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A pronoun is a word that can be substituted for a noun, noun phrase or for other pronouns without changing the meaning of the sentence.
Personal pronouns are used to replace a person, people or animals.
1. Subject Pronouns
2. Object Pronouns
3. Possessive Pronouns
I, you, he, she, it, we, they. They are used as the subject of a verb. They do the action.
It is cold. (It is the subject of is)
She paid today. (She is the subject of paid)
Me, you, him, her, it, us, them. They are always the object of the verb, preposition, or infinitive. To whom / what the action is being done to.
She paid him today. (him is being paid, not paying.)
I wanted her to come to the cinema with me.
(I am the subject of wanted; her is the object of wanted; him is the object of the preposition with)
Mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs. They show ownership, answering the question "Whose?"
That car is mine.(Whose car is it? It is my car. It is mine.)
-Be careful to choose the right pronoun when making comparison.
Carol loved chocolate more than him.
Carol loved chocolate more than she loved him.
Carol loved chocolate more than he.
Carol loved chocolate more than he loved chocolate.
You can avoid misunderstandings by writing:
Carol loved chocolate more than James did.
Carol loved chocolate more than she loved James.
Reflexive pronouns also known as mirror pronouns reflect the action of the verb back at the subject.
Myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves.
Use the right mirror pronoun to match the subject:
He hit himself with the slingshot.
They rescued themselves by selling their house.
Reflexive pronouns may be used to emphasis.
He himself finished all that work. (it's significant)
I myself couldn't believe what you said. (Again there is emphasis)
"By" + reflexive pronoun = alone, without help
My sister lives by herself. (on her own / alone).
I prepared the dinner by myself (alone).
I solved the puzzle all by myself. (emphasized)
Some other uses
Did you enjoy yourself at the party? (Did you have fun?)
Please help yourself to some food. ( Go and get whatever you want)
Like any pronoun, relative pronouns are substituted for nouns and other pronouns that functions as subjects or objects in a sentence. Relative pronouns are mostly used when combining sentences in which a word or phrase is repeated.
The gym was very crowded today.
The gym is closed tomorrow.
The gym, which was very crowded today, is closed tomorrow.
Sam wondered who was ringing her doorbell.
(who is the subject of was ringing)
Sam was not sure whom he could trust with her secret.
(Sam is the subject of trust; whom is the object of trust)
Note: It is safe to use who if the sentence begins with the pronoun.
Who did you ask?
Whom did you ask? (more formal)
Animals that have four legs can learn to hop quickly.
(Limiting the focus on animals with four legs only)
Animals, which breath the same air as us, have existed on Earth for many hundreds of millions of years.
Cats, which cannot fly, are friendly animals.
(Additional information about cats ("which cannot fly") and the main point "are friendly animals"; there is no certain limitation by the pronoun "which")
Note: The pronoun "who" is preferred in some cases for the above sentences:
Animals, who breath the same air as us, have existed on Earth for many hundreds of millions of years.
Similar to "who" and "whom" except in an indefinite way:
Someone sold you that book. He/She did not give you the right one.
Whoever sold you that book did not give you the right one.
("Whoever" is an indefinite pronoun because the sentence does not mention about the whoever in advance.)
("Whoever" is the subject of the verb sold.)
You sold that book to someone. He/She is probably very unhappy now.
Whomever you sold that book to is probably very unhappy now.
("Whomever" is an indefinite pronoun and it is the object of the verb sold.)
Jack is the best in class. I borrowed Jack's notebook.
Jack, whose notebook I borrowed, is the best in class.
Also known as pointing pronouns, are used to indicate which thing you are talking about. The pointing pronouns are this, these, that, those.
Use this or these (plural) to point the objects near the speaker. Use that or those (plural) to point the objects far from the speaker.
I want to buy this and those over there.(pointing pronoun, stands in for what the speaker is pointing to)
You should taste those, they are really good.(pointing pronoun)
Warning: A pronoun replaces a noun, or else it is an adjective.
You should taste those apples. (adjective, modifying apples)
That man looks suspicious. (adjective, modifying the man)