Public Services Notes | EduRev

Indian Polity for UPSC CSE

UPSC : Public Services Notes | EduRev

The document Public Services Notes | EduRev is a part of the UPSC Course Indian Polity for UPSC CSE.
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Introduction

  • Public Services in India are divided into 3 categories :
  • All-India Services
  • Central Services
  • State Services

All-India Services

  • IAS, IPS, IFS are the 3 All-India Services.
  • Indian Forest Service was added in 1966.
  • Centre in consultation with States makes rules for regulation of the services.
  • Centre recruits & trains members to work in State cadres.
  • They work in Centre on deputation for fixed tenure.
  • Salary & service conditions of officers remain the same throughout the country. States bare the expenses.
  • Ultimate control lies with Centre while immediate control is with States.
  • Disciplinary action against them can only be taken by Centre.

Central Services

  • Work under exclusive jurisdiction of Centre.
  • Categorised into Group A, B, C & D services.
  • Some Group A services include Indian Foreign Service / Indian Revenue Service / Indian Audit & Accounts Service etc.
  • Most Group A Services have a corresponding Group B service as well.
  • Group A and Group B services consist of Gazetted Officers while Group C services consist of clerical personnel, while Group D consist of Manual Personnel.

State Services

  • Work under the exclusive jurisdiction of State Govts.
  • Hold lower positions than members of All-India Services in States.
  • Most State services consist of Administrative Service, Police Service, Forest Service, Judicial Service, etc.
  • State Services also have categories of Group A, B, C, D or Class I, II, III, IV services.
  • Group A and Group B services usually consist of Gazetted Officers while Group C & Group D services consist of non-gazetted employees.
  • All-India Services Act of 1951 specifies reservation of a maximum 33.33 % of total All-India posts to be filled through promotion of officers from State services.
  • Such promotions are made on recommendation of a selection committee presided over by a UPSC Chairman or member.

Constitutional Provisions for Public Services.

  • Article 308 to 314 in Part XIV contain provisions regarding public services.
  • Article 308 clarifies that these do not apply to J&K.
  • Recruitment & Service Conditions :
  • Art 309 empowers Parliament & State Leg to regulate the recruitment & conditions of public servants under Centre & States, respectively.
  • Parl or State Leg can impose ‘reasonable restrictions’ on the Fundamental Rights of Public Servants.
  • Tenure of Office :
  • Art 310 states that members of Central Services, Defence Services & All-India Services hold office during the pleasure of the Prez.
  • Members of Civil services of a State hold office during pleasure of Governor.
  • Prez or Gov may provide for a contract for payment of Compensation if the position of the public servant is abolished, or if public servant is dismissed for no personal fault or misconduct.
  • Safeguards to Civil Servants :
  • Art 311 States that Civil servant can’t be dismissed or removed by a subordinate authority.
  • Civil Servant cannot be dismissed or removed without an inquiry & reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of the charges.
  • The above safeguards are not available to members of defence services.
  • All-India Services :
  • Article 312 makes following provisions in respect to All-India Services :
  • Parl can create a new All-India Service if Rajya Sabha passes a resolution with 2/3rd majority supporting the necessity for the same.
  • Parl can regulate the recruitment & conditions of service.
  • 42nd Amd of 1976 made provision for All-India Judicial Service, where such a service could be created for posts equivalent to District Judge & above with a law of the Parliament, not requiring any further amendment.
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