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RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

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Q1. Define an irrational number.

Solution: An irrational number is a real number which can be written as a decimal but not as a fraction i.e. it cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers. It cannot be expressed as terminating or repeating decimal.

Q2. Explain how an irrational number is differing from rational numbers?

Solution: An irrational number is a real number which can be written as a decimal but not as a fraction i.e. it cannot be expressed as a ratio of integers. It cannot be expressed as terminating or repeating decimal.

For example, 0.10110100 is an irrational number

A rational number is a real number which can be written as a fraction and as a decimal i.e. it can be expressed as a ratio of integers. . It can be expressed as terminating or repeating decimal.

For examples,

0.10 and RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  both are rational numbers

Q3. Find, whether the following numbers are rational and irrational

(i) √7

(ii) √4

(iii) 2+√3

(iv) √3+√2

(v) √3+5

(vi) (√2 − 2)2

(vii)  (2−√2)(2+√2)

(viii) (√2+√3)2

(ix) √5 – 2

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 

(xii) 0.3796

(xiii) 7.478478……

(xiv) 1.101001000100001……

Solution:

(i) √7is not a perfect square root so it is an Irrational number.

(ii) √4 is a perfect square root so it is an rational number.

We have,

√4  can be expressed in the form of

ab, so it is a rational number. The decimal

representation of √9 is 3.0. 3 is a rational number.

(iii) 2+√3

Here, 2 is a rational number and √3 is an irrational number

So, the sum of a rational and an irrational number is an irrational number.

(iv) √3+√2

√3 is not a perfect square and it is an irrational number and √2 is not a perfect square and  is an irrational number. The sum of an irrational number and an irrational number is an irrational number, so √3+√2 is an irrational number.

(v) √3+√5

√3 is not a perfect square and it is an irrational number and √5 is not a perfect square and  is an irrational number. The sum of an irrational number and an irrational number is an irrational number, so √3+√5 is an irrational number.

(vi) (√2−2)2

We have, (√2−2)2

= 2 + 4 - 4 √2

= 6 + 4 √2

6 is a rational number but 4√2 is an irrational number.

The sum of a rational number and an irrational number is an irrational number, so (√2+√4)2 is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9     [Since, (a + b)(a - b) = a2 – b2]

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Since, 2 is a rational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is a rational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  [Since, (a+b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2

The sum of a rational number and an irrational number is an irrational number, so  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

The difference of an irrational number and a rational number is an irrational number.

(RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9) is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  = 4.795831352331…

As decimal expansion of this number is non-terminating, non-recurring so it is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  is rational number as it can be represented in p/q form.

(xii) 0.3796

0.3796, as decimal expansion of this number is terminating, so it is a rational number.

(xiii) 7.478478……

7.478478 = 7.478, as decimal expansion of this number is non-terminating recurring so it is a rational number.

(xiv) 1.101001000100001……

1.101001000100001……, as decimal expansion of this number is non-terminating, non-recurring so it is an irrational number


Q4. Identify the following as  irrational numbers. Give the decimal representation of rational numbers:

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Solution:

(i) We have,

√4 can be written in the form of

p/q. So, it is a rational number. Its decimal

representation is 2.0

(ii). We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Since, the product of a ratios and an irrational is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational number.

(iii) We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

= 12/10

= 1.2

Every terminating decimal is a rational number, so 1.2 is a rational number.

Its decimal representation is 1.2.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Quotient of a rational and an irrational number is irrational numbers so

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational number.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  is an irrational number.

(v) We have,  

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

= - 8

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 can be expressed in the form of a/b,

so  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 

is a rational number.

Its decimal representation is - 8.0.

(vi) We have,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

= 10  can be expressed in the form of a/b,

so  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is a rational number

Its decimal representation is  10.0.


Q5. In the following equations, find which variables x, y and z etc. represent rational or irrational numbers:

(i) x2 = 5

(ii)  y2 = 9

(iii) z2 = 0.04

(iv) u2 = 17/4

 (v) v2 = 3

(vi) w2 = 27

(vii) t2 = 0.4

Solution:

(i) We have,

x2 = 5

Taking square root on both the sides, we get

x = √5

√5 is not a perfect square root, so it is an irrational number.

(ii) We have,

= y2 = 9

= 3

= 3/1 can be expressed in the form of a/b, so it a rational number.

(iii) We have,

z2 = 0.04

Taking square root on the both sides, we get

z = 0.2

2/10 can be expressed in the form of a/b, so it is a rational number.

(iv) We have,

u2 = 17/4

Taking square root on both sides, we get,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Quotient of an irrational and a rational number is irrational, so u is an Irrational number.

(v) We have,

v2 = 3

Taking square root on both sides, we get,

v = √3

√3 is not a perfect square root, so v is irrational number.

(vi) We have,

w2 = 27

Taking square root on both the sides, we get,

w = 3√3

Product of a irrational and an irrational is an irrational number. So w is an irrational number.

(vii) We have,

t2 = 0. 4

Taking square root on both sides, we get,

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Since, quotient of a rational and an Irrational number is irrational number. t2 = 0.4  is an irrational number.

Q6. Give an example of each, of two irrational numbers whose:

(i) Difference in a rational number.

(ii) Difference in an irrational number.

(iii) Sum in a rational number.

(iv) Sum is an irrational number.

(v) Product in a rational number.

(vi) Product in an irrational number.

(vii) Quotient in a rational number.

(viii) Quotient in an irrational number.

Solution: RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  is an irrational number.

Now, RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

0 is the rational number.

(ii) Let two irrational numbers are RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is the rational number.

(iii)  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational number.

Now,  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

0 is the rational number.

(iv) Let two irrational numbers are  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is the rational number.

(iv) Let two Irrational numbers are  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 and √ 5

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

= 7 × 5

= 35 is the rational number.

(v) Let two irrational numbers are  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Now,  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

8 is the rational number.

(vi) Let two irrational numbers are  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

= 4 is the rational number

(vii) Let two irrational numbers are RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Now, 3 is the rational number.

(viii) Let two irrational numbers are  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Now  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an rational number.


Q7. Give two rational numbers lying between 0.232332333233332 and 0.212112111211112.

Solution: Let a = 0.212112111211112

And, b = 0.232332333233332...

Clearly, a < b because in the second decimal place a has digit 1 and b has digit 3 If we consider rational numbers in which the second decimal place has the digit 2, then they will lie between a and b.

Let. x = 0.22

y = 0.22112211... Then a < x < y < b

Hence, x, and y are required rational numbers.


Q8. Give two rational numbers lying between 0.515115111511115 and 0. 5353353335

Solution: Let, a = 0.515115111511115...

And, b = 0.5353353335..

We observe that in the second decimal place a has digit 1 and b has digit 3, therefore, a < b.

So If we consider rational numbers

x = 0.52

y = 0.52062062...

We find that,

a < x < y < b

Hence x and y are required rational numbers.


Q9. Find one irrational number between 0.2101 and 0.2222 ... RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Solution: Let, a = 0.2101 and,

b =0.2222...

We observe that in the second decimal place a has digit 1 and b has digit 2, therefore a < b in the third decimal place a has digit 0.

So, if we consider irrational numbers

x = 0.211011001100011....

We find that a < x < b

Hence x is required irrational number.


Q10. Find a rational number and also an irrational number lying between the numbers 0.3030030003... and 0.3010010001...

Solution: Let,

a = 0.3010010001 and,

b = 0.3030030003...

We observe that in the third decimal place a has digit 1 and b has digit

3, therefore a < b in the third decimal place a has digit 1. So, if we

consider rational and irrational numbers

x = 0.302

y = 0.302002000200002.....

We find that a < x < b and, a < y < b.

Hence, x and y are required rational and irrational numbers respectively.


Q11. Find two irrational numbers between 0.5 and 0.55.

Solution: Let a = 0.5 = 0.50 and b =0.55

We observe that in the second decimal place a has digit 0 and b has digit

5, therefore a < 0 so, if we consider irrational numbers

x =0.51051005100051...

y = 0.530535305353530...

We find that a < x < y < b

Hence x and y are required irrational numbers.


Q12. Find two irrational numbers lying between 0.1 and 0.12.

Solution: Let a = 0.1 =0.10

And b = 0.12

We observe that In the second decimal place a has digit 0 and b has digit 2.

Therefore, a < b.

So, if we consider irrational numbers

x = 0.1101101100011... y=0.111011110111110... We find that a < x < y < 0

Hence, x and y are required irrational numbers.


Q13. Prove that  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is an irrational number.

Solution: If possible, let  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 be a rational number equal to x.

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9

Now,  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is rational

RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9 is rational

Thus, we arrive at a contradiction.

Hence,  RD Sharma Solutions Ex-1.4, Number System, Class 9, Maths Notes | Study RD Sharma Solutions for Class 9 Mathematics - Class 9  is an irrational number.

 

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