Pronouns (सर्वनाम) are words that can replace nouns in sentences to avoid repetition. They can also function as subjects or objects in a sentence. Examples: मैं (I), तू (you), वह (he/she/it), हम (we), तुम (you all), वे (they).
सर्वनाम उन शब्दों को कहा जाता है, जिन शब्दों का प्रयोग संज्ञा अर्थात किसी व्यक्ति, वस्तु, स्थान आदि,के नाम के स्थान पर करते हैं। इसके अंतर्गत मैं, तुम, तुम्हारा, आप, आपका, इस, उस, यह, वह, हम, हमारा ,आदि शब्द आते हैं।
1. Personal Pronouns (व्यक्तिवाचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to represent a specific person, animal, or thing.
2. Demonstrative Pronouns (संदर्भवाचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to point out something or someone.
3. Interrogative Pronouns (प्रश्नवाचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to ask questions.
4. Indefinite Pronouns (अनिश्चयवाचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to refer to people or things without specifying who or what they are.
5. Reflexive Pronouns (परावर्ती सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used when the subject and object of a verb are the same person or thing.
6. Possessive Pronouns (संबंधवाचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to show ownership or possession.
7. Relative pronouns (संबंध सूचक सर्वनाम): These pronouns are used to link a dependent clause to a main clause. Examples:
1. Avoiding pronoun shifts: Maintain consistency in the use of pronouns. Avoid shifting from one pronoun to another without a clear reason.
2. Agreement in number: Pronouns must agree with their antecedents (the nouns they replace) in number. Singular pronouns replace singular nouns, and plural pronouns replace plural nouns. For example:
3. Agreement in gender: Pronouns must also agree with their antecedents in gender (masculine, feminine, or neutral). For example:
4. Agreement in person: Pronouns must agree with their antecedents in person (first, second, or third person). For example:
5. Clear antecedents: Pronouns should have clear antecedents. The reader should be able to easily identify the noun that a pronoun is replacing. Ambiguous or unclear pronoun usage can lead to confusion.
6. Subject and object pronouns: Subject pronouns (I, you, he, she, it, we, they) are used as the subject of a sentence, while object pronouns (me, you, him, her, it, us, them) are used as objects of verbs or prepositions. For example:
7. Reflexive pronouns: Reflexive pronouns (myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves) are used when the subject and object of a verb are the same person or thing. For example:
8. Relative pronouns: Relative pronouns (who, whom, whose, which, that) are used to introduce relative clauses, which provide more information about a noun. They should agree with their antecedents in number and gender. For example:
9. Demonstrative pronouns: Demonstrative pronouns (this, that, these, those) are used to point to specific nouns. "This" and "these" refer to things that are close, while "that" and "those" refer to things that are farther away. For example:
10. Indefinite pronouns: Indefinite pronouns (all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, one, other, several, some, somebody, someone) do not refer to specific nouns. They should agree with their antecedents in number. For example:
Remembering these rules will help ensure that you use pronouns correctly in your writing and speech.
Overall, the main function of pronouns is to make our language more efficient, less repetitive, and more coherent by replacing or referring to nouns.
Exercise 1: Identify the pronouns in the following sentences.
John gave the book to Jane, and she started reading it immediately.
'She' is a pronoun replacing Jane, and 'it' is a pronoun replacing the book.
The dog chased its tail.
'Its' is a possessive pronoun replacing the dog's tail.
They went to the party together.
'They' is a pronoun replacing a group of people.
We enjoyed our vacation.
'We' is a pronoun replacing a group including the speaker, and 'our' is a possessive pronoun.
He is my friend.
'He' is a pronoun replacing a male person, and 'my' is a possessive pronoun.
Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks with appropriate pronouns.
__(1)__ children love __(2)__ toys.
(1) Their; (2) their. The first blank refers to a group of people, so 'their' is used. The second blank shows possession, so 'their' is used again.
__(1)__ is a good idea to listen to __(2)__ advice.
(1) It; (2) her/his. The first blank is a neutral pronoun, so 'it' is used. The second blank shows possession, so 'her' or 'his' can be used.
The teacher asked __(1)__ students to submit __(2)__ assignments.
(1) Her/his; (2) their. The first blank shows possession, so 'her' or 'his' is used. The second blank refers to a group of people, so 'their' is used.
__(1)__ are going to the movies tonight.
(1) We. The blank refers to a group including the speaker, so 'we' is used.
The book belongs to __(1)__; it is __(2)__.
(1) Me; (2) mine. The first blank refers to the speaker, so 'me' is used. The second blank shows possession, so 'mine' is used.
Exercise 3: Rewrite the following sentences using pronouns.
Sally and Tom went for a walk, and Sally and Tom enjoyed it.
Sally and Tom went for a walk, and they enjoyed it.
(Replaced 'Sally and Tom' with 'they')
The cat chased the cat's toy.
The cat chased its toy.
(Replaced 'the cat's' with 'its')
The students studied for the exam, and the students passed it.
The students studied for the exam, and they passed it.
(Replaced 'the students' with 'they')
Mary lent the book to Jack, and Jack returned the book to Mary.
Mary lent the book to Jack, and he returned it to her.
(Replaced 'Jack' with 'he', 'the book' with 'it', and 'Mary' with 'her')
Exercise 1: Incorrect: Each of the students must carry their own bag.
Correct: Each of the students must carry his or her own bag.
The pronoun "their" is plural, while "each" is singular. Therefore, we need to use the singular pronouns "his or her" to agree in number.
Exercise 2: Incorrect: Neither of the girls brought their umbrella.
Correct: Neither of the girls brought her umbrella.
"Neither" is a singular pronoun, so it must agree with a singular pronoun like "her" instead of the plural "their."
Exercise 3: Incorrect: The dog chased it's tail.
Correct: The dog chased its tail.
"It's" is a contraction for "it is," while "its" is the possessive form of "it." In this case, we need the possessive form to show that the tail belongs to the dog.
Exercise 4: Incorrect: The teacher asked who's book was left on the table.
Correct: The teacher asked whose book was left on the table.
"Who's" is a contraction for "who is," while "whose" is the possessive form of "who." We need the possessive form in this sentence.
Exercise 5: Incorrect: My brother is older than me
Correct: My brother is older than I.
In this sentence, the pronoun "I" should be used instead of "me" because it is the subject form of the pronoun. The complete sentence would be "My brother is older than I am."
Exercise 6: Incorrect: Him and I went to the store.
Correct: He and I went to the store.
"He" and "I" are subject pronouns, while "him" is an object pronoun. Since they are the subjects of the sentence, the correct form is "He and I."
Exercise 7: Incorrect: The book is for you and I.
Correct: The book is for you and me.
In this sentence, "you and me" are the objects of the preposition "for," so we need to use the object pronoun "me" instead of the subject pronoun "I."
Exercise 8: Incorrect: She is as tall as him.
Correct: She is as tall as he.
The pronoun "he" should be used instead of "him" because it is the subject form of the pronoun. The complete sentence would be "She is as tall as he is."
Exercise 9: Incorrect: The manager spoke to the staff and them.
Correct: The manager spoke to the staff and them.
In this sentence, "them" is the correct pronoun because it is the object of the verb "spoke."
Exercise 10: Incorrect: Each person should do their best.
Correct: Each person should do his or her best.
"Each" is a singular pronoun, so it must agree with a singular pronoun like "his or her" instead of the plural "their."
|1. सर्वनाम क्या होता है?|
|2. सर्वनाम कितने प्रकार के होते हैं?|
|3. सर्वनाम की उदाहरण संज्ञाओं के साथ क्या हो सकते हैं?|
|4. सर्वनाम का क्या महत्व है?|
|5. सर्वनाम को संज्ञाओं से कैसे पहचानें?|