race will receive a trophy.
80
 
DEFINITION
Usage of 'Whose' and 'Which'
Use 'whose' for living persons and 'which' for objects.
Eg: The man whose bike you have taken lives next door.
      They bought the fruit which you dislike.
81
 
DEFINITION
Use of Who
'Who' is used for persons only.
Eg: Who is telephoning?
82
 
DEFINITION
Use of Which
'Which' is used of both persons and things. It implies selection from a limited number.
Eg: Which of these books are yours?
      Which road will you take?
83
 
DEFINITION
Use of What
'What' is used for things only.
Eg: What did she tell you?
      What are those things on the floor?
84
 
DEFINITION
Use of 'What' for Profession or Employment
In some cases, 'what' is used to refer, not to the person, but to his profession or employment.
Eg: What are you?
      What is he?
85
 
DEFINITION
Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative Pronouns are used in asking direct and indirect questions.
Eg: I asked who was screening the film.
      Tell them what she said.
86
 
DEFINITION
Genitive Case for Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns in the genitive case indicate possession or ownership.
Eg: Whose is this book?
87
 
DEFINITION
Nominative Case for Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns in the nominative case are subjects of the verb.
Eg: Who spoke at the conference yesterday?
88
 
DEFINITION
Accusative Case for Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns in the accusative case are objects of the verb.
Eg: Whom did you telephone?
     Whom did you fight at school?
89
 
DEFINITION
Genetive/Possessive Case of Interrogative Pronouns
Interrogative pronouns are relative pronouns that are used to ask questions, such as who, what, whom, whose, etc. 
Interrogative pronouns may be of the possessive case, where they identify possession belonging to the noun/pronoun that answers the question. 'Whose' is such a pronoun.   
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DEFINITION
Compound Interrogative Pronoun
Compound interrogative pronouns are words like 'whoever' and 'whatever' used when asking a question.
Eg: Whoever told you this?
      Whatever did she think she was doing?
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DEFINITION
Exclamatory Pronoun
A pronoun used as an exclamation is called an exclamatory pronoun.
Eg: What! I don't believe that!
      What! Didn't you know this?


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