Quantitative Reasoning section [GMAT] GMAT Notes | EduRev

GMAT : Quantitative Reasoning section [GMAT] GMAT Notes | EduRev

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Quantitative Reasoning
The Quantitative Reasoning section of the GMAT exam measures your ability to reason mathematically, solve quantitative problems, and interpret graphic data. It consists of 31 multiple-choice questions. You will have 62 minutes to complete it.
Quantitative Reasoning section of the GMAT exam involves knowing how to apply your knowledge of math to reasoning questions, including your knowledge of the following areas:
Arithmetic – basic areas of arithmetic, including integers, fractions, powers and roots, statistics, and probability
Algebra – topics, such as variables and functions, and how to solve different types of equations.
Geometry – the properties of geometric objects, including quadrilaterals, triangles, circles, solids, and cylinders, and coordinate geometry
Word problems – blending arithmetic, algebraic, and geometric principles to solve problems

There are two types of questions in the Quantitative Section – Problem Solving and Data Sufficiency.
Problem Solving
Measures your ability to use logic and analytical reasoning to solve quantitative problems.
You solve the problem and indicate the best of five answer choices.
Data Sufficiency
Measures your ability to analyze a quantitative problem, recognize which data is relevant, and determine at what point there are enough data to solve the problem.
You will be given a problem that consists of a question and two statements. Using the data in the statements, plus your knowledge of math and everyday facts, you decide whether you have enough data in the statement to answer the question asked.
Both types of questions require some knowledge of arithmetic, elementary algebra and commonly known concepts of geometry. Rest assured that the difficulty of the questions stems from the logic and analytical skills required, not the underlying math skills. Note that you cannot use a calculator while working on the Quantitative section.

Problem Solving Question Strategies

Problem solving questions measure your ability to use logic and analytical reasoning to solve quantitative problems. You will solve the problem and indicate the best of five answer choices.

• Pace Yourself. Consult the on-screen timer periodically. Work as carefully as possible, but don’t spend valuable time checking answers or pondering problems you find difficult. It’s important to try to finish the section.
• Use the erasable noteboard provided at the test center to work out answers. Solving problems in writing may help you avoid errors.

• Read each question carefully to determine what data is given and what is being asked. For word problems, take one step at a time. Read each sentence carefully and translate the data into equations or other useful mathematical representations.

• Skim the answer choices before you answer a question. If you don’t, you may waste time putting answers in a form that’s not given.

• For questions that require approximations, skim the answer choices first. If you don’t get some idea of how close the approximation should be, you may waste time on long computations when a short mental process would serve you better.

• Don’t waste time by trying to solve a problem you recognize as too difficult or time-consuming. Eliminate the choices you know are wrong, select the best of the remaining choices, and move on to the next question.

Sample Problem Solving Question
Directions: 
Solve the problem and indicate the best of the answer choices given.
Question
If u > t, r > q, s > t, and t > r, which of the following must be true? 
u > s
s > q
u > r

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II
(E) II and III

Answer: (E)

Question 1 (Statistics)
A code is to be made by arranging 7 letters. Three of the letters used will be the letter A, two of the letters used will be the letter B, one of the letters used will be the letter C, and one of the letters used will be the letter D. If there is only one way to present each letter, how many different codes are possible?

A. 42
B. 210
C. 420
D. 840
E. 5,040

Answer: (C)

Question 2 (Geometry)

If a rectangular billboard has an area of 104 square feet and a perimeter of 42 feet, what is the length of each of the shorter sides?
A. 4
B. 7
C. 8
D. 13
E. 26

Answer: (C)

Question 3 (Arithmetic)
If x is an integer and 2.134 x 10x is less than 210,000, what is the greatest possible value for x?
A. 7
B. 6
C. 5
D. 4
E. 3

Answer: (D)

Question 4 (Picking Numbers)

John spent 40 percent of his earnings last month on rent and 30 percent less than what he spent on rent to purchase a new dishwasher. What percent of last month's earnings did John have left over?
A. 30%
B. 32%
C. 45%
D. 68%
E. 70%

Answer: (B)

Question 5 (Number Properties)
If negative integers k and p are NOT both even, which of the following must be odd?

A. kp
B. 4 (k + p)
C. k – p
D. k + 1 – p
E. 2 (k + p) – 1

Answer: (E)

Question 6 (Algebra)
Peter read P books last year, and Nikki read N books last year. If Peter read 35 more books than Nikki last year, which of the following reflects the relationship?
A. P > 35N
B. P < N – 35
C. P > N + 35
D. P = N – 35
E. P = N + 35

Answer: (E)

Question 7 (Remainders + Primes)
If 2 is the remainder when m is divided by 5, what is the remainder when 3m is divided by 5?
A. 0
B. 1
C. 2
D. 3
E. 4

Answer: (E)

Question 8 (Backsolving)
If 2 + 2⁄x = 3 - 3⁄x , then x =
A. -5
B. 2⁄3
C. 1
D. 3⁄2
E. 5

Answer: (B)

Question 9 (Proportions)

To fill and art exhibit, the students in an art course are assigned to create one epiece of artwork each in tthe following distribution: 1⁄3 are sculptures, 1⁄8 are oil paintings, 1⁄2 are watercolors and the remaining 10 pieces are mosaics. How many students are in the art class?
A. 80
B. 120
C. 240
D. 320
E. 400

Answer: (C)

Data Sufficiency Question Strategies
Data Sufficiency questions measure your ability to analyze a quantitative problem, recognize which data are relevant, and determine at what point there is enough data to solve a problem.
• Decide whether the problem allows only one value or a range of values. Remember that you are only determining whether you have enough data.
• Avoid making unwarranted assumptions based on geometric figures. Figures are not necessarily drawn to scale.

Sample Data Sufficiency Question

Directions: This data sufficiency problem consists of a question and two statements, labeled (1) and (2), in which certain data are given. You have to decide whether the data given in the statements are sufficient for answering the question. Using the data given in the statements, plus your knowledge of mathematics and everyday facts (such as the number of days in July or the meaning of the word counterclockwise), you must indicate whether:
Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked.
Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient to answer the question asked.
BOTH statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are sufficient to answer the question asked, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
EACH statement ALONE is sufficient to answer the question asked.
Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient to answer the question asked, and additional data specific to the problem are needed.

Question: If a real estate agent received a commission of 6 percent of the selling price of a certain house, what was the selling price of the house?

(1) The selling price minus the real estate agent's commission was $84,600.

(2) The selling price was 250 percent of the original purchase price of $36,000.
Options:
(A) Statement (1) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (2) alone is not sufficient.

(B) Statement (2) ALONE is sufficient, but statement (1) alone is not sufficient.

(C) BOTH statements TOGETHER are sufficient, but NEITHER statement ALONE is sufficient.

(D) EACH statement ALONE is sufficient.

(E) Statements (1) and (2) TOGETHER are NOT sufficient.

Answer: (D)

Directions(Ques.1-Ques.5): In each of the problems, a question is followed by two statements containing certain data. You are to determine whether the data provided by the statements is sufficient to answer the question.

Answer Choices - applicable for ALL questions
A. if statement (1) by itself is sufficient to answer the question, but statement (2) by itself is not;
B. if statement (2) by itself is sufficient to answer the question, but statement (1) by itself is not;
C. if statements (1) and (2) taken together are sufficient to answer the question, even though neither statement by itself is sufficient;
D. if either statement by itself is sufficient to answer the question;
E. if statements (1) and (2) taken together are not sufficient to answer the question, requiring more data pertaining to the problem.

Question 1
If 2b - a2 = 18, what is the value of b?
(1) a2 = 1,156
(2) a > 0
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Answer- (A)

Question 2
What is the value of the integer p?
(1) p is a prime number.
(2) 88  ≤  p  ≤  95
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Answer- (C)

Question 3
If y > 0 , is x less than 0?
(1) xy = 16
(2) x - y = 6
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Answer- (D)

Question 4

What is the value of x?
(1) x2 - 9 = 16
(2) 3x (x - 5) = 0
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Answer- (C)

Question 5
If a coffee shop sold 600 cups of coffee, some of which were large cups and the remainder of which were small cups, what was the revenue that the coffee shop earned from the sale of coffee?

(1) The number of large cups sold was 3/5 the total number of small cups sold.
(2) The price of a small cup of coffee was $1.50.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Answer- (E)

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